Ayush Maheshwari


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FAIR: Filtering of Automatically Induced Rules
Divya Jyoti Bajpai | Ayush Maheshwari | Manjesh Hanawal | Ganesh Ramakrishnan
Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Availability of large annotated data can be a critical bottleneck in training machine learning algorithms successfully, especially when applied to diverse domains. Weak supervision offers a promising alternative by accelerating the creation of labeled training data using domain-specific rules. However, it requires users to write a diverse set of high-quality rules to assign labels to the unlabeled data (eg., Snorkel (CITATION)). Automatic Rule Induction (ARI) approaches such as Snuba (CITATION) circumvent this problem by automatically creating rules from features on a small labeled set and filtering a final set of rules from them. In the ARI approach, the crucial step is to filter out a set of a high-quality useful subset of rules from the large set of automatically created rules. In this paper, we propose an algorithm FAIR (Filtering of Automatically Induced Rules) to filter rules from a large number of automatically induced rules using submodular objective functions that account for the collective precision, coverage, and conflicts of the rule set. We experiment with three ARI approaches and five text classification datasets to validate the superior performance of our algorithm with respect to several semi-supervised label aggregation approaches. We show that our approach achieves statistically significant results in comparison to existing rule-filtering approaches. The anonymized source code is available at https://anonymous.4open.science/r/FAIR-LF-Induction-9B60.


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SPEAR : Semi-supervised Data Programming in Python
Guttu Abhishek | Harshad Ingole | Parth Laturia | Vineeth Dorna | Ayush Maheshwari | Ganesh Ramakrishnan | Rishabh Iyer
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

We present SPEAR, an open-source python library for data programming with semi supervision. The package implements several recent data programming approaches including facility to programmatically label and build training data. SPEAR facilitates weak supervision in the form of heuristics (or rules) and association of noisy labels to the training dataset. These noisy labels are aggregated to assign labels to the unlabeled data for downstream tasks. We have implemented several label aggregation approaches that aggregate the noisy labels and then train using the noisily labeled set in a cascaded manner. Our implementation also includes other approaches that jointly aggregate and train the model for text classification tasks. Thus, in our python package, we integrate several cascade and joint data-programming approaches while also providing the facility of data programming by letting the user define labeling functions or rules. The code and tutorial notebooks are available at https://github.com/decile-team/spear. Further, extensive documentation can be found at https://spear-decile.readthedocs.io/. Video tutorials demonstrating the usage of our package are available https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLW8agt_HvkVnOJoJAqBpaerFb-z-ZlqlP. We also present some real-world use cases of SPEAR.

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Learning to Robustly Aggregate Labeling Functions for Semi-supervised Data Programming
Ayush Maheshwari | Krishnateja Killamsetty | Ganesh Ramakrishnan | Rishabh Iyer | Marina Danilevsky | Lucian Popa
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

A critical bottleneck in supervised machine learning is the need for large amounts of labeled data which is expensive and time-consuming to obtain. Although a small amount of labeled data cannot be used to train a model, it can be used effectively for the generation of humaninterpretable labeling functions (LFs). These LFs, in turn, have been used to generate a large amount of additional noisy labeled data in a paradigm that is now commonly referred to as data programming. Previous methods of generating LFs do not attempt to use the given labeled data further to train a model, thus missing opportunities for improving performance. Additionally, since the LFs are generated automatically, they are likely to be noisy, and naively aggregating these LFs can lead to suboptimal results. In this work, we propose an LF-based bi-level optimization framework WISDOM to solve these two critical limitations. WISDOM learns a joint model on the (same) labeled dataset used for LF induction along with any unlabeled data in a semi-supervised manner, and more critically, reweighs each LF according to its goodness, influencing its contribution to the semi-supervised loss using a robust bi-level optimization algorithm. We show that WISDOM significantly outperforms prior approaches on several text classification datasets.

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A Benchmark and Dataset for Post-OCR text correction in Sanskrit
Ayush Maheshwari | Nikhil Singh | Amrith Krishna | Ganesh Ramakrishnan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Sanskrit is a classical language with about 30 million extant manuscripts fit for digitisation, available in written, printed or scanned-image forms. However, it is still considered to be a low-resource language when it comes to available digital resources. In this work, we release a post-OCR text correction dataset containing around 218,000 sentences, with 1.5 million words, from 30 different books. Texts in Sanskrit are known to be diverse in terms of their linguistic and stylistic usage since Sanskrit was the ‘lingua francua’ for discourse in the Indian subcontinent for about 3 millennia. Keeping this in mind, we release a multi-domain dataset, from areas as diverse as astronomy, medicine and mathematics, with some of them as old as 18 centuries. Further, we release multiple strong baselines as benchmarks for the task, based on pre-trained Seq2Seq language models. We find that our best-performing model, consisting of byte level tokenization in conjunction with phonetic encoding (Byt5+SLP1), yields a 23% point increase over the OCR output in terms of word and character error rates. Moreover, we perform extensive experiments in evaluating these models on their performance and analyse common causes of mispredictions both at the graphemic and lexical levels. Our code and dataset is publicly available at https://github.com/ayushbits/pe-ocr-sanskrit.


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Semi-Supervised Data Programming with Subset Selection
Ayush Maheshwari | Oishik Chatterjee | Krishnateja Killamsetty | Ganesh Ramakrishnan | Rishabh Iyer
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Rule Augmented Unsupervised Constituency Parsing
Atul Sahay | Anshul Nasery | Ayush Maheshwari | Ganesh Ramakrishnan | Rishabh Iyer
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Joint Learning of Hyperbolic Label Embeddings for Hierarchical Multi-label Classification
Soumya Chatterjee | Ayush Maheshwari | Ganesh Ramakrishnan | Saketha Nath Jagarlapudi
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

We consider the problem of multi-label classification, where the labels lie on a hierarchy. However, unlike most existing works in hierarchical multi-label classification, we do not assume that the label-hierarchy is known. Encouraged by the recent success of hyperbolic embeddings in capturing hierarchical relations, we propose to jointly learn the classifier parameters as well as the label embeddings. Such a joint learning is expected to provide a twofold advantage: i) the classifier generalises better as it leverages the prior knowledge of existence of a hierarchy over the labels, and ii) in addition to the label co-occurrence information, the label-embedding may benefit from the manifold structure of the input datapoints, leading to embeddings that are more faithful to the label hierarchy. We propose a novel formulation for the joint learning and empirically evaluate its efficacy. The results show that the joint learning improves over the baseline that employs label co-occurrence based pre-trained hyperbolic embeddings. Moreover, the proposed classifiers achieve state-of-the-art generalization on standard benchmarks. We also present evaluation of the hyperbolic embeddings obtained by joint learning and show that they represent the hierarchy more accurately than the other alternatives.


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Entity Resolution and Location Disambiguation in the Ancient Hindu Temples Domain using Web Data
Ayush Maheshwari | Vishwajeet Kumar | Ganesh Ramakrishnan | J. Saketha Nath
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Demonstrations

We present a system for resolving entities and disambiguating locations based on publicly available web data in the domain of ancient Hindu Temples. Scarce, unstructured information poses a challenge to Entity Resolution(ER) and snippet ranking. Additionally, because the same set of entities may be associated with multiple locations, Location Disambiguation(LD) is a problem. The mentions and descriptions of temples exist in the order of hundreds of thousands, with such data generated by various users in various forms such as text (Wikipedia pages), videos (YouTube videos), blogs, etc. We demonstrate an integrated approach using a combination of grammar rules for parsing and unsupervised (clustering) algorithms to resolve entity and locations with high confidence. A demo of our system is accessible at tinyurl.com/templedemos. Our system is open source and available on GitHub.