Ayyoob ImaniGooghari


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Glot500: Scaling Multilingual Corpora and Language Models to 500 Languages
Ayyoob ImaniGooghari | Peiqin Lin | Amir Hossein Kargaran | Silvia Severini | Masoud Jalili Sabet | Nora Kassner | Chunlan Ma | Helmut Schmid | André Martins | François Yvon | Hinrich Schütze
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The NLP community has mainly focused on scaling Large Language Models (LLMs) vertically, i.e., making them better for about 100 languages. We instead scale LLMs horizontally: we create, through continued pretraining, Glot500-m, an LLM that covers 511 predominantly low-resource languages. An important part of this effort is to collect and clean Glot500-c, a corpus that covers these 511 languages and allows us to train Glot500-m. We evaluate Glot500-m on five diverse tasks across these languages. We observe large improvements for both high-resource and low-resource languages compared to an XLM-R baseline. Our analysis shows that no single factor explains the quality of multilingual LLM representations. Rather, a combination of factors determines quality including corpus size, script, “help” from related languages and the total capacity of the model. Our work addresses an important goal of NLP research: we should notlimit NLP to a small fraction of the world’s languages and instead strive to support as many languages as possible to bring the benefits of NLP technology to all languages and cultures. Code, data and models are available at https://github.com/cisnlp/Glot500.


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Towards a Broad Coverage Named Entity Resource: A Data-Efficient Approach for Many Diverse Languages
Silvia Severini | Ayyoob ImaniGooghari | Philipp Dufter | Hinrich Schütze
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Parallel corpora are ideal for extracting a multilingual named entity (MNE) resource, i.e., a dataset of names translated into multiple languages. Prior work on extracting MNE datasets from parallel corpora required resources such as large monolingual corpora or word aligners that are unavailable or perform poorly for underresourced languages. We present CLC-BN, a new method for creating an MNE resource, and apply it to the Parallel Bible Corpus, a corpus of more than 1000 languages. CLC-BN learns a neural transliteration model from parallel-corpus statistics, without requiring any other bilingual resources, word aligners, or seed data. Experimental results show that CLC-BN clearly outperforms prior work. We release an MNE resource for 1340 languages and demonstrate its effectiveness in two downstream tasks: knowledge graph augmentation and bilingual lexicon induction.

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Graph-Based Multilingual Label Propagation for Low-Resource Part-of-Speech Tagging
Ayyoob ImaniGooghari | Silvia Severini | Masoud Jalili Sabet | François Yvon | Hinrich Schütze
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging is an important component of the NLP pipeline, but many low-resource languages lack labeled data for training. An established method for training a POS tagger in such a scenario is to create a labeled training set by transferring from high-resource languages. In this paper, we propose a novel method for transferring labels from multiple high-resource source to low-resource target languages. We formalize POS tag projection as graph-based label propagation. Given translations of a sentence in multiple languages, we create a graph with words as nodes and alignment links as edges by aligning words for all language pairs. We then propagate node labels from source to target using a Graph Neural Network augmented with transformer layers. We show that our propagation creates training sets that allow us to train POS taggers for a diverse set of languages. When combined with enhanced contextualized embeddings, our method achieves a new state-of-the-art for unsupervised POS tagging of low-resource languages.


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Graph Algorithms for Multiparallel Word Alignment
Ayyoob ImaniGooghari | Masoud Jalili Sabet | Lutfi Kerem Senel | Philipp Dufter | François Yvon | Hinrich Schütze
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

With the advent of end-to-end deep learning approaches in machine translation, interest in word alignments initially decreased; however, they have again become a focus of research more recently. Alignments are useful for typological research, transferring formatting like markup to translated texts, and can be used in the decoding of machine translation systems. At the same time, massively multilingual processing is becoming an important NLP scenario, and pretrained language and machine translation models that are truly multilingual are proposed. However, most alignment algorithms rely on bitexts only and do not leverage the fact that many parallel corpora are multiparallel. In this work, we exploit the multiparallelity of corpora by representing an initial set of bilingual alignments as a graph and then predicting additional edges in the graph. We present two graph algorithms for edge prediction: one inspired by recommender systems and one based on network link prediction. Our experimental results show absolute improvements in F1 of up to 28% over the baseline bilingual word aligner in different datasets.

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ParCourE: A Parallel Corpus Explorer for a Massively Multilingual Corpus
Ayyoob ImaniGooghari | Masoud Jalili Sabet | Philipp Dufter | Michael Cysou | Hinrich Schütze
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

With more than 7000 languages worldwide, multilingual natural language processing (NLP) is essential both from an academic and commercial perspective. Researching typological properties of languages is fundamental for progress in multilingual NLP. Examples include assessing language similarity for effective transfer learning, injecting inductive biases into machine learning models or creating resources such as dictionaries and inflection tables. We provide ParCourE, an online tool that allows to browse a word-aligned parallel corpus, covering 1334 languages. We give evidence that this is useful for typological research. ParCourE can be set up for any parallel corpus and can thus be used for typological research on other corpora as well as for exploring their quality and properties.