Ayal Klein


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Opinion-based Relational Pivoting for Cross-domain Aspect Term Extraction
Ayal Klein | Oren Pereg | Daniel Korat | Vasudev Lal | Moshe Wasserblat | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment & Social Media Analysis

Domain adaptation methods often exploit domain-transferable input features, a.k.a. pivots. The task of Aspect and Opinion Term Extraction presents a special challenge for domain transfer: while opinion terms largely transfer across domains, aspects change drastically from one domain to another (e.g. from restaurants to laptops). In this paper, we investigate and establish empirically a prior conjecture, which suggests that the linguistic relations connecting opinion terms to their aspects transfer well across domains and therefore can be leveraged for cross-domain aspect term extraction. We present several analyses supporting this conjecture, via experiments with four linguistic dependency formalisms to represent relation patterns. Subsequently, we present an aspect term extraction method that drives models to consider opinion–aspect relations via explicit multitask objectives. This method provides significant performance gains, even on top of a prior state-of-the-art linguistically-informed model, which are shown in analysis to stem from the relational pivoting signal.


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QA-Align: Representing Cross-Text Content Overlap by Aligning Question-Answer Propositions
Daniela Brook Weiss | Paul Roit | Ayal Klein | Ori Ernst | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multi-text applications, such as multi-document summarization, are typically required to model redundancies across related texts. Current methods confronting consolidation struggle to fuse overlapping information. In order to explicitly represent content overlap, we propose to align predicate-argument relations across texts, providing a potential scaffold for information consolidation. We go beyond clustering coreferring mentions, and instead model overlap with respect to redundancy at a propositional level, rather than merely detecting shared referents. Our setting exploits QA-SRL, utilizing question-answer pairs to capture predicate-argument relations, facilitating laymen annotation of cross-text alignments. We employ crowd-workers for constructing a dataset of QA-based alignments, and present a baseline QA alignment model trained over our dataset. Analyses show that our new task is semantically challenging, capturing content overlap beyond lexical similarity and complements cross-document coreference with proposition-level links, offering potential use for downstream tasks.


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Controlled Crowdsourcing for High-Quality QA-SRL Annotation
Paul Roit | Ayal Klein | Daniela Stepanov | Jonathan Mamou | Julian Michael | Gabriel Stanovsky | Luke Zettlemoyer | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Question-answer driven Semantic Role Labeling (QA-SRL) was proposed as an attractive open and natural flavour of SRL, potentially attainable from laymen. Recently, a large-scale crowdsourced QA-SRL corpus and a trained parser were released. Trying to replicate the QA-SRL annotation for new texts, we found that the resulting annotations were lacking in quality, particularly in coverage, making them insufficient for further research and evaluation. In this paper, we present an improved crowdsourcing protocol for complex semantic annotation, involving worker selection and training, and a data consolidation phase. Applying this protocol to QA-SRL yielded high-quality annotation with drastically higher coverage, producing a new gold evaluation dataset. We believe that our annotation protocol and gold standard will facilitate future replicable research of natural semantic annotations.

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QANom: Question-Answer driven SRL for Nominalizations
Ayal Klein | Jonathan Mamou | Valentina Pyatkin | Daniela Stepanov | Hangfeng He | Dan Roth | Luke Zettlemoyer | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

We propose a new semantic scheme for capturing predicate-argument relations for nominalizations, termed QANom. This scheme extends the QA-SRL formalism (He et al., 2015), modeling the relations between nominalizations and their arguments via natural language question-answer pairs. We construct the first QANom dataset using controlled crowdsourcing, analyze its quality and compare it to expertly annotated nominal-SRL annotations, as well as to other QA-driven annotations. In addition, we train a baseline QANom parser for identifying nominalizations and labeling their arguments with question-answer pairs. Finally, we demonstrate the extrinsic utility of our annotations for downstream tasks using both indirect supervision and zero-shot settings.

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QADiscourse - Discourse Relations as QA Pairs: Representation, Crowdsourcing and Baselines
Valentina Pyatkin | Ayal Klein | Reut Tsarfaty | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Discourse relations describe how two propositions relate to one another, and identifying them automatically is an integral part of natural language understanding. However, annotating discourse relations typically requires expert annotators. Recently, different semantic aspects of a sentence have been represented and crowd-sourced via question-and-answer (QA) pairs. This paper proposes a novel representation of discourse relations as QA pairs, which in turn allows us to crowd-source wide-coverage data annotated with discourse relations, via an intuitively appealing interface for composing such questions and answers. Based on our proposed representation, we collect a novel and wide-coverage QADiscourse dataset, and present baseline algorithms for predicting QADiscourse relations.