Bela Gipp


pdf bib
Text-Guided Image Clustering
Andreas Stephan | Lukas Miklautz | Kevin Sidak | Jan Philip Wahle | Bela Gipp | Claudia Plant | Benjamin Roth
Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Image clustering divides a collection of images into meaningful groups, typically interpreted post-hoc via human-given annotations. Those are usually in the form of text, begging the question of using text as an abstraction for image clustering. Current image clustering methods, however, neglect the use of generated textual descriptions. We, therefore, propose Text-Guided Image Clustering, i.e., generating text using image captioning and visual question-answering (VQA) models and subsequently clustering the generated text. Further, we introduce a novel approach to inject task- or domain knowledge for clustering by prompting VQA models. Across eight diverse image clustering datasets, our results show that the obtained text representations often outperform image features. Additionally, we propose a counting-based cluster explainability method. Our evaluations show that the derived keyword-based explanations describe clusters better than the respective cluster accuracy suggests. Overall, this research challenges traditional approaches and paves the way for a paradigm shift in image clustering, using generated text.


pdf bib
Paraphrase Types for Generation and Detection
Jan Philip Wahle | Bela Gipp | Terry Ruas
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Current approaches in paraphrase generation and detection heavily rely on a single general similarity score, ignoring the intricate linguistic properties of language. This paper introduces two new tasks to address this shortcoming by considering paraphrase types - specific linguistic perturbations at particular text positions. We name these tasks Paraphrase Type Generation and Paraphrase Type Detection. Our results suggest that while current techniques perform well in a binary classification scenario, i.e., paraphrased or not, the inclusion of fine-grained paraphrase types poses a significant challenge. While most approaches are good at generating and detecting general semantic similar content, they fail to understand the intrinsic linguistic variables they manipulate. Models trained in generating and identifying paraphrase types also show improvements in tasks without them. In addition, scaling these models further improves their ability to understand paraphrase types. We believe paraphrase types can unlock a new paradigm for developing paraphrase models and solving tasks in the future.

pdf bib
We are Who We Cite: Bridges of Influence Between Natural Language Processing and Other Academic Fields
Jan Philip Wahle | Terry Ruas | Mohamed Abdalla | Bela Gipp | Saif Mohammad
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is poised to substantially influence the world. However, significant progress comes hand-in-hand with substantial risks. Addressing them requires broad engagement with various fields of study. Yet, little empirical work examines the state of such engagement (past or current). In this paper, we quantify the degree of influence between 23 fields of study and NLP (on each other). We analyzed ~77k NLP papers, ~3.1m citations from NLP papers to other papers, and ~1.8m citations from other papers to NLP papers. We show that, unlike most fields, the cross-field engagement of NLP, measured by our proposed Citation Field Diversity Index (CFDI), has declined from 0.58 in 1980 to 0.31 in 2022 (an all-time low). In addition, we find that NLP has grown more insular—citing increasingly more NLP papers and having fewer papers that act as bridges between fields. NLP citations are dominated by computer science; Less than 8% of NLP citations are to linguistics, and less than 3% are to math and psychology. These findings underscore NLP’s urgent need to reflect on its engagement with various fields.

pdf bib
Neural Machine Translation for Mathematical Formulae
Felix Petersen | Moritz Schubotz | Andre Greiner-Petter | Bela Gipp
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We tackle the problem of neural machine translation of mathematical formulae between ambiguous presentation languages and unambiguous content languages. Compared to neural machine translation on natural language, mathematical formulae have a much smaller vocabulary and much longer sequences of symbols, while their translation requires extreme precision to satisfy mathematical information needs. In this work, we perform the tasks of translating from LaTeX to Mathematica as well as from LaTeX to semantic LaTeX. While recurrent, recursive, and transformer networks struggle with preserving all contained information, we find that convolutional sequence-to-sequence networks achieve 95.1% and 90.7% exact matches, respectively.


pdf bib
D3: A Massive Dataset of Scholarly Metadata for Analyzing the State of Computer Science Research
Jan Philip Wahle | Terry Ruas | Saif Mohammad | Bela Gipp
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

DBLP is the largest open-access repository of scientific articles on computer science and provides metadata associated with publications, authors, and venues. We retrieved more than 6 million publications from DBLP and extracted pertinent metadata (e.g., abstracts, author affiliations, citations) from the publication texts to create the DBLP Discovery Dataset (D3). D3 can be used to identify trends in research activity, productivity, focus, bias, accessibility, and impact of computer science research. We present an initial analysis focused on the volume of computer science research (e.g., number of papers, authors, research activity), trends in topics of interest, and citation patterns. Our findings show that computer science is a growing research field (15% annually), with an active and collaborative researcher community. While papers in recent years present more bibliographical entries in comparison to previous decades, the average number of citations has been declining. Investigating papers’ abstracts reveals that recent topic trends are clearly reflected in D3. Finally, we list further applications of D3 and pose supplemental research questions. The D3 dataset, our findings, and source code are publicly available for research purposes.

pdf bib
Towards Evaluation of Cross-document Coreference Resolution Models Using Datasets with Diverse Annotation Schemes
Anastasia Zhukova | Felix Hamborg | Bela Gipp
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Established cross-document coreference resolution (CDCR) datasets contain event-centric coreference chains of events and entities with identity relations. These datasets establish strict definitions of the coreference relations across related tests but typically ignore anaphora with more vague context-dependent loose coreference relations. In this paper, we qualitatively and quantitatively compare the annotation schemes of ECB+, a CDCR dataset with identity coreference relations, and NewsWCL50, a CDCR dataset with a mix of loose context-dependent and strict coreference relations. We propose a phrasing diversity metric (PD) that encounters for the diversity of full phrases unlike the previously proposed metrics and allows to evaluate lexical diversity of the CDCR datasets in a higher precision. The analysis shows that coreference chains of NewsWCL50 are more lexically diverse than those of ECB+ but annotating of NewsWCL50 leads to the lower inter-coder reliability. We discuss the different tasks that both CDCR datasets create for the CDCR models, i.e., lexical disambiguation and lexical diversity. Finally, to ensure generalizability of the CDCR models, we propose a direction for CDCR evaluation that combines CDCR datasets with multiple annotation schemes that focus of various properties of the coreference chains.

pdf bib
Analyzing Multi-Task Learning for Abstractive Text Summarization
Frederic Thomas Kirstein | Jan Philip Wahle | Terry Ruas | Bela Gipp
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Natural Language Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics (GEM)

Despite the recent success of multi-task learning and pre-finetuning for natural language understanding, few works have studied the effects of task families on abstractive text summarization. Task families are a form of task grouping during the pre-finetuning stage to learn common skills, such as reading comprehension. To close this gap, we analyze the influence of multi-task learning strategies using task families for the English abstractive text summarization task. We group tasks into one of three strategies, i.e., sequential, simultaneous, and continual multi-task learning, and evaluate trained models through two downstream tasks. We find that certain combinations of task families (e.g., advanced reading comprehension and natural language inference) positively impact downstream performance. Further, we find that choice and combinations of task families influence downstream performance more than the training scheme, supporting the use of task families for abstractive text

pdf bib
How Large Language Models are Transforming Machine-Paraphrase Plagiarism
Jan Philip Wahle | Terry Ruas | Frederic Kirstein | Bela Gipp
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The recent success of large language models for text generation poses a severe threat to academic integrity, as plagiarists can generate realistic paraphrases indistinguishable from original work. However, the role of large autoregressive models in generating machine-paraphrased plagiarism and their detection is still incipient in the literature. This work explores T5 and GPT3 for machine-paraphrase generation on scientific articles from arXiv, student theses, and Wikipedia. We evaluate the detection performance of six automated solutions and one commercial plagiarism detection software and perform a human study with 105 participants regarding their detection performance and the quality of generated examples. Our results suggest that large language models can rewrite text humans have difficulty identifying as machine-paraphrased (53% mean acc.). Human experts rate the quality of paraphrases generated by GPT-3 as high as original texts (clarity 4.0/5, fluency 4.2/5, coherence 3.8/5). The best-performing detection model (GPT-3) achieves 66% F1-score in detecting paraphrases. We make our code, data, and findings publicly available to facilitate the development of detection solutions.

pdf bib
Neighborhood Contrastive Learning for Scientific Document Representations with Citation Embeddings
Malte Ostendorff | Nils Rethmeier | Isabelle Augenstein | Bela Gipp | Georg Rehm
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Learning scientific document representations can be substantially improved through contrastive learning objectives, where the challenge lies in creating positive and negative training samples that encode the desired similarity semantics. Prior work relies on discrete citation relations to generate contrast samples. However, discrete citations enforce a hard cut-off to similarity. This is counter-intuitive to similarity-based learning and ignores that scientific papers can be very similar despite lacking a direct citation - a core problem of finding related research. Instead, we use controlled nearest neighbor sampling over citation graph embeddings for contrastive learning. This control allows us to learn continuous similarity, to sample hard-to-learn negatives and positives, and also to avoid collisions between negative and positive samples by controlling the sampling margin between them. The resulting method SciNCL outperforms the state-of-the-art on the SciDocs benchmark. Furthermore, we demonstrate that it can train (or tune) language models sample-efficiently and that it can be combined with recent training-efficient methods. Perhaps surprisingly, even training a general-domain language model this way outperforms baselines pretrained in-domain.


pdf bib
Neural Media Bias Detection Using Distant Supervision With BABE - Bias Annotations By Experts
Timo Spinde | Manuel Plank | Jan-David Krieger | Terry Ruas | Bela Gipp | Akiko Aizawa
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Media coverage has a substantial effect on the public perception of events. Nevertheless, media outlets are often biased. One way to bias news articles is by altering the word choice. The automatic identification of bias by word choice is challenging, primarily due to the lack of a gold standard data set and high context dependencies. This paper presents BABE, a robust and diverse data set created by trained experts, for media bias research. We also analyze why expert labeling is essential within this domain. Our data set offers better annotation quality and higher inter-annotator agreement than existing work. It consists of 3,700 sentences balanced among topics and outlets, containing media bias labels on the word and sentence level. Based on our data, we also introduce a way to detect bias-inducing sentences in news articles automatically. Our best performing BERT-based model is pre-trained on a larger corpus consisting of distant labels. Fine-tuning and evaluating the model on our proposed supervised data set, we achieve a macro F1-score of 0.804, outperforming existing methods.


pdf bib
Aspect-based Document Similarity for Research Papers
Malte Ostendorff | Terry Ruas | Till Blume | Bela Gipp | Georg Rehm
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Traditional document similarity measures provide a coarse-grained distinction between similar and dissimilar documents. Typically, they do not consider in what aspects two documents are similar. This limits the granularity of applications like recommender systems that rely on document similarity. In this paper, we extend similarity with aspect information by performing a pairwise document classification task. We evaluate our aspect-based document similarity approach for research papers. Paper citations indicate the aspect-based similarity, i.e., the title of a section in which a citation occurs acts as a label for the pair of citing and cited paper. We apply a series of Transformer models such as RoBERTa, ELECTRA, XLNet, and BERT variations and compare them to an LSTM baseline. We perform our experiments on two newly constructed datasets of 172,073 research paper pairs from the ACL Anthology and CORD-19 corpus. According to our results, SciBERT is the best performing system with F1-scores of up to 0.83. A qualitative analysis validates our quantitative results and indicates that aspect-based document similarity indeed leads to more fine-grained recommendations.