Bin Liang


2023

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An Empirical Study of Sentiment-Enhanced Pre-Training for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis
Yice Zhang | Yifan Yang | Bin Liang | Shiwei Chen | Bing Qin | Ruifeng Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) aims to recognize fine-grained opinions and sentiments of users, which is an important problem in sentiment analysis. Recent work has shown that Sentiment-enhanced Pre-Training (SPT) can substantially improve the performance of various ABSA tasks. However, there is currently a lack of comprehensive evaluation and fair comparison of existing SPT approaches. Therefore, this paper performs an empirical study to investigate the effectiveness of different SPT approaches. First, we develop an effective knowledge-mining method and leverage it to build a large-scale knowledge-annotated SPT corpus. Second, we systematically analyze the impact of integrating sentiment knowledge and other linguistic knowledge in pre-training. For each type of sentiment knowledge, we also examine and compare multiple integration methods. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments on a wide range of ABSA tasks to see how much SPT can facilitate the understanding of aspect-level sentiments.

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MMSD2.0: Towards a Reliable Multi-modal Sarcasm Detection System
Libo Qin | Shijue Huang | Qiguang Chen | Chenran Cai | Yudi Zhang | Bin Liang | Wanxiang Che | Ruifeng Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Multi-modal sarcasm detection has attracted much recent attention. Nevertheless, the existing benchmark (MMSD) has some shortcomings that hinder the development of reliable multi-modal sarcasm detection system: (1) There are some spurious cues in MMSD, leading to the model bias learning; (2) The negative samples in MMSD are not always reasonable. To solve the aforementioned issues, we introduce MMSD2.0, a correction dataset that fixes the shortcomings of MMSD, by removing the spurious cues and re-annotating the unreasonable samples. Meanwhile, we present a novel framework called multi-view CLIP that is capable of leveraging multi-grained cues from multiple perspectives (i.e., text, image, and text-image interaction view) for multi-modal sarcasm detection. Extensive experiments show that MMSD2.0 is a valuable benchmark for building reliable multi-modal sarcasm detection systems and multi-view CLIP can significantly outperform the previous best baselines.

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Probing Graph Decomposition for Argument Pair Extraction
Yang Sun | Bin Liang | Jianzhu Bao | Yice Zhang | Geng Tu | Min Yang | Ruifeng Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Argument pair extraction (APE) aims to extract interactive argument pairs from two passages within a discussion. The key challenge of APE is to effectively capture the complex context-aware interactive relations of arguments between the two passages. In this paper, we elicit relational semantic knowledge from large-scale pre-trained language models (PLMs) via a probing technique. The induced sentence-level relational probing graph can help capture rich explicit interactive relations between argument pairs effectively. Since the relevance score of a sentence pair within a passage is generally larger than that of the sentence pair from different passages, each sentence would prefer to propagate information within the same passage and under-explore the interactive relations between two passages. To tackle this issue, we propose a graph decomposition method to decompose the probing graph into four sub-graphs from intra- and inter-passage perspectives, where the intra-passage graphs can help detect argument spans within each passage and the inter-passage graphs can help identify the argument pairs between the review and rebuttal passages. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets show that our method achieves substantial improvements over strong baselines for APE.

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Context or Knowledge is Not Always Necessary: A Contrastive Learning Framework for Emotion Recognition in Conversations
Geng Tu | Bin Liang | Ruibin Mao | Min Yang | Ruifeng Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Emotion recognition in conversations (ERC) aims to detect the emotion of utterances in conversations. Existing efforts generally focus on modeling context- and knowledge-sensitive dependencies. However, it is observed that the emotions of many utterances can be correctly detected without context or external knowledge. In such cases, blindly leveraging the context and external knowledge may impede model training. Based on this, we propose a novel framework based on contrastive learning (CL), called CKCL (including the contrastive learning scenarios among Context and Knowledge), to distinguish the above utterances for better vector representations. The CKCL framework defines context- and knowledge-independent utterances, as the positive sample, whose predicted results are unchanged even masking context and knowledge representations, otherwise, the negative sample. This can obtain a latent feature reflecting the impact degree of context and external knowledge on predicted results, thus effectively denoising irrelevant context and knowledge during training. Experimental results on four datasets show the performance of CKCL-based models is significantly boosted and outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

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Reducing Spurious Correlations in Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis with Explanation from Large Language Models
Qianlong Wang | Keyang Ding | Bin Liang | Min Yang | Ruifeng Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Recently, aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) models have yielded promising results. However, they are susceptible to learning spurious correlations between certain words of the input text and output labels while modeling the sentiment feature of the aspect. This spurious correlation will potentially undermine the performance of ABSA models. One direct solution for this problem is to make the model see and learn an explanation of sentiment expression rather than certain words. Motivated by this, we exploit explanations for the sentiment polarity of each aspect from large language models (LLMs) to reduce spurious correlations in ABSA. First, we formulate a prompt template that wraps the sentence, an aspect, and the sentiment label. This template is utilized to prompt LLMs to generate an appropriate explanation that states the sentiment cause. Then, we propose two straightforward yet effective methods to leverage the explanation for preventing the learning of spurious correlations. We conducted extensive comparative experiments on five datasets by integrating them with some representative ABSA models. Results show that our methods can achieve performance gains and enhance the performance and generalization ability of ABSA models.

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In-context Learning for Few-shot Multimodal Named Entity Recognition
Chenran Cai | Qianlong Wang | Bin Liang | Bing Qin | Min Yang | Kam-Fai Wong | Ruifeng Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Thanks in part to the availability of copious annotated resources for some entity categories, existing studies have achieved superior performance in multimodal named entity recognition (MNER). However, in the real-world scenario, it is infeasible to enumerate all entity categories in advance. Therefore, in this paper, we formulate a new few-shot multimodal named entity recognition (FewMNER) task, which aims to effectively locate and identify named entities for a text-image pair only using a small number of labeled examples. Further, we explore the merit of in-context learning (ICL) and propose a novel framework to deal with FewMNER, where three points are taken into account: i.e., converting visual modality, selecting useful examples, and designing an effective task demonstration. Specifically, we first employ an image caption model to convert images into textual descriptions, enabling large language models to absorb information from visual modality. Then, we use the ranking of the sum of similarity rankings from both text and image modalities to select k-nearest examples, which form a demonstration context. Finally, we utilize the MNER definition and the meaning of each entity category as effective instruction. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our framework outperforms baselines under several few-shot settings.

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Cue-CoT: Chain-of-thought Prompting for Responding to In-depth Dialogue Questions with LLMs
Hongru Wang | Rui Wang | Fei Mi | Yang Deng | Zezhong Wang | Bin Liang | Ruifeng Xu | Kam-Fai Wong
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large Language Models (LLMs), such as ChatGPT, greatly empower dialogue systems with strong language understanding and generation capabilities. However, most of the previous works prompt the LLMs to directly generate a response based on the dialogue context, overlooking the underlying linguistic cues about the user status exhibited in the context. Such in-depth dialogue scenarios are challenging for existing LLMs to figure out the user’s hidden needs and respond satisfactorily through a single-step inference. To this end, we propose a novel linguistic cue-based chain-of-thoughts (Cue-CoT), which enhances the LLMs inference with an intermediate reasoning step to find cues exhibited in the dialogue, aiming to provide a more personalized and engaging response. To evaluate the approach, we build a benchmark with in-depth dialogue questions, consisting of 6 datasets in both Chinese and English, targeting 3 major linguistic cues during the conversation: personality, emotion, and psychology. We conducted experiments on the proposed benchmark with 5 LLMs under both zero-shot and one-shot settings. Empirical results demonstrate our proposed Cue-CoT method outperforms standard prompting methods in terms of both helpfulness and acceptability on all datasets.

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An Empirical Study on Multiple Knowledge from ChatGPT for Emotion Recognition in Conversations
Geng Tu | Bin Liang | Bing Qin | Kam-Fai Wong | Ruifeng Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Multiple knowledge (e.g., co-reference, topics, emotional causes, etc) has been demonstrated effective for emotion detection. However, exploring this knowledge in Emotion Recognition in Conversations (ERC) is currently a blank slate due to the lack of annotated data and the high cost involved in obtaining such knowledge. Fortunately, the emergence of Large Language Models (LLMs) holds promise in filling this void. Therefore, we propose a Multiple Knowledge Fusion Model (MKFM) to effectively integrate such knowledge generated by LLMs for ERC and empirically study its impact on the model. Experimental results on three public datasets have demonstrated the effectiveness of multiple knowledge for ERC. Furthermore, we conduct a detailed analysis of the contribution and complementarity of this knowledge.

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Evaluation Metrics in the Era of GPT-4: Reliably Evaluating Large Language Models on Sequence to Sequence Tasks
Andrea Sottana | Bin Liang | Kai Zou | Zheng Yuan
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large Language Models (LLMs) evaluation is a patchy and inconsistent landscape, and it is becoming clear that the quality of automatic evaluation metrics is not keeping up with the pace of development of generative models. We aim to improve the understanding of current models’ performance by providing a preliminary and hybrid evaluation on a range of open and closed-source generative LLMs on three NLP benchmarks: text summarisation, text simplification and grammatical error correction (GEC), using both automatic and human evaluation. We also explore the potential of the recently released GPT-4 to act as an evaluator. We find that ChatGPT consistently outperforms many other popular models according to human reviewers on the majority of metrics, while scoring much more poorly when using classic automatic evaluation metrics. We also find that human reviewers rate the gold reference as much worse than the best models’ outputs, indicating the poor quality of many popular benchmarks. Finally, we find that GPT-4 is capable of ranking models’ outputs in a way which aligns reasonably closely to human judgement despite task-specific variations, with a lower alignment in the GEC task.

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Target-to-Source Augmentation for Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction
Yice Zhang | Yifan Yang | Meng Li | Bin Liang | Shiwei Chen | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction (ASTE) is an important task in sentiment analysis, aiming to extract aspect-level opinions and sentiments from user-generated reviews. The fine-grained nature of ASTE incurs a high annotation cost, while the scarcity of annotated data limits the performance of existing methods. This paper exploits data augmentation to address this issue. Traditional augmentation methods typically modify the input sentences of existing samples via heuristic rules or language models, which have shown success in text classification tasks. However, applying these methods to fine-grained tasks like ASTE poses challenges in generating diverse augmented samples while maintaining alignment between modified sentences and origin labels. Therefore, this paper proposes a target-to-source augmentation approach for ASTE. Our approach focuses on learning a generator that can directly generate new sentences based on labels and syntactic templates. With this generator, we can generate a substantial number of diverse augmented samples by mixing labels and syntactic templates from different samples. Besides, to ensure the quality of the generated sentence, we introduce fluency and alignment discriminators to provide feedback on the generated sentence and then use this feedback to optimize the generator via a reinforcement learning framework. Experiments demonstrate that our approach significantly enhances the performance of existing ASTE models.

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Set Learning for Generative Information Extraction
Jiangnan Li | Yice Zhang | Bin Liang | Kam-Fai Wong | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent efforts have endeavored to employ the sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) model in Information Extraction (IE) due to its potential to tackle multiple IE tasks in a unified manner. Under this formalization, multiple structured objects are concatenated as the target sequence in a predefined order. However, structured objects, by their nature, constitute an unordered set. Consequently, this formalization introduces a potential order bias, which can impair model learning. Targeting this issue, this paper proposes a set learning approach that considers multiple permutations of structured objects to optimize set probability approximately. Notably, our approach does not require any modifications to model structures, making it easily integrated into existing generative IE frameworks. Experiments show that our method consistently improves existing frameworks on vast tasks and datasets.

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A Training-Free Debiasing Framework with Counterfactual Reasoning for Conversational Emotion Detection
Geng Tu | Ran Jing | Bin Liang | Min Yang | Kam-Fai Wong | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Unintended dataset biases typically exist in existing Emotion Recognition in Conversations (ERC) datasets, including label bias, where models favor the majority class due to imbalanced training data, as well as the speaker and neutral word bias, where models make unfair predictions because of excessive correlations between specific neutral words or speakers and classes. However, previous studies in ERC generally focus on capturing context-sensitive and speaker-sensitive dependencies, ignoring the unintended dataset biases of data, which hampers the generalization and fairness in ERC. To address this issue, we propose a Training-Free Debiasing framework (TFD) that operates during prediction without additional training. To ensure compatibility with various ERC models, it does not balance data or modify the model structure. Instead, TFD extracts biases from the model by generating counterfactual utterances and contexts and mitigates them using simple yet empirically robust element-wise subtraction operations. Extensive experiments on three public datasets demonstrate that TFD effectively improves generalization ability and fairness across different ERC models.

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Stance Detection on Social Media with Background Knowledge
Ang Li | Bin Liang | Jingqian Zhao | Bowen Zhang | Min Yang | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Identifying users’ stances regarding specific targets/topics is a significant route to learning public opinion from social media platforms. Most existing studies of stance detection strive to learn stance information about specific targets from the context, in order to determine the user’s stance on the target. However, in real-world scenarios, we usually have a certain understanding of a target when we express our stance on it. In this paper, we investigate stance detection from a novel perspective, where the background knowledge of the targets is taken into account for better stance detection. To be specific, we categorize background knowledge into two categories: episodic knowledge and discourse knowledge, and propose a novel Knowledge-Augmented Stance Detection (KASD) framework. For episodic knowledge, we devise a heuristic retrieval algorithm based on the topic to retrieve the Wikipedia documents relevant to the sample. Further, we construct a prompt for ChatGPT to filter the Wikipedia documents to derive episodic knowledge. For discourse knowledge, we construct a prompt for ChatGPT to paraphrase the hashtags, references, etc., in the sample, thereby injecting discourse knowledge into the sample. Experimental results on four benchmark datasets demonstrate that our KASD achieves state-of-the-art performance in in-target and zero-shot stance detection.

2022

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Modeling Intra- and Inter-Modal Relations: Hierarchical Graph Contrastive Learning for Multimodal Sentiment Analysis
Zijie Lin | Bin Liang | Yunfei Long | Yixue Dang | Min Yang | Min Zhang | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The existing research efforts in Multimodal Sentiment Analysis (MSA) have focused on developing the expressive ability of neural networks to fuse information from different modalities. However, these approaches lack a mechanism to understand the complex relations within and across different modalities, since some sentiments may be scattered in different modalities. To this end, in this paper, we propose a novel hierarchical graph contrastive learning (HGraph-CL) framework for MSA, aiming to explore the intricate relations of intra- and inter-modal representations for sentiment extraction. Specifically, regarding the intra-modal level, we build a unimodal graph for each modality representation to account for the modality-specific sentiment implications. Based on it, a graph contrastive learning strategy is adopted to explore the potential relations based on unimodal graph augmentations. Furthermore, we construct a multimodal graph of each instance based on the unimodal graphs to grasp the sentiment relations between different modalities. Then, in light of the multimodal augmentation graphs, a graph contrastive learning strategy over the inter-modal level is proposed to ulteriorly seek the possible graph structures for precisely learning sentiment relations. This essentially allows the framework to understand the appropriate graph structures for learning intricate relations among different modalities. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets show that the proposed framework outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines in MSA.

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基于主题提示学习的零样本立场检测方法(A Topic-based Prompt Learning Method for Zero-Shot Stance Detection)
Zixiao Chen (陈子潇) | Bin Liang (梁斌) | Ruifeng Xu (徐睿峰)
Proceedings of the 21st Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics

“零样本立场检测目的是针对未知目标数据进行立场极性预测。一般而言,文本的立场表达是与所讨论的目标主题是紧密联系的。针对未知目标的立场检测,本文将立场表达划分为两种类型:一类在说话者面向不同的主题和讨论目标时表达相同的立场态度,称之为目标无关的表达;另一类在说话者面向特定主题和讨论目标时才表达相应的立场态度,本文称之为目标依赖的表达。对这两种表达进行区分,有效学习到目标无关的表达方式并忽略目标依赖的表达方式,有望强化模型的可迁移能力,使其更加适应零样本立场检测任务。据此,本文提出了一种基于主题提示学习的零样本立场检测方法。具体而言,受自监督学习的启发,本文为了零样本立场检测设置了一个代理任务框架。其中,代理任务通过掩盖上下文中的目标主题词生成辅助样本,并基于提示学习分别预测原样本和辅助样本的立场表达,随后判断原样本和辅助样本的立场表达是否一致,从而在无需人工标注的情况下判断样本的立场表达是否依赖于目标的代理标签。然后,将此代理标签提供给立场检测模型,对应学习可迁移的立场检测特征。在两个基准数据集上的大量实验表明,本文提出的方法在零样本立场检测任务中相比基线模型取得了更优的性能。”

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面向话题的讽刺识别:新任务、新数据和新方法(Topic-Oriented Sarcasm Detection: New Task, New Dataset and New Method)
Bin Liang (梁斌) | Zijie Lin (林子杰) | Bing Qin (秦兵) | Ruifeng Xu (徐睿峰)
Proceedings of the 21st Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics

“现有的文本讽刺识别研究通常只停留在句子级别的讽刺表达分类,缺乏考虑讽刺对象对讽刺表达的影响。针对这一问题,本文提出一个新的面向话题的讽刺识别任务。该任务通过话题的引入,以话题作为讽刺对象,有助于更好地理解和建模讽刺表达。对应地,本文构建了一个新的面向话题的讽刺识别数据集。这个数据集包含了707个话题,以及对应的4871个话题-评论对组。在此基础上,基于提示学习和大规模预训练语言模型,提出了一种面向话题的讽刺表达提示学习模型。在本文构建的面向话题讽刺识别数据集上的实验结果表明,相比基线模型,本文所提出的面向话题的讽刺表达提示学习模型取得了更优的性能。同时,实验分析也表明本文提出的面向话题的讽刺识别任务相比传统的句子级讽刺识别任务更具挑战性。”

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JointCL: A Joint Contrastive Learning Framework for Zero-Shot Stance Detection
Bin Liang | Qinglin Zhu | Xiang Li | Min Yang | Lin Gui | Yulan He | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Zero-shot stance detection (ZSSD) aims to detect the stance for an unseen target during the inference stage. In this paper, we propose a joint contrastive learning (JointCL) framework, which consists of stance contrastive learning and target-aware prototypical graph contrastive learning. Specifically, a stance contrastive learning strategy is employed to better generalize stance features for unseen targets. Further, we build a prototypical graph for each instance to learn the target-based representation, in which the prototypes are deployed as a bridge to share the graph structures between the known targets and the unseen ones. Then a novel target-aware prototypical graph contrastive learning strategy is devised to generalize the reasoning ability of target-based stance representations to the unseen targets. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that the proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art performance in the ZSSD task.

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Multi-Modal Sarcasm Detection via Cross-Modal Graph Convolutional Network
Bin Liang | Chenwei Lou | Xiang Li | Min Yang | Lin Gui | Yulan He | Wenjie Pei | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

With the increasing popularity of posting multimodal messages online, many recent studies have been carried out utilizing both textual and visual information for multi-modal sarcasm detection. In this paper, we investigate multi-modal sarcasm detection from a novel perspective by constructing a cross-modal graph for each instance to explicitly draw the ironic relations between textual and visual modalities. Specifically, we first detect the objects paired with descriptions of the image modality, enabling the learning of important visual information. Then, the descriptions of the objects are served as a bridge to determine the importance of the association between the objects of image modality and the contextual words of text modality, so as to build a cross-modal graph for each multi-modal instance. Furthermore, we devise a cross-modal graph convolutional network to make sense of the incongruity relations between modalities for multi-modal sarcasm detection. Extensive experimental results and in-depth analysis show that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance in multi-modal sarcasm detection.

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Boundary-Driven Table-Filling for Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction
Yice Zhang | Yifan Yang | Yihui Li | Bin Liang | Shiwei Chen | Yixue Dang | Min Yang | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction (ASTE) aims to extract the aspect terms along with the corresponding opinion terms and the expressed sentiments in the review, which is an important task in sentiment analysis. Previous research efforts generally address the ASTE task in an end-to-end fashion through the table-filling formalization, in which the triplets are represented by a two-dimensional (2D) table of word-pair relations. Under this formalization, a term-level relation is decomposed into multiple independent word-level relations, which leads to relation inconsistency and boundary insensitivity in the face of multi-word aspect terms and opinion terms. To overcome these issues, we propose Boundary-Driven Table-Filling (BDTF), which represents each triplet as a relation region in the 2D table and transforms the ASTE task into detection and classification of relation regions. We also notice that the quality of the table representation greatly affects the performance of BDTF. Therefore, we develop an effective relation representation learning approach to learn the table representation, which can fully exploit both word-to-word interactions and relation-to-relation interactions. Experiments on several public benchmarks show that the proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art performances.

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SEMGraph: Incorporating Sentiment Knowledge and Eye Movement into Graph Model for Sentiment Analysis
Bingbing Wang | Bin Liang | Jiachen Du | Min Yang | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

This paper investigates the sentiment analysis task from a novel perspective by incorporating sentiment knowledge and eye movement into a graph architecture, aiming to draw the eye movement-based sentiment relationships for learning the sentiment expression of the context. To be specific, we first explore a linguistic probing eye movement paradigm to extract eye movement features based on the close relationship between linguistic features and the early and late processes of human reading behavior. Furthermore, to derive eye movement features with sentiment concepts, we devise a novel weighting strategy to integrate sentiment scores extracted from affective commonsense knowledge into eye movement features, called sentiment-eye movement weights. Then, the sentiment-eye movement weights are exploited to build the sentiment-eye movement guided graph (SEMGraph) model, so as to model the intricate sentiment relationships in the context. Experimental results on two sentiment analysis datasets with eye movement signals and three sentiment analysis datasets without eye movement signals show that the proposed SEMGraph achieves state-of-the-art performance, and can also be directly generalized to those sentiment analysis datasets without eye movement signals.

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A Generative Model for End-to-End Argument Mining with Reconstructed Positional Encoding and Constrained Pointer Mechanism
Jianzhu Bao | Yuhang He | Yang Sun | Bin Liang | Jiachen Du | Bing Qin | Min Yang | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Argument mining (AM) is a challenging task as it requires recognizing the complex argumentation structures involving multiple subtasks. To handle all subtasks of AM in an end-to-end fashion, previous works generally transform AM into a dependency parsing task. However, such methods largely require complex pre- and post-processing to realize the task transformation. In this paper, we investigate the end-to-end AM task from a novel perspective by proposing a generative framework, in which the expected outputs of AM are framed as a simple target sequence. Then, we employ a pre-trained sequence-to-sequence language model with a constrained pointer mechanism (CPM) to model the clues for all the subtasks of AM in the light of the target sequence. Furthermore, we devise a reconstructed positional encoding (RPE) to alleviate the order biases induced by the autoregressive generation paradigm. Experimental results show that our proposed framework achieves new state-of-the-art performance on two AM benchmarks.

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CLLE: A Benchmark for Continual Language Learning Evaluation in Multilingual Machine Translation
Han Zhang | Sheng Zhang | Yang Xiang | Bin Liang | Jinsong Su | Zhongjian Miao | Hui Wang | Ruifeng Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Continual Language Learning (CLL) in multilingual translation is inevitable when new languages are required to be translated. Due to the lack of unified and generalized benchmarks, the evaluation of existing methods is greatly influenced by experimental design which usually has a big gap from the industrial demands. In this work, we propose the first Continual Language Learning Evaluation benchmark CLLE in multilingual translation. CLLE consists of a Chinese-centric corpus — CN-25 and two CLL tasks — the close-distance language continual learning task and the language family continual learning task designed for real and disparate demands. Different from existing translation benchmarks, CLLE considers several restrictions for CLL, including domain distribution alignment, content overlap, language diversity, and the balance of corpus. Furthermore, we propose a novel framework COMETA based on Constrained Optimization and META-learning to alleviate catastrophic forgetting and dependency on history training data by using a meta-model to retain the important parameters for old languages. Our experiments prove that CLLE is a challenging CLL benchmark and that our proposed method is effective when compared with other strong baselines. Due to the construction of the corpus, the task designing and the evaluation method are independent of the centric language, we also construct and release the English-centric corpus EN-25 to facilitate academic research.

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Probing Structural Knowledge from Pre-trained Language Model for Argumentation Relation Classification
Yang Sun | Bin Liang | Jianzhu Bao | Min Yang | Ruifeng Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Extracting fine-grained structural information between argumentation component (AC) pairs is essential for argumentation relation classification (ARC). However, most previous studies attempt to model the relationship between AC pairs using AC level similarity or semantically relevant features. They ignore the complex interaction between AC pairs and cannot effectively reason the argumentation relation deeply. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel dual prior graph neural network (DPGNN) to jointly explore the probing knowledge derived from pre-trained language models (PLMs) and the syntactical information for comprehensively modeling the relationship between AC pairs. Specifically, we construct a probing graph by using probing knowledge derived from PLMs to recognize and align the relational information within and across the argumentation components. In addition, we propose a mutual dependency graph for the AC pair to reason the fine-grained syntactic structural information, in which the syntactical correlation between words is set by the dependency information within AC and mutual attention mechanism across ACs. The knowledge learned from the probing graph and the dependency graph are combined to comprehensively capture the aligned relationships of AC pairs for improving the results of ARC. Experimental results on three public datasets show that DPGNN outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines by a noticeable margin.

2021

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Beta Distribution Guided Aspect-aware Graph for Aspect Category Sentiment Analysis with Affective Knowledge
Bin Liang | Hang Su | Rongdi Yin | Lin Gui | Min Yang | Qin Zhao | Xiaoqi Yu | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we investigate the Aspect Category Sentiment Analysis (ACSA) task from a novel perspective by exploring a Beta Distribution guided aspect-aware graph construction based on external knowledge. That is, we are no longer entangled about how to laboriously search the sentiment clues for coarse-grained aspects from the context, but how to preferably find the words highly related to the aspects in the context and determine their importance based on the public knowledge base. In this way, the contextual sentiment clues can be explicitly tracked in ACSA for the aspects in the light of these aspect-related words. To be specific, we first regard each aspect as a pivot to derive aspect-aware words that are highly related to the aspect from external affective commonsense knowledge. Then, we employ Beta Distribution to educe the aspect-aware weight, which reflects the importance to the aspect, for each aspect-aware word. Afterward, the aspect-aware words are served as the substitutes of the coarse-grained aspect to construct graphs for leveraging the aspect-related contextual sentiment dependencies in ACSA. Experiments on 6 benchmark datasets show that our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art baseline methods.

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Argument Pair Extraction with Mutual Guidance and Inter-sentence Relation Graph
Jianzhu Bao | Bin Liang | Jingyi Sun | Yice Zhang | Min Yang | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Argument pair extraction (APE) aims to extract interactive argument pairs from two passages of a discussion. Previous work studied this task in the context of peer review and rebuttal, and decomposed it into a sequence labeling task and a sentence relation classification task. However, despite the promising performance, such an approach obtains the argument pairs implicitly by the two decomposed tasks, lacking explicitly modeling of the argument-level interactions between argument pairs. In this paper, we tackle the APE task by a mutual guidance framework, which could utilize the information of an argument in one passage to guide the identification of arguments that can form pairs with it in another passage. In this manner, two passages can mutually guide each other in the process of APE. Furthermore, we propose an inter-sentence relation graph to effectively model the inter-relations between two sentences and thus facilitates the extraction of argument pairs. Our proposed method can better represent the holistic argument-level semantics and thus explicitly capture the complex correlations between argument pairs. Experimental results show that our approach significantly outperforms the current state-of-the-art model.

2020

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Jointly Learning Aspect-Focused and Inter-Aspect Relations with Graph Convolutional Networks for Aspect Sentiment Analysis
Bin Liang | Rongdi Yin | Lin Gui | Jiachen Du | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we explore a novel solution of constructing a heterogeneous graph for each instance by leveraging aspect-focused and inter-aspect contextual dependencies for the specific aspect and propose an Interactive Graph Convolutional Networks (InterGCN) model for aspect sentiment analysis. Specifically, an ordinary dependency graph is first constructed for each sentence over the dependency tree. Then we refine the graph by considering the syntactical dependencies between contextual words and aspect-specific words to derive the aspect-focused graph. Subsequently, the aspect-focused graph and the corresponding embedding matrix are fed into the aspect-focused GCN to capture the key aspect and contextual words. Besides, to interactively extract the inter-aspect relations for the specific aspect, an inter-aspect GCN is adopted to model the representations learned by aspect-focused GCN based on the inter-aspect graph which is constructed by the relative dependencies between the aspect words and other aspects. Hence, the model can be aware of the significant contextual and aspect words when interactively learning the sentiment features for a specific aspect. Experimental results on four benchmark datasets illustrate that our proposed model outperforms state-of-the-art methods and substantially boosts the performance in comparison with BERT.

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结合金融领域情感词典和注意力机制的细粒度情感分析(Attention-based Recurrent Network Combined with Financial Lexicon for Aspect-level Sentiment Classification)
Qinglin Zhu (祝清麟) | Bin Liang (梁斌) | Liuyu Han (刘宇瀚) | Yi Chen (陈奕) | Ruifeng Xu (徐睿峰) | Ruibin Mao (毛瑞彬)
Proceedings of the 19th Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics

针对在金融领域实体级情感分析任务中,往往缺乏足够的标注语料,以及通用的情感分析模型难以有效处理金融文本等问题。本文构建一个百万级别的金融领域实体情感分析语料库,并标注五千余个金融领域情感词作为金融领域情感词典。同时,基于该金融领域数据集,提出一种结合金融领域情感词典和注意力机制的金融文本细粒度情感分析模型。该模型使用两个LSTM网络分别提取词级别的语义信息和基于情感词典分类后的词类级别信息,能有效获取金融领域词语的特征信息。此外,为了让文本中金融领域情感词获得更多关注,提出一种基于金融领域情感词典的注意力机制来为不同实体获取重要的情感信息。最终在构建的金融领域实体级语料库上进行实验,取得了比对比模型更好的效果。

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基于循环交互注意力网络的问答立场分析(A Recurrent Interactive Attention Network for Answer Stance Analysis)
Wangda Luo (骆旺达) | Yuhan Liu (刘宇瀚) | Bin Liang (梁斌) | Ruifeng Xu (徐睿峰)
Proceedings of the 19th Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics

针对问答立场任务中,现有方法难以提取问答文本间的依赖关系问题,本文提出一种基于循环交互注意力(Recurrent Interactive Attention, RIA)网络的问答立场分析方法。该方法通过模仿人类阅读理解时的思维方式,基于交互注意力机制和循环迭代方法,有效地从问题和答案的相互联系中挖掘问答文本的立场信息。此外,该方法将问题进行陈述化表示,有效地解决疑问句表述下问题文本无法明确表达自身立场的问题。实验结果表明,本文方法取得了比现有模型方法更好的效果,同时证明该方法能有效拟合问答立场分析任务中的问答对依赖关系。

2019

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Context-aware Embedding for Targeted Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis
Bin Liang | Jiachen Du | Ruifeng Xu | Binyang Li | Hejiao Huang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Attention-based neural models were employed to detect the different aspects and sentiment polarities of the same target in targeted aspect-based sentiment analysis (TABSA). However, existing methods do not specifically pre-train reasonable embeddings for targets and aspects in TABSA. This may result in targets or aspects having the same vector representations in different contexts and losing the context-dependent information. To address this problem, we propose a novel method to refine the embeddings of targets and aspects. Such pivotal embedding refinement utilizes a sparse coefficient vector to adjust the embeddings of target and aspect from the context. Hence the embeddings of targets and aspects can be refined from the highly correlative words instead of using context-independent or randomly initialized vectors. Experiment results on two benchmark datasets show that our approach yields the state-of-the-art performance in TABSA task.