Balázs Indig


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Emil.RuleZ! – An exploratory pilot study of handling a real-life longitudinal email archive
Balázs Indig | Luca Horváth | Dorottya Henrietta Szemigán | Mihály Nagy
Proceedings of the Joint 3rd International Conference on Natural Language Processing for Digital Humanities and 8th International Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Uralic Languages

An entire generation that predominantly used email for official communication throughout their lives is about to leave behind a significant amount of preservable digital heritage. Memory institutions in the USA (e.g. Internet Archive, Stanford University Library) recognised this endeavor of preservation early on, therefore, available solutions are focused on English language public archives, neglecting the problem of different languages with different encodings in a single archive and the heterogeneity of standards that have changed considerably since their first form in the 1970s. Since online services enable the convenient creation of email archives in MBOX format it is important to evaluate how existing tools handle non-homogeneous longitudinal archives containing diverse states of email standards, as opposed to often archived monolingual public mailing lists, and how such data can be made ready for research. We use distant reading methods on a real-life archive, the legacy of a deceased individual containing 11,245 emails from 2010 to 2023 in multiple languages and encodings, and demonstrate how existing available tools can be surpassed. Our goal is to enhance data homogeneity to make it accessible for researchers in a queryable database format. We utilise rule-based methods and GPT-3.5 to extract the cleanest form of our data.


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Use the Metadata, Luke! – An Experimental Joint Metadata Search and N-gram Trend Viewer for Personal Web Archives
Balázs Indig | Zsófia Sárközi-Lindner | Mihály Nagy
Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Digital Humanities

Many digital humanists (philologists, historians, sociologists, librarians, the audience for web archives) design their research around metadata (publication date ranges, sources, authors, etc.). However, current major web archives are limited to technical metadata while lacking high quality, descriptive metadata allowing for faceted queries. As researchers often lack the technical skill necessary to enrich existing web archives with descriptive metadata, they increasingly turn to creating personal web archives that contain such metadata, tailored to their research requirements. Software that enable creating such archives without advanced technical skills have gained popularity, however, tools for examination and querying are currently the missing link. We showcase a solution designed to fill this gap.

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ELTE Poetry Corpus: A Machine Annotated Database of Canonical Hungarian Poetry
Péter Horváth | Péter Kundráth | Balázs Indig | Zsófia Fellegi | Eszter Szlávich | Tímea Borbála Bajzát | Zsófia Sárközi-Lindner | Bence Vida | Aslihan Karabulut | Mária Timári | Gábor Palkó
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

ELTE Poetry Corpus is a database that stores canonical Hungarian poetry with automatically generated annotations of the poems’ structural units, grammatical features and sound devices, i.e. rhyme patterns, rhyme pairs, rhythm, alliterations and the main phonological features of words. The corpus has an open access online query tool with several search functions. The paper presents the main stages of the annotation process and the tools used for each stage. The TEI XML format of the different versions of the corpus, each of which contains an increasing number of annotation layers, is presented as well. We have also specified our own XML format for the corpus, slightly different from TEI, in order to make it easier and faster to execute queries on the corpus. We discuss the results of a manual evaluation of the quality of automatic annotation of rhythm, as well as the results of an automatic evaluation of different rule sets used for the automatic annotation of rhyme patterns. Finally, the paper gives an overview of the main functions of the online query tool developed for the corpus.


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The xtsv Framework and the Twelve Virtues of Pipelines
Balázs Indig | Bálint Sass | Iván Mittelholcz
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We present xtsv, an abstract framework for building NLP pipelines. It covers several kinds of functionalities which can be implemented at an abstract level. We survey these features and argue that all are desired in a modern pipeline. The framework has a simple yet powerful internal communication format which is essentially tsv (tab separated values) with header plus some additional features. We put emphasis on the capabilities of the presented framework, for example its ability to allow new modules to be easily integrated or replaced, or the variety of its usage options. When a module is put into xtsv, all functionalities of the system are immediately available for that module, and the module can be be a part of an xtsv pipeline. The design also allows convenient investigation and manual correction of the data flow from one module to another. We demonstrate the power of our framework with a successful application: a concrete NLP pipeline for Hungarian called e-magyar text processing system (emtsv) which integrates Hungarian NLP tools in xtsv. All the advantages of the pipeline come from the inherent properties of the xtsv framework.

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The ELTE.DH Pilot Corpus – Creating a Handcrafted Gigaword Web Corpus with Metadata
Balázs Indig | Árpád Knap | Zsófia Sárközi-Lindner | Mária Timári | Gábor Palkó
Proceedings of the 12th Web as Corpus Workshop

In this article, we present the method we used to create a middle-sized corpus using targeted web crawling. Our corpus contains news portal articles along with their metadata, that can be useful for diverse audiences, ranging from digital humanists to NLP users. The method presented in this paper applies rule-based components that allow the curation of the text and the metadata content. The curated data can thereon serve as a reference for various tasks and measurements. We designed our workflow to encourage modification and customisation. Our concept can also be applied to other genres of portals by using the discovered patterns in the architecture of the portals. We found that for a systematic creation or extension of a similar corpus, our method provides superior accuracy and ease of use compared to The Wayback Machine, while requiring minimal manpower and computational resources. Reproducing the corpus is possible if changes are introduced to the text-extraction process. The standard TEI format and encoded metadata is used for the output format, but we stress that placing the corpus in a digital repository system is recommended in order to be able to define semantic relations between the segments and to add rich annotation.


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One format to rule them all – The emtsv pipeline for Hungarian
Balázs Indig | Bálint Sass | Eszter Simon | Iván Mittelholcz | Noémi Vadász | Márton Makrai
Proceedings of the 13th Linguistic Annotation Workshop

We present a more efficient version of the e-magyar NLP pipeline for Hungarian called emtsv. It integrates Hungarian NLP tools in a framework whose individual modules can be developed or replaced independently and allows new ones to be added. The design also allows convenient investigation and manual correction of the data flow from one module to another. The improvements we publish include effective communication between the modules and support of the use of individual modules both in the chain and standing alone. Our goals are accomplished using extended tsv (tab separated values) files, a simple, uniform, generic and self-documenting input/output format. Our vision is maintaining the system for a long time and making it easier for external developers to fit their own modules into the system, thus sharing existing competencies in the field of processing Hungarian, a mid-resourced language. The source code is available under LGPL 3.0 license at .


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What’s Wrong, Python? – A Visual Differ and Graph Library for NLP in Python
Balázs Indig | András Simonyi | Noémi Ligeti-Nagy
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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E-magyar – A Digital Language Processing System
Tamás Váradi | Eszter Simon | Bálint Sass | Iván Mittelholcz | Attila Novák | Balázs Indig | Richárd Farkas | Veronika Vincze
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)


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Mapping Ontologies Using Ontologies: Cross-lingual Semantic Role Information Transfer
Balázs Indig | Márton Miháltz | András Simonyi
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

This paper presents the process of enriching the verb frame database of a Hungarian natural language parser to enable the assignment of semantic roles. We accomplished this by linking the parser’s verb frame database to existing linguistic resources such as VerbNet and WordNet, and automatically transferring back semantic knowledge. We developed OWL ontologies that map the various constraint description formalisms of the linked resources and employed a logical reasoning device to facilitate the linking procedure. We present results and discuss the challenges and pitfalls that arose from this undertaking.