This work explores techniques to predict Part-of-Speech (PoS) tags from neural signals measured at millisecond resolution with electroencephalography (EEG) during text reading. We first show that information about word length, frequency and word class is encoded by the brain at different post-stimulus latencies. We then demonstrate that pre-training on averaged EEG data and data augmentation techniques boost PoS decoding accuracy for single EEG trials. Finally, applying optimised temporally-resolved decoding techniques we show that Transformers substantially outperform linear-SVMs on PoS tagging of unigram and bigram data.
Evaluations in machine learning rarely use the latest metrics, datasets, or human evaluation in favor of remaining compatible with prior work. The compatibility, often facilitated through leaderboards, thus leads to outdated but standardized evaluation practices. We pose that the standardization is taking place in the wrong spot. Evaluation infrastructure should enable researchers to use the latest methods and what should be standardized instead is how to incorporate these new evaluation advances.We introduce GEMv2, the new version of the Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics Benchmark which uses a modular infrastructure for dataset, model, and metric developers to benefit from each other’s work. GEMv2 supports 40 documented datasets in 51 languages, ongoing online evaluation for all datasets, and our interactive tools make it easier to add new datasets to the living benchmark.
This paper presents results from the Third Shared Task on Multilingual Surface Realisation (SR’20) which was organised as part of the COLING’20 Workshop on Multilingual Surface Realisation. As in SR’18 and SR’19, the shared task comprised two tracks: (1) a Shallow Track where the inputs were full UD structures with word order information removed and tokens lemmatised; and (2) a Deep Track where additionally, functional words and morphological information were removed. Moreover, each track had two subtracks: (a) restricted-resource, where only the data provided or approved as part of a track could be used for training models, and (b) open-resource, where any data could be used. The Shallow Track was offered in 11 languages, whereas the Deep Track in 3 ones. Systems were evaluated using both automatic metrics and direct assessment by human evaluators in terms of Readability and Meaning Similarity to reference outputs. We present the evaluation results, along with descriptions of the SR’19 tracks, data and evaluation methods, as well as brief summaries of the participating systems. For full descriptions of the participating systems, please see the separate system reports elsewhere in this volume.
It is well known that the standard likelihood training and approximate decoding objectives in neural text generation models lead to less human-like responses for open-ended tasks such as language modeling and story generation. In this paper we have analyzed limitations of these models for abstractive document summarization and found that these models are highly prone to hallucinate content that is unfaithful to the input document. We conducted a large scale human evaluation of several neural abstractive summarization systems to better understand the types of hallucinations they produce. Our human annotators found substantial amounts of hallucinated content in all model generated summaries. However, our analysis does show that pretrained models are better summarizers not only in terms of raw metrics, i.e., ROUGE, but also in generating faithful and factual summaries as evaluated by humans. Furthermore, we show that textual entailment measures better correlate with faithfulness than standard metrics, potentially leading the way to automatic evaluation metrics as well as training and decoding criteria.
Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a fundamental task in Natural Language Processing, concerned with identifying spans of text expressing references to entities. NER research is often focused on flat entities only (flat NER), ignoring the fact that entity references can be nested, as in [Bank of [China]] (Finkel and Manning, 2009). In this paper, we use ideas from graph-based dependency parsing to provide our model a global view on the input via a biaffine model (Dozat and Manning, 2017). The biaffine model scores pairs of start and end tokens in a sentence which we use to explore all spans, so that the model is able to predict named entities accurately. We show that the model works well for both nested and flat NER through evaluation on 8 corpora and achieving SoTA performance on all of them, with accuracy gains of up to 2.2 percentage points.
Mention detection is an important preprocessing step for annotation and interpretation in applications such as NER and coreference resolution, but few stand-alone neural models have been proposed able to handle the full range of mentions. In this work, we propose and compare three neural network-based approaches to mention detection. The first approach is based on the mention detection part of a state of the art coreference resolution system; the second uses ELMO embeddings together with a bidirectional LSTM and a biaffine classifier; the third approach uses the recently introduced BERT model. Our best model (using a biaffine classifier) achieves gains of up to 1.8 percentage points on mention recall when compared with a strong baseline in a HIGH RECALL coreference annotation setting. The same model achieves improvements of up to 5.3 and 6.2 p.p. when compared with the best-reported mention detection F1 on the CONLL and CRAC coreference data sets respectively in a HIGH F1 annotation setting. We then evaluate our models for coreference resolution by using mentions predicted by our best model in start-of-the-art coreference systems. The enhanced model achieved absolute improvements of up to 1.7 and 0.7 p.p. when compared with our strong baseline systems (pipeline system and end-to-end system) respectively. For nested NER, the evaluation of our model on the GENIA corpora shows that our model matches or outperforms state-of-the-art models despite not being specifically designed for this task.
We introduce TWT; a new treebank for Turkish which consists of web and Wikipedia sentences that are annotated for segmentation, morphology, part-of-speech and dependency relations. To date, it is the largest publicly available human-annotated morpho-syntactic Turkish treebank in terms of the annotated word count. It is also the first large Turkish dependency treebank that has a dedicated Wikipedia section. We present the tagsets and the methodology that are used in annotating the treebank and also the results of the baseline experiments on Turkish dependency parsing with this treebank.
We report results from the SR’19 Shared Task, the second edition of a multilingual surface realisation task organised as part of the EMNLP’19 Workshop on Multilingual Surface Realisation. As in SR’18, the shared task comprised two tracks with different levels of complexity: (a) a shallow track where the inputs were full UD structures with word order information removed and tokens lemmatised; and (b) a deep track where additionally, functional words and morphological information were removed. The shallow track was offered in eleven, and the deep track in three languages. Systems were evaluated (a) automatically, using a range of intrinsic metrics, and (b) by human judges in terms of readability and meaning similarity. This report presents the evaluation results, along with descriptions of the SR’19 tracks, data and evaluation methods. For full descriptions of the participating systems, please see the separate system reports elsewhere in this volume.
We present the Uppsala system for the CoNLL 2018 Shared Task on universal dependency parsing. Our system is a pipeline consisting of three components: the first performs joint word and sentence segmentation; the second predicts part-of-speech tags and morphological features; the third predicts dependency trees from words and tags. Instead of training a single parsing model for each treebank, we trained models with multiple treebanks for one language or closely related languages, greatly reducing the number of models. On the official test run, we ranked 7th of 27 teams for the LAS and MLAS metrics. Our system obtained the best scores overall for word segmentation, universal POS tagging, and morphological features.
We report results from the SR’18 Shared Task, a new multilingual surface realisation task organised as part of the ACL’18 Workshop on Multilingual Surface Realisation. As in its English-only predecessor task SR’11, the shared task comprised two tracks with different levels of complexity: (a) a shallow track where the inputs were full UD structures with word order information removed and tokens lemmatised; and (b) a deep track where additionally, functional words and morphological information were removed. The shallow track was offered in ten, and the deep track in three languages. Systems were evaluated (a) automatically, using a range of intrinsic metrics, and (b) by human judges in terms of readability and meaning similarity. This report presents the evaluation results, along with descriptions of the SR’18 tracks, data and evaluation methods. For full descriptions of the participating systems, please see the separate system reports elsewhere in this volume.
In this paper, we present the datasets used in the Shallow and Deep Tracks of the First Multilingual Surface Realisation Shared Task (SR’18). For the Shallow Track, data in ten languages has been released: Arabic, Czech, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish. For the Deep Track, data in three languages is made available: English, French and Spanish. We describe in detail how the datasets were derived from the Universal Dependencies V2.0, and report on an evaluation of the Deep Track input quality. In addition, we examine the motivation for, and likely usefulness of, deriving NLG inputs from annotations in resources originally developed for Natural Language Understanding (NLU), and assess whether the resulting inputs supply enough information of the right kind for the final stage in the NLG process.
The rise of neural networks, and particularly recurrent neural networks, has produced significant advances in part-of-speech tagging accuracy. One characteristic common among these models is the presence of rich initial word encodings. These encodings typically are composed of a recurrent character-based representation with dynamically and pre-trained word embeddings. However, these encodings do not consider a context wider than a single word and it is only through subsequent recurrent layers that word or sub-word information interacts. In this paper, we investigate models that use recurrent neural networks with sentence-level context for initial character and word-based representations. In particular we show that optimal results are obtained by integrating these context sensitive representations through synchronized training with a meta-model that learns to combine their states.
We propose a shared task on multilingual Surface Realization, i.e., on mapping unordered and uninflected universal dependency trees to correctly ordered and inflected sentences in a number of languages. A second deeper input will be available in which, in addition, functional words, fine-grained PoS and morphological information will be removed from the input trees. The first shared task on Surface Realization was carried out in 2011 with a similar setup, with a focus on English. We think that it is time for relaunching such a shared task effort in view of the arrival of Universal Dependencies annotated treebanks for a large number of languages on the one hand, and the increasing dominance of Deep Learning, which proved to be a game changer for NLP, on the other hand.
In this paper, we present an approach to improve the accuracy of a strong transition-based dependency parser by exploiting dependency language models that are extracted from a large parsed corpus. We integrated a small number of features based on the dependency language models into the parser. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, we evaluate our parser on standard English and Chinese data where the base parser could achieve competitive accuracy scores. Our enhanced parser achieved state-of-the-art accuracy on Chinese data and competitive results on English data. We gained a large absolute improvement of one point (UAS) on Chinese and 0.5 points for English.
Joint morphological and syntactic analysis has been proposed as a way of improving parsing accuracy for richly inflected languages. Starting from a transition-based model for joint part-of-speech tagging and dependency parsing, we explore different ways of integrating morphological features into the model. We also investigate the use of rule-based morphological analyzers to provide hard or soft lexical constraints and the use of word clusters to tackle the sparsity of lexical features. Evaluation on five morphologically rich languages (Czech, Finnish, German, Hungarian, and Russian) shows consistent improvements in both morphological and syntactic accuracy for joint prediction over a pipeline model, with further improvements thanks to lexical constraints and word clusters. The final results improve the state of the art in dependency parsing for all languages.
Graph and tree transducers have been applied in many NLP areas―among them, machine translation, summarization, parsing, and text generation. In particular, the successful use of tree rewriting transducers for the introduction of syntactic structures in statistical machine translation contributed to their popularity. However, the potential of such transducers is limited because they do not handle graphs and because they consume the source structure in that they rewrite it instead of leaving it intact for intermediate consultations. In this paper, we describe an open source tree and graph transducer interpreter, which combines the advantages of graph transducers and two-tape Finite State Transducers and surpasses the limitations of state-of-the-art tree rewriting transducers. Along with the transducer, we present a graph grammar development environment that supports the compilation and maintenance of graph transducer grammatical and lexical resources. Such an environment is indispensable for any effort to create consistent large coverage NLP-resources by human experts.