Avshalom Manevich


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Multi Document Summarization Evaluation in the Presence of Damaging Content
Avshalom Manevich | David Carmel | Nachshon Cohen | Elad Kravi | Ori Shapira
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

In the Multi-document summarization (MDS) task, a summary is produced for a given set of documents. A recent line of research introduced the concept of damaging documents, denoting documents that should not be exposed to readers due to various reasons. In the presence of damaging documents, a summarizer is ideally expected to exclude damaging content in its output. Existing metrics evaluate a summary based on aspects such as relevance and consistency with the source documents. We propose to additionally measure the ability of MDS systems to properly handle damaging documents in their input set. To that end, we offer two novel metrics based on lexical similarity and language model likelihood. A set of experiments demonstrates the effectiveness of our metrics in measuring the ability of MDS systems to summarize a set of documents while eliminating damaging content from their summaries.


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Draw Me a Flower: Processing and Grounding Abstraction in Natural Language
Royi Lachmy | Valentina Pyatkin | Avshalom Manevich | Reut Tsarfaty
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 10

Abstraction is a core tenet of human cognition and communication. When composing natural language instructions, humans naturally evoke abstraction to convey complex procedures in an efficient and concise way. Yet, interpreting and grounding abstraction expressed in NL has not yet been systematically studied in NLP, with no accepted benchmarks specifically eliciting abstraction in NL. In this work, we set the foundation for a systematic study of processing and grounding abstraction in NLP. First, we deliver a novel abstraction elicitation method and present Hexagons, a 2D instruction-following game. Using Hexagons we collected over 4k naturally occurring visually-grounded instructions rich with diverse types of abstractions. From these data, we derive an instruction-to-execution task and assess different types of neural models. Our results show that contemporary models and modeling practices are substantially inferior to human performance, and that model performance is inversely correlated with the level of abstraction, showing less satisfying performance on higher levels of abstraction. These findings are consistent across models and setups, confirming that abstraction is a challenging phenomenon deserving further attention and study in NLP/AI research.