Aurélien Bellet

Also published as: Aurelien Bellet


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Fair Without Leveling Down: A New Intersectional Fairness Definition
Gaurav Maheshwari | Aurélien Bellet | Pascal Denis | Mikaela Keller
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this work, we consider the problem of intersectional group fairness in the classification setting, where the objective is to learn discrimination-free models in the presence of several intersecting sensitive groups. First, we illustrate various shortcomings of existing fairness measures commonly used to capture intersectional fairness. Then, we propose a new definition called the 𝛼-Intersectional Fairness, which combines the absolute and the relative performance across sensitive groups and can be seen as a generalization of the notion of differential fairness. We highlight several desirable properties of the proposed definition and analyze its relation to other fairness measures. Finally, we benchmark multiple popular in-processing fair machine learning approaches using our new fairness definition and show that they do not achieve any improvement over a simple baseline. Our results reveal that the increase in fairness measured by previous definitions hides a “leveling down” effect, i.e., degrading the best performance over groups rather than improving the worst one.


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Fair NLP Models with Differentially Private Text Encoders
Gaurav Maheshwari | Pascal Denis | Mikaela Keller | Aurélien Bellet
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Encoded text representations often capture sensitive attributes about individuals (e.g., race or gender), which raise privacy concerns and can make downstream models unfair to certain groups. In this work, we propose FEDERATE, an approach that combines ideas from differential privacy and adversarial training to learn private text representations which also induces fairer models. We empirically evaluate the trade-off between the privacy of the representations and the fairness and accuracy of the downstream model on four NLP datasets. Our results show that FEDERATE consistently improves upon previous methods, and thus suggest that privacy and fairness can positively reinforce each other.


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Joint Learning of the Graph and the Data Representation for Graph-Based Semi-Supervised Learning
Mariana Vargas-Vieyra | Aurélien Bellet | Pascal Denis
Proceedings of the Graph-based Methods for Natural Language Processing (TextGraphs)

Graph-based semi-supervised learning is appealing when labels are scarce but large amounts of unlabeled data are available. These methods typically use a heuristic strategy to construct the graph based on some fixed data representation, independently of the available labels. In this pa- per, we propose to jointly learn a data representation and a graph from both labeled and unlabeled data such that (i) the learned representation indirectly encodes the label information injected into the graph, and (ii) the graph provides a smooth topology with respect to the transformed data. Plugging the resulting graph and representation into existing graph-based semi-supervised learn- ing algorithms like label spreading and graph convolutional networks, we show that our approach outperforms standard graph construction methods on both synthetic data and real datasets.


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A Probabilistic Model for Joint Learning of Word Embeddings from Texts and Images
Melissa Ailem | Bowen Zhang | Aurelien Bellet | Pascal Denis | Fei Sha
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Several recent studies have shown the benefits of combining language and perception to infer word embeddings. These multimodal approaches either simply combine pre-trained textual and visual representations (e.g. features extracted from convolutional neural networks), or use the latter to bias the learning of textual word embeddings. In this work, we propose a novel probabilistic model to formalize how linguistic and perceptual inputs can work in concert to explain the observed word-context pairs in a text corpus. Our approach learns textual and visual representations jointly: latent visual factors couple together a skip-gram model for co-occurrence in linguistic data and a generative latent variable model for visual data. Extensive experimental studies validate the proposed model. Concretely, on the tasks of assessing pairwise word similarity and image/caption retrieval, our approach attains equally competitive or stronger results when compared to other state-of-the-art multimodal models.