Belen Alastruey


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The Gender-GAP Pipeline: A Gender-Aware Polyglot Pipeline for Gender Characterisation in 55 Languages
Benjamin Muller | Belen Alastruey | Prangthip Hansanti | Elahe Kalbassi | Christophe Ropers | Eric Smith | Adina Williams | Luke Zettlemoyer | Pierre Andrews | Marta R. Costa-jussà
Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Machine Translation

Gender biases in language generation systems are challenging to mitigate. One possible source for these biases is gender representation disparities in the training and evaluation data. Despite recent progress in documenting this problem and many attempts at mitigating it, we still lack shared methodology and tooling to report gender representation in large datasets. Such quantitative reporting will enable further mitigation, e.g., via data augmentation. This paper describes the Gender-Gap Pipeline (for Gender-Aware Polyglot Pipeline), an automatic pipeline to characterize gender representation in large-scale datasets for 55 languages. The pipeline uses a multilingual lexicon of gendered person-nouns to quantify the gender representation in text. We showcase it to report gender representation in WMT training data and development data for the News task, confirming that current data is skewed towards masculine representation. Having unbalanced datasets may indirectly optimize our systems towards outperforming one gender over the others. We suggest introducing our gender quantification pipeline in current datasets and, ideally, modifying them toward a balanced representation.

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Towards Real-World Streaming Speech Translation for Code-Switched Speech
Belen Alastruey | Matthias Sperber | Christian Gollan | Dominic Telaar | Tim Ng | Aashish Agarwal
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Linguistic Code-Switching

Code-switching (CS), i.e. mixing different languages in a single sentence, is a common phenomenon in communication and can be challenging in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) settings. Previous studies on CS speech have shown promising results for end-to-end speech translation (ST), but have been limited to offline scenarios and to translation to one of the languages present in the source monolingual transcription). In this paper, we focus on two essential yet unexplored areas for real-world CS speech translation: streaming settings, and translation to a third language (i.e., a language not included in the source). To this end, we extend the Fisher and Miami test and validation datasets to include new targets in Spanish and German. Using this data, we train a model for both offline and streaming ST and we establish baseline results for the two settings mentioned earlier.


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On the Locality of Attention in Direct Speech Translation
Belen Alastruey | Javier Ferrando | Gerard I. Gállego | Marta R. Costa-jussà
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Transformers have achieved state-of-the-art results across multiple NLP tasks. However, the self-attention mechanism complexity scales quadratically with the sequence length, creating an obstacle for tasks involving long sequences, like in the speech domain. In this paper, we discuss the usefulness of self-attention for Direct Speech Translation. First, we analyze the layer-wise token contributions in the self-attention of the encoder, unveiling local diagonal patterns. To prove that some attention weights are avoidable, we propose to substitute the standard self-attention with a local efficient one, setting the amount of context used based on the results of the analysis. With this approach, our model matches the baseline performance, and improves the efficiency by skipping the computation of those weights that standard attention discards.

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Towards Opening the Black Box of Neural Machine Translation: Source and Target Interpretations of the Transformer
Javier Ferrando | Gerard I. Gállego | Belen Alastruey | Carlos Escolano | Marta R. Costa-jussà
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In Neural Machine Translation (NMT), each token prediction is conditioned on the source sentence and the target prefix (what has been previously translated at a decoding step). However, previous work on interpretability in NMT has mainly focused solely on source sentence tokens’ attributions. Therefore, we lack a full understanding of the influences of every input token (source sentence and target prefix) in the model predictions. In this work, we propose an interpretability method that tracks input tokens’ attributions for both contexts. Our method, which can be extended to any encoder-decoder Transformer-based model, allows us to better comprehend the inner workings of current NMT models. We apply the proposed method to both bilingual and multilingual Transformers and present insights into their behaviour.

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Multiformer: A Head-Configurable Transformer-Based Model for Direct Speech Translation
Gerard Sant | Gerard I. Gállego | Belen Alastruey | Marta Ruiz Costa-jussà
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Student Research Workshop

Transformer-based models have been achieving state-of-the-art results in several fields of Natural Language Processing. However, its direct application to speech tasks is not trivial. The nature of this sequences carries problems such as long sequence lengths and redundancy between adjacent tokens. Therefore, we believe that regular self-attention mechanism might not be well suited for it. Different approaches have been proposed to overcome these problems, such as the use of efficient attention mechanisms. However, the use of these methods usually comes with a cost, which is a performance reduction caused by information loss. In this study, we present the Multiformer, a Transformer-based model which allows the use of different attention mechanisms on each head. By doing this, the model is able to bias the self-attention towards the extraction of more diverse token interactions, and the information loss is reduced. Finally, we perform an analysis of the head contributions, and we observe that those architectures where all heads relevance is uniformly distributed obtain better results. Our results show that mixing attention patterns along the different heads and layers outperforms our baseline by up to 0.7 BLEU.