Baobao Chang

Also published as: Bao-Bao Chang


2021

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Inductively Representing Out-of-Knowledge-Graph Entities by Optimal Estimation Under Translational Assumptions
Damai Dai | Hua Zheng | Fuli Luo | Pengcheng Yang | Tianyu Liu | Zhifang Sui | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP (RepL4NLP-2021)

Conventional Knowledge Graph Completion (KGC) assumes that all test entities appear during training. However, in real-world scenarios, Knowledge Graphs (KG) evolve fast with out-of-knowledge-graph (OOKG) entities added frequently, and we need to efficiently represent these entities. Most existing Knowledge Graph Embedding (KGE) methods cannot represent OOKG entities without costly retraining on the whole KG. To enhance efficiency, we propose a simple and effective method that inductively represents OOKG entities by their optimal estimation under translational assumptions. Moreover, given pretrained embeddings of the in-knowledge-graph (IKG) entities, our method even needs no additional learning. Experimental results on two KGC tasks with OOKG entities show that our method outperforms the previous methods by a large margin with higher efficiency.

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基于双编码器的医学文本中文分词(Chinese word segmentation of medical text based on dual-encoder)
Yuan Zong (宗源) | Baobao Chang (常宝宝)
Proceedings of the 20th Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics

“中文分词是自然语言处理领域的基础工作,然而前人的医学文本分词工作都只是直接套用通用分词的方法,而医学文本多专用术语的特点让分词系统需要对医学专用术语和医学文本中的非医学术语文本提供不同的分词粒度。本文提出了双编码器医学文本中文分词模型,利用辅助编码器为医学专有术语提供粗粒度表示。模型将需要粗粒度分词的医学专用术语和需要通用分词粒度的文本分开,在提升医学专用术语的分词能力的同时最大限度地避免了其粗粒度对于医学文本中通用文本分词的干扰。”

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Decompose, Fuse and Generate: A Formation-Informed Method for Chinese Definition Generation
Hua Zheng | Damai Dai | Lei Li | Tianyu Liu | Zhifang Sui | Baobao Chang | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

In this paper, we tackle the task of Definition Generation (DG) in Chinese, which aims at automatically generating a definition for a word. Most existing methods take the source word as an indecomposable semantic unit. However, in parataxis languages like Chinese, word meanings can be composed using the word formation process, where a word (“桃花”, peach-blossom) is formed by formation components (“桃”, peach; “花”, flower) using a formation rule (Modifier-Head). Inspired by this process, we propose to enhance DG with word formation features. We build a formation-informed dataset, and propose a model DeFT, which Decomposes words into formation features, dynamically Fuses different features through a gating mechanism, and generaTes word definitions. Experimental results show that our method is both effective and robust.

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Document-level Event Extraction via Heterogeneous Graph-based Interaction Model with a Tracker
Runxin Xu | Tianyu Liu | Lei Li | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Document-level event extraction aims to recognize event information from a whole piece of article. Existing methods are not effective due to two challenges of this task: a) the target event arguments are scattered across sentences; b) the correlation among events in a document is non-trivial to model. In this paper, we propose Heterogeneous Graph-based Interaction Model with a Tracker (GIT) to solve the aforementioned two challenges. For the first challenge, GIT constructs a heterogeneous graph interaction network to capture global interactions among different sentences and entity mentions. For the second, GIT introduces a Tracker module to track the extracted events and hence capture the interdependency among the events. Experiments on a large-scale dataset (Zheng et al, 2019) show GIT outperforms the previous methods by 2.8 F1. Further analysis reveals is effective in extracting multiple correlated events and event arguments that scatter across the document.

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SIRE: Separate Intra- and Inter-sentential Reasoning for Document-level Relation Extraction
Shuang Zeng | Yuting Wu | Baobao Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Joint Multi-Decoder Framework with Hierarchical Pointer Network for Frame Semantic Parsing
Xudong Chen | Ce Zheng | Baobao Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

2020

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An Anchor-Based Automatic Evaluation Metric for Document Summarization
Kexiang Wang | Tianyu Liu | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The widespread adoption of reference-based automatic evaluation metrics such as ROUGE has promoted the development of document summarization. In this paper, we consider a new protocol for designing reference-based metrics that require the endorsement of source document(s). Following protocol, we propose an anchored ROUGE metric fixing each summary particle on source document, which bases the computation on more solid ground. Empirical results on benchmark datasets validate that source document helps to induce a higher correlation with human judgments for ROUGE metric. Being self-explanatory and easy-to-implement, the protocol can naturally foster various effective designs of reference-based metrics besides the anchored ROUGE introduced here.

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HypoNLI: Exploring the Artificial Patterns of Hypothesis-only Bias in Natural Language Inference
Tianyu Liu | Zheng Xin | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Many recent studies have shown that for models trained on datasets for natural language inference (NLI), it is possible to make correct predictions by merely looking at the hypothesis while completely ignoring the premise. In this work, we manage to derive adversarial examples in terms of the hypothesis-only bias and explore eligible ways to mitigate such bias. Specifically, we extract various phrases from the hypotheses (artificial patterns) in the training sets, and show that they have been strong indicators to the specific labels. We then figure out ‘hard’ and ‘easy’ instances from the original test sets whose labels are opposite to or consistent with those indications. We also set up baselines including both pretrained models (BERT, RoBerta, XLNet) and competitive non-pretrained models (InferSent, DAM, ESIM). Apart from the benchmark and baselines, we also investigate two debiasing approaches which exploit the artificial pattern modeling to mitigate such hypothesis-only bias: down-sampling and adversarial training. We believe those methods can be treated as competitive baselines in NLI debiasing tasks.

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An Empirical Study on Model-agnostic Debiasing Strategies for Robust Natural Language Inference
Tianyu Liu | Zheng Xin | Xiaoan Ding | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 24th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

The prior work on natural language inference (NLI) debiasing mainly targets at one or few known biases while not necessarily making the models more robust. In this paper, we focus on the model-agnostic debiasing strategies and explore how to (or is it possible to) make the NLI models robust to multiple distinct adversarial attacks while keeping or even strengthening the models’ generalization power. We firstly benchmark prevailing neural NLI models including pretrained ones on various adversarial datasets. We then try to combat distinct known biases by modifying a mixture of experts (MoE) ensemble method and show that it’s nontrivial to mitigate multiple NLI biases at the same time, and that model-level ensemble method outperforms MoE ensemble method. We also perform data augmentation including text swap, word substitution and paraphrase and prove its efficiency in combating various (though not all) adversarial attacks at the same time. Finally, we investigate several methods to merge heterogeneous training data (1.35M) and perform model ensembling, which are straightforward but effective to strengthen NLI models.

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A Spectral Method for Unsupervised Multi-Document Summarization
Kexiang Wang | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Multi-document summarization (MDS) aims at producing a good-quality summary for several related documents. In this paper, we propose a spectral-based hypothesis, which states that the goodness of summary candidate is closely linked to its so-called spectral impact. Here spectral impact considers the perturbation to the dominant eigenvalue of affinity matrix when dropping the summary candidate from the document cluster. The hypothesis is validated by three theoretical perspectives: semantic scaling, propagation dynamics and matrix perturbation. According to the hypothesis, we formulate the MDS task as the combinatorial optimization of spectral impact and propose an accelerated greedy solution based on a surrogate of spectral impact. The evaluation results on various datasets demonstrate: (1) The performance of the summary candidate is positively correlated with its spectral impact, which accords with our hypothesis; (2) Our spectral-based method has a competitive result as compared to state-of-the-art MDS systems.

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Double Graph Based Reasoning for Document-level Relation Extraction
Shuang Zeng | Runxin Xu | Baobao Chang | Lei Li
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Document-level relation extraction aims to extract relations among entities within a document. Different from sentence-level relation extraction, it requires reasoning over multiple sentences across paragraphs. In this paper, we propose Graph Aggregation-and-Inference Network (GAIN), a method to recognize such relations for long paragraphs. GAIN constructs two graphs, a heterogeneous mention-level graph (MG) and an entity-level graph (EG). The former captures complex interaction among different mentions and the latter aggregates mentions underlying for the same entities. Based on the graphs we propose a novel path reasoning mechanism to infer relations between entities. Experiments on the public dataset, DocRED, show GAIN achieves a significant performance improvement (2.85 on F1) over the previous state-of-the-art. Our code is available at https://github.com/PKUnlp-icler/GAIN.

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Discriminatively-Tuned Generative Classifiers for Robust Natural Language Inference
Xiaoan Ding | Tianyu Liu | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui | Kevin Gimpel
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

While discriminative neural network classifiers are generally preferred, recent work has shown advantages of generative classifiers in term of data efficiency and robustness. In this paper, we focus on natural language inference (NLI). We propose GenNLI, a generative classifier for NLI tasks, and empirically characterize its performance by comparing it to five baselines, including discriminative models and large-scale pretrained language representation models like BERT. We explore training objectives for discriminative fine-tuning of our generative classifiers, showing improvements over log loss fine-tuning from prior work (Lewis and Fan, 2019). In particular, we find strong results with a simple unbounded modification to log loss, which we call the “infinilog loss”. Our experiments show that GenNLI outperforms both discriminative and pretrained baselines across several challenging NLI experimental settings, including small training sets, imbalanced label distributions, and label noise.

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面向医学文本处理的医学实体标注规范(Medical Entity Annotation Standard for Medical Text Processing)
Huan Zhang (张欢) | Yuan Zong (宗源) | Baobao Chang (常宝宝) | Zhifang Sui (穗志方) | Hongying Zan (昝红英) | Kunli Zhang (张坤丽)
Proceedings of the 19th Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics

随着智慧医疗的普及,利用自然语言处理技术识别医学信息的需求日益增长。目前,针对医学实体而言,医学共享语料库仍处于空白状态,这对医学文本信息处理各项任务的进展造成了巨大阻力。如何判断不同的医学实体类别?如何界定不同实体间的涵盖范围?这些问题导致缺乏类似通用场景的大规模规范标注的医学文本数据。针对上述问题,该文参考了UMLS中定义的语义类型,提出面向医学文本信息处理的医学实体标注规范,涵盖了疾病、临床表现、医疗程序、医疗设备等9种医学实体,以及基于规范构建医学实体标注语料库。该文综述了标注规范的描述体系、分类原则、混淆处理、语料标注过程以及医学实体自动标注基线实验等相关问题,希望能为医学实体语料库的构建提供可参考的标注规范,以及为医学实体识别提供语料支持。

2019

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Pun-GAN: Generative Adversarial Network for Pun Generation
Fuli Luo | Shunyao Li | Pengcheng Yang | Lei Li | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui | Xu Sun
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

In this paper, we focus on the task of generating a pun sentence given a pair of word senses. A major challenge for pun generation is the lack of large-scale pun corpus to guide supervised learning. To remedy this, we propose an adversarial generative network for pun generation (Pun-GAN). It consists of a generator to produce pun sentences, and a discriminator to distinguish between the generated pun sentences and the real sentences with specific word senses. The output of the discriminator is then used as a reward to train the generator via reinforcement learning, encouraging it to produce pun sentences which can support two word senses simultaneously. Experiments show that the proposed Pun-GAN can generate sentences that are more ambiguous and diverse in both automatic and human evaluation.

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A Soft Label Strategy for Target-Level Sentiment Classification
Da Yin | Xiao Liu | Xiuyu Wu | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment and Social Media Analysis

In this paper, we propose a soft label approach to target-level sentiment classification task, in which a history-based soft labeling model is proposed to measure the possibility of a context word as an opinion word. We also apply a convolution layer to extract local active features, and introduce positional weights to take relative distance information into consideration. In addition, we obtain more informative target representation by training with context tokens together to make deeper interaction between target and context tokens. We conduct experiments on SemEval 2014 datasets and the experimental results show that our approach significantly outperforms previous models and gives state-of-the-art results on these datasets.

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Towards Fine-grained Text Sentiment Transfer
Fuli Luo | Peng Li | Pengcheng Yang | Jie Zhou | Yutong Tan | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui | Xu Sun
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we focus on the task of fine-grained text sentiment transfer (FGST). This task aims to revise an input sequence to satisfy a given sentiment intensity, while preserving the original semantic content. Different from the conventional sentiment transfer task that only reverses the sentiment polarity (positive/negative) of text, the FTST task requires more nuanced and fine-grained control of sentiment. To remedy this, we propose a novel Seq2SentiSeq model. Specifically, the numeric sentiment intensity value is incorporated into the decoder via a Gaussian kernel layer to finely control the sentiment intensity of the output. Moreover, to tackle the problem of lacking parallel data, we propose a cycle reinforcement learning algorithm to guide the model training. In this framework, the elaborately designed rewards can balance both sentiment transformation and content preservation, while not requiring any ground truth output. Experimental results show that our approach can outperform existing methods by a large margin in both automatic evaluation and human evaluation.

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Towards Comprehensive Description Generation from Factual Attribute-value Tables
Tianyu Liu | Fuli Luo | Pengcheng Yang | Wei Wu | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The comprehensive descriptions for factual attribute-value tables, which should be accurate, informative and loyal, can be very helpful for end users to understand the structured data in this form. However previous neural generators might suffer from key attributes missing, less informative and groundless information problems, which impede the generation of high-quality comprehensive descriptions for tables. To relieve these problems, we first propose force attention (FA) method to encourage the generator to pay more attention to the uncovered attributes to avoid potential key attributes missing. Furthermore, we propose reinforcement learning for information richness to generate more informative as well as more loyal descriptions for tables. In our experiments, we utilize the widely used WIKIBIO dataset as a benchmark. Besides, we create WB-filter based on WIKIBIO to test our model in the simulated user-oriented scenarios, in which the generated descriptions should accord with particular user interests. Experimental results show that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines on both automatic and human evaluation.

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Learning to Control the Fine-grained Sentiment for Story Ending Generation
Fuli Luo | Damai Dai | Pengcheng Yang | Tianyu Liu | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui | Xu Sun
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Automatic story ending generation is an interesting and challenging task in natural language generation. Previous studies are mainly limited to generate coherent, reasonable and diversified story endings, and few works focus on controlling the sentiment of story endings. This paper focuses on generating a story ending which meets the given fine-grained sentiment intensity. There are two major challenges to this task. First is the lack of story corpus which has fine-grained sentiment labels. Second is the difficulty of explicitly controlling sentiment intensity when generating endings. Therefore, we propose a generic and novel framework which consists of a sentiment analyzer and a sentimental generator, respectively addressing the two challenges. The sentiment analyzer adopts a series of methods to acquire sentiment intensities of the story dataset. The sentimental generator introduces the sentiment intensity into decoder via a Gaussian Kernel Layer to control the sentiment of the output. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first endeavor to control the fine-grained sentiment for story ending generation without manually annotating sentiment labels. Experiments show that our proposed framework can generate story endings which are not only more coherent and fluent but also able to meet the given sentiment intensity better.

2018

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EventWiki: A Knowledge Base of Major Events
Tao Ge | Lei Cui | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui | Furu Wei | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Incorporating Glosses into Neural Word Sense Disambiguation
Fuli Luo | Tianyu Liu | Qiaolin Xia | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) aims to identify the correct meaning of polysemous words in the particular context. Lexical resources like WordNet which are proved to be of great help for WSD in the knowledge-based methods. However, previous neural networks for WSD always rely on massive labeled data (context), ignoring lexical resources like glosses (sense definitions). In this paper, we integrate the context and glosses of the target word into a unified framework in order to make full use of both labeled data and lexical knowledge. Therefore, we propose GAS: a gloss-augmented WSD neural network which jointly encodes the context and glosses of the target word. GAS models the semantic relationship between the context and the gloss in an improved memory network framework, which breaks the barriers of the previous supervised methods and knowledge-based methods. We further extend the original gloss of word sense via its semantic relations in WordNet to enrich the gloss information. The experimental results show that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art systems on several English all-words WSD datasets.

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Leveraging Gloss Knowledge in Neural Word Sense Disambiguation by Hierarchical Co-Attention
Fuli Luo | Tianyu Liu | Zexue He | Qiaolin Xia | Zhifang Sui | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The goal of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is to identify the correct meaning of a word in the particular context. Traditional supervised methods only use labeled data (context), while missing rich lexical knowledge such as the gloss which defines the meaning of a word sense. Recent studies have shown that incorporating glosses into neural networks for WSD has made significant improvement. However, the previous models usually build the context representation and gloss representation separately. In this paper, we find that the learning for the context and gloss representation can benefit from each other. Gloss can help to highlight the important words in the context, thus building a better context representation. Context can also help to locate the key words in the gloss of the correct word sense. Therefore, we introduce a co-attention mechanism to generate co-dependent representations for the context and gloss. Furthermore, in order to capture both word-level and sentence-level information, we extend the attention mechanism in a hierarchical fashion. Experimental results show that our model achieves the state-of-the-art results on several standard English all-words WSD test datasets.

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Fine-grained Coordinated Cross-lingual Text Stream Alignment for Endless Language Knowledge Acquisition
Tao Ge | Qing Dou | Heng Ji | Lei Cui | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui | Furu Wei | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

This paper proposes to study fine-grained coordinated cross-lingual text stream alignment through a novel information network decipherment paradigm. We use Burst Information Networks as media to represent text streams and present a simple yet effective network decipherment algorithm with diverse clues to decipher the networks for accurate text stream alignment. Experiments on Chinese-English news streams show our approach not only outperforms previous approaches on bilingual lexicon extraction from coordinated text streams but also can harvest high-quality alignments from large amounts of streaming data for endless language knowledge mining, which makes it promising to be a new paradigm for automatic language knowledge acquisition.

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Improved Dependency Parsing using Implicit Word Connections Learned from Unlabeled Data
Wenhui Wang | Baobao Chang | Mairgup Mansur
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Pre-trained word embeddings and language model have been shown useful in a lot of tasks. However, both of them cannot directly capture word connections in a sentence, which is important for dependency parsing given its goal is to establish dependency relations between words. In this paper, we propose to implicitly capture word connections from unlabeled data by a word ordering model with self-attention mechanism. Experiments show that these implicit word connections do improve our parsing model. Furthermore, by combining with a pre-trained language model, our model gets state-of-the-art performance on the English PTB dataset, achieving 96.35% UAS and 95.25% LAS.

2017

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Syntax Aware LSTM model for Semantic Role Labeling
Feng Qian | Lei Sha | Baobao Chang | Lu-chen Liu | Ming Zhang
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Structured Prediction for Natural Language Processing

In Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) task, the tree structured dependency relation is rich in syntax information, but it is not well handled by existing models. In this paper, we propose Syntax Aware Long Short Time Memory (SA-LSTM). The structure of SA-LSTM changes according to dependency structure of each sentence, so that SA-LSTM can model the whole tree structure of dependency relation in an architecture engineering way. Experiments demonstrate that on Chinese Proposition Bank (CPB) 1.0, SA-LSTM improves F1 by 2.06% than ordinary bi-LSTM with feature engineered dependency relation information, and gives state-of-the-art F1 of 79.92%. On English CoNLL 2005 dataset, SA-LSTM brings improvement (2.1%) to bi-LSTM model and also brings slight improvement (0.3%) when added to the state-of-the-art model.

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Gated Self-Matching Networks for Reading Comprehension and Question Answering
Wenhui Wang | Nan Yang | Furu Wei | Baobao Chang | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In this paper, we present the gated self-matching networks for reading comprehension style question answering, which aims to answer questions from a given passage. We first match the question and passage with gated attention-based recurrent networks to obtain the question-aware passage representation. Then we propose a self-matching attention mechanism to refine the representation by matching the passage against itself, which effectively encodes information from the whole passage. We finally employ the pointer networks to locate the positions of answers from the passages. We conduct extensive experiments on the SQuAD dataset. The single model achieves 71.3% on the evaluation metrics of exact match on the hidden test set, while the ensemble model further boosts the results to 75.9%. At the time of submission of the paper, our model holds the first place on the SQuAD leaderboard for both single and ensemble model.

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A Progressive Learning Approach to Chinese SRL Using Heterogeneous Data
Qiaolin Xia | Lei Sha | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Previous studies on Chinese semantic role labeling (SRL) have concentrated on a single semantically annotated corpus. But the training data of single corpus is often limited. Whereas the other existing semantically annotated corpora for Chinese SRL are scattered across different annotation frameworks. But still, Data sparsity remains a bottleneck. This situation calls for larger training datasets, or effective approaches which can take advantage of highly heterogeneous data. In this paper, we focus mainly on the latter, that is, to improve Chinese SRL by using heterogeneous corpora together. We propose a novel progressive learning model which augments the Progressive Neural Network with Gated Recurrent Adapters. The model can accommodate heterogeneous inputs and effectively transfer knowledge between them. We also release a new corpus, Chinese SemBank, for Chinese SRL. Experiments on CPB 1.0 show that our model outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

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Affinity-Preserving Random Walk for Multi-Document Summarization
Kexiang Wang | Tianyu Liu | Zhifang Sui | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multi-document summarization provides users with a short text that summarizes the information in a set of related documents. This paper introduces affinity-preserving random walk to the summarization task, which preserves the affinity relations of sentences by an absorbing random walk model. Meanwhile, we put forward adjustable affinity-preserving random walk to enforce the diversity constraint of summarization in the random walk process. The ROUGE evaluations on DUC 2003 topic-focused summarization task and DUC 2004 generic summarization task show the good performance of our method, which has the best ROUGE-2 recall among the graph-based ranking methods.

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A Soft-label Method for Noise-tolerant Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction
Tianyu Liu | Kexiang Wang | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Distant-supervised relation extraction inevitably suffers from wrong labeling problems because it heuristically labels relational facts with knowledge bases. Previous sentence level denoise models don’t achieve satisfying performances because they use hard labels which are determined by distant supervision and immutable during training. To this end, we introduce an entity-pair level denoise method which exploits semantic information from correctly labeled entity pairs to correct wrong labels dynamically during training. We propose a joint score function which combines the relational scores based on the entity-pair representation and the confidence of the hard label to obtain a new label, namely a soft label, for certain entity pair. During training, soft labels instead of hard labels serve as gold labels. Experiments on the benchmark dataset show that our method dramatically reduces noisy instances and outperforms other state-of-the-art systems.

2016

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Discourse Parsing with Attention-based Hierarchical Neural Networks
Qi Li | Tianshi Li | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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News Stream Summarization using Burst Information Networks
Tao Ge | Lei Cui | Baobao Chang | Sujian Li | Ming Zhou | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Capturing Argument Relationship for Chinese Semantic Role Labeling
Lei Sha | Sujian Li | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui | Tingsong Jiang
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Encoding Temporal Information for Time-Aware Link Prediction
Tingsong Jiang | Tianyu Liu | Tao Ge | Lei Sha | Sujian Li | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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RBPB: Regularization-Based Pattern Balancing Method for Event Extraction
Lei Sha | Jing Liu | Chin-Yew Lin | Sujian Li | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Graph-based Dependency Parsing with Bidirectional LSTM
Wenhui Wang | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Joint Learning Templates and Slots for Event Schema Induction
Lei Sha | Sujian Li | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Towards Time-Aware Knowledge Graph Completion
Tingsong Jiang | Tianyu Liu | Tao Ge | Lei Sha | Baobao Chang | Sujian Li | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Knowledge graph (KG) completion adds new facts to a KG by making inferences from existing facts. Most existing methods ignore the time information and only learn from time-unknown fact triples. In dynamic environments that evolve over time, it is important and challenging for knowledge graph completion models to take into account the temporal aspects of facts. In this paper, we present a novel time-aware knowledge graph completion model that is able to predict links in a KG using both the existing facts and the temporal information of the facts. To incorporate the happening time of facts, we propose a time-aware KG embedding model using temporal order information among facts. To incorporate the valid time of facts, we propose a joint time-aware inference model based on Integer Linear Programming (ILP) using temporal consistencyinformationasconstraints. Wefurtherintegratetwomodelstomakefulluseofglobal temporal information. We empirically evaluate our models on time-aware KG completion task. Experimental results show that our time-aware models achieve the state-of-the-art on temporal facts consistently.

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Reading and Thinking: Re-read LSTM Unit for Textual Entailment Recognition
Lei Sha | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui | Sujian Li
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE) is a fundamentally important task in natural language processing that has many applications. The recently released Stanford Natural Language Inference (SNLI) corpus has made it possible to develop and evaluate deep neural network methods for the RTE task. Previous neural network based methods usually try to encode the two sentences (premise and hypothesis) and send them together into a multi-layer perceptron to get their entailment type, or use LSTM-RNN to link two sentences together while using attention mechanic to enhance the model’s ability. In this paper, we propose to use the re-read mechanic, which means to read the premise again and again while reading the hypothesis. After read the premise again, the model can get a better understanding of the premise, which can also affect the understanding of the hypothesis. On the contrary, a better understanding of the hypothesis can also affect the understanding of the premise. With the alternative re-read process, the model can “think” of a better decision of entailment type. We designed a new LSTM unit called re-read LSTM (rLSTM) to implement this “thinking” process. Experiments show that we achieve results better than current state-of-the-art equivalents.

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Event Detection with Burst Information Networks
Tao Ge | Lei Cui | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Retrospective event detection is an important task for discovering previously unidentified events in a text stream. In this paper, we propose two fast centroid-aware event detection models based on a novel text stream representation – Burst Information Networks (BINets) for addressing the challenge. The BINets are time-aware, efficient and can be easily analyzed for identifying key information (centroids). These advantages allow the BINet-based approaches to achieve the state-of-the-art performance on multiple datasets, demonstrating the efficacy of BINets for the task of event detection.

2015

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Multi-label Text Categorization with Joint Learning Predictions-as-Features Method
Li Li | Houfeng Wang | Xu Sun | Baobao Chang | Shi Zhao | Lei Sha
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Recognizing Textual Entailment Using Probabilistic Inference
Lei Sha | Sujian Li | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui | Tingsong Jiang
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Chinese Semantic Role Labeling with Bidirectional Recurrent Neural Networks
Zhen Wang | Tingsong Jiang | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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ERSOM: A Structural Ontology Matching Approach Using Automatically Learned Entity Representation
Chuncheng Xiang | Tingsong Jiang | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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An Effective Neural Network Model for Graph-based Dependency Parsing
Wenzhe Pei | Tao Ge | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Bring you to the past: Automatic Generation of Topically Relevant Event Chronicles
Tao Ge | Wenzhe Pei | Heng Ji | Sujian Li | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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One Tense per Scene: Predicting Tense in Chinese Conversations
Tao Ge | Heng Ji | Baobao Chang | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

2014

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Inducing Word Sense with Automatically Learned Hidden Concepts
Baobao Chang | Wenzhe Pei | Miaohong Chen
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

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SSMT:A Machine Translation Evaluation View To Paragraph-to-Sentence Semantic Similarity
Pingping Huang | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2014)

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A Joint Model for Unsupervised Chinese Word Segmentation
Miaohong Chen | Baobao Chang | Wenzhe Pei
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

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Max-Margin Tensor Neural Network for Chinese Word Segmentation
Wenzhe Pei | Tao Ge | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2013

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Event-Based Time Label Propagation for Automatic Dating of News Articles
Tao Ge | Baobao Chang | Sujian Li | Zhifang Sui
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Feature-based Neural Language Model and Chinese Word Segmentation
Mairgup Mansur | Wenzhe Pei | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the Sixth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

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A Maximum Entropy Approach to Chinese Spelling Check
Dongxu Han | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the Seventh SIGHAN Workshop on Chinese Language Processing

2012

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Update Summarization using a Multi-level Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Model
Jiwei Li | Sujian Li | Xun Wang | Ye Tian | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of COLING 2012

2010

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Chinese word segmentation model using bootstrapping
Baobao Chang | Mansur Mairgup
CIPS-SIGHAN Joint Conference on Chinese Language Processing

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Enhancing Domain Portability of Chinese Segmentation Model Using Chi-Square Statistics and Bootstrapping
Baobao Chang | Dongxu Han
Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2008

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Improving Chinese Semantic Role Classification with Hierarchical Feature Selection Strategy
Weiwei Ding | Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2005

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Extracting Terminologically Relevant Collocations in the Translation of Chinese Monograph
Byeong-Kwu Kang | Bao-Bao Chang | Yi-Rong Chen | Shi-Wen Yu
Second International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Full Papers

2004

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Chinese-English Parallel Corpus Construction and its Application
Baobao Chang
Proceedings of the 18th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation

2003

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Chinese Word Segmentation at Peking University
Huiming Duan | Xiaojing Bai | Baobao Chang | Shiwen Yu
Proceedings of the Second SIGHAN Workshop on Chinese Language Processing

2002

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Extraction of Translation Unit from Chinese-English Parallel Corpora
Baobao Chang | Pernilla Danielsson | Wolfgang Teubert
COLING-02: The First SIGHAN Workshop on Chinese Language Processing