Bela Gipp


2022

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D3: A Massive Dataset of Scholarly Metadata for Analyzing the State of Computer Science Research
Jan Philip Wahle | Terry Ruas | Saif Mohammad | Bela Gipp
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

DBLP is the largest open-access repository of scientific articles on computer science and provides metadata associated with publications, authors, and venues. We retrieved more than 6 million publications from DBLP and extracted pertinent metadata (e.g., abstracts, author affiliations, citations) from the publication texts to create the DBLP Discovery Dataset (D3). D3 can be used to identify trends in research activity, productivity, focus, bias, accessibility, and impact of computer science research. We present an initial analysis focused on the volume of computer science research (e.g., number of papers, authors, research activity), trends in topics of interest, and citation patterns. Our findings show that computer science is a growing research field (15% annually), with an active and collaborative researcher community. While papers in recent years present more bibliographical entries in comparison to previous decades, the average number of citations has been declining. Investigating papers’ abstracts reveals that recent topic trends are clearly reflected in D3. Finally, we list further applications of D3 and pose supplemental research questions. The D3 dataset, our findings, and source code are publicly available for research purposes.

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Towards Evaluation of Cross-document Coreference Resolution Models Using Datasets with Diverse Annotation Schemes
Anastasia Zhukova | Felix Hamborg | Bela Gipp
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Established cross-document coreference resolution (CDCR) datasets contain event-centric coreference chains of events and entities with identity relations. These datasets establish strict definitions of the coreference relations across related tests but typically ignore anaphora with more vague context-dependent loose coreference relations. In this paper, we qualitatively and quantitatively compare the annotation schemes of ECB+, a CDCR dataset with identity coreference relations, and NewsWCL50, a CDCR dataset with a mix of loose context-dependent and strict coreference relations. We propose a phrasing diversity metric (PD) that encounters for the diversity of full phrases unlike the previously proposed metrics and allows to evaluate lexical diversity of the CDCR datasets in a higher precision. The analysis shows that coreference chains of NewsWCL50 are more lexically diverse than those of ECB+ but annotating of NewsWCL50 leads to the lower inter-coder reliability. We discuss the different tasks that both CDCR datasets create for the CDCR models, i.e., lexical disambiguation and lexical diversity. Finally, to ensure generalizability of the CDCR models, we propose a direction for CDCR evaluation that combines CDCR datasets with multiple annotation schemes that focus of various properties of the coreference chains.

2021

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Neural Media Bias Detection Using Distant Supervision With BABE - Bias Annotations By Experts
Timo Spinde | Manuel Plank | Jan-David Krieger | Terry Ruas | Bela Gipp | Akiko Aizawa
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Media coverage has a substantial effect on the public perception of events. Nevertheless, media outlets are often biased. One way to bias news articles is by altering the word choice. The automatic identification of bias by word choice is challenging, primarily due to the lack of a gold standard data set and high context dependencies. This paper presents BABE, a robust and diverse data set created by trained experts, for media bias research. We also analyze why expert labeling is essential within this domain. Our data set offers better annotation quality and higher inter-annotator agreement than existing work. It consists of 3,700 sentences balanced among topics and outlets, containing media bias labels on the word and sentence level. Based on our data, we also introduce a way to detect bias-inducing sentences in news articles automatically. Our best performing BERT-based model is pre-trained on a larger corpus consisting of distant labels. Fine-tuning and evaluating the model on our proposed supervised data set, we achieve a macro F1-score of 0.804, outperforming existing methods.

2020

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Aspect-based Document Similarity for Research Papers
Malte Ostendorff | Terry Ruas | Till Blume | Bela Gipp | Georg Rehm
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Traditional document similarity measures provide a coarse-grained distinction between similar and dissimilar documents. Typically, they do not consider in what aspects two documents are similar. This limits the granularity of applications like recommender systems that rely on document similarity. In this paper, we extend similarity with aspect information by performing a pairwise document classification task. We evaluate our aspect-based document similarity approach for research papers. Paper citations indicate the aspect-based similarity, i.e., the title of a section in which a citation occurs acts as a label for the pair of citing and cited paper. We apply a series of Transformer models such as RoBERTa, ELECTRA, XLNet, and BERT variations and compare them to an LSTM baseline. We perform our experiments on two newly constructed datasets of 172,073 research paper pairs from the ACL Anthology and CORD-19 corpus. According to our results, SciBERT is the best performing system with F1-scores of up to 0.83. A qualitative analysis validates our quantitative results and indicates that aspect-based document similarity indeed leads to more fine-grained recommendations.