Bing Qin


2023

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HIT-SCIR at WASSA 2023: Empathy and Emotion Analysis at the Utterance-Level and the Essay-Level
Xin Lu | Zhuojun Li | Yanpeng Tong | Yanyan Zhao | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 13th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment, & Social Media Analysis

This paper introduces the participation of team HIT-SCIR to the WASSA 2023 Shared Task on Empathy Detection and Emotion Classification and Personality Detection in Interactions. We focus on three tracks: Track 1 (Empathy and Emotion Prediction in Conversations, CONV), Track 2 (Empathy Prediction, EMP) and Track 3 (Emotion Classification, EMO), and designed three different models to address them separately. For Track 1, we designed a direct fine-tuning DeBERTa model for three regression tasks at the utterance-level. For Track 2, we designed a multi-task learning RoBERTa model for two regression tasks at the essay-level. For Track 3, we designed a RoBERTa model with data augmentation for the classification task at the essay-level. Finally, our team ranked 1st in the Track 1 (CONV), 5th in the Track 2 (EMP) and 3rd in the Track 3 (EMO) in the evaluation phase.

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Towards Stable Natural Language Understanding via Information Entropy Guided Debiasing
Li Du | Xiao Ding | Zhouhao Sun | Ting Liu | Bing Qin | Jingshuo Liu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Although achieving promising performance, current Natural Language Understanding models tend to utilize dataset biases instead of learning the intended task, which always leads to performance degradation on out-of-distribution (OOD) samples. Toincrease the performance stability, previous debiasing methods empirically capture bias features from data to prevent the model from corresponding biases. However, our analyses show that the empirical debiasing methods may fail to capture part of the potential dataset biases and mistake semantic information of input text as biases, which limits the effectiveness of debiasing. To address these issues, we propose a debiasing framework IEGDB that comprehensively detects the dataset biases to induce a set of biased features, and then purifies the biased features with the guidance of information entropy. Experimental results show that IEGDB can consistently improve the stability of performance on OOD datasets for a set of widely adopted NLU models.

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Towards Higher Pareto Frontier in Multilingual Machine Translation
Yichong Huang | Xiaocheng Feng | Xinwei Geng | Baohang Li | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Multilingual neural machine translation has witnessed remarkable progress in recent years. However, the long-tailed distribution of multilingual corpora poses a challenge of Pareto optimization, i.e., optimizing for some languages may come at the cost of degrading the performance of others. Existing balancing training strategies are equivalent to a series of Pareto optimal solutions, which trade off on a Pareto frontierIn Pareto optimization, Pareto optimal solutions refer to solutions in which none of the objectives can be improved without sacrificing at least one of the other objectives. The set of all Pareto optimal solutions forms a Pareto frontier..In this work, we propose a new training framework, Pareto Mutual Distillation (Pareto-MD), towards pushing the Pareto frontier outwards rather than making trade-offs. Specifically, Pareto-MD collaboratively trains two Pareto optimal solutions that favor different languages and allows them to learn from the strengths of each other via knowledge distillation. Furthermore, we introduce a novel strategy to enable stronger communication between Pareto optimal solutions and broaden the applicability of our approach. Experimental results on the widely-used WMT and TED datasets show that our method significantly pushes the Pareto frontier and outperforms baselines by up to +2.46 BLEUOur code will be released upon acceptance..

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Controllable Text Generation via Probability Density Estimation in the Latent Space
Yuxuan Gu | Xiaocheng Feng | Sicheng Ma | Lingyuan Zhang | Heng Gong | Weihong Zhong | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Previous work on controllable text generation has explored the idea of control from the latent space, such as optimizing a representation with attribute-specific classifiers or sampling one from relevant discrete samples. However, they cannot effectively model a complex space with diverse attributes, high dimensionality, and asymmetric structure, leaving subsequent controls unsatisfying. In this work, we propose a novel control framework using probability density estimation in the latent space. Our method utilizes an invertible transformation function, the Normalizing Flow, that maps the complex distributions in the latent space to simple Gaussian distributions in the prior space. Thus, we can perform sophisticated and flexible controls in the prior space and feed the control effects back into the latent space owing to the bijection property of invertible transformations. Experiments on single-attribute and multi-attribute control reveal that our method outperforms several strong baselines on attribute relevance and text quality, achieving a new SOTA. Further analysis of control strength adjustment demonstrates the flexibility of our control strategy.

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UniCoRN: Unified Cognitive Signal ReconstructioN bridging cognitive signals and human language
Nuwa Xi | Sendong Zhao | Haochun Wang | Chi Liu | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Decoding text stimuli from cognitive signals (e.g. fMRI) enhances our understanding of the human language system, paving the way for building versatile Brain-Computer Interface. However, existing studies largely focus on decoding individual word-level fMRI volumes from a restricted vocabulary, which is far too idealized for real-world application. In this paper, we propose fMRI2text, the first open-vocabulary task aiming to bridge fMRI time series and human language. Furthermore, to explore the potential of this new task, we present a baseline solution, UniCoRN: the Unified Cognitive Signal ReconstructioN for Brain Decoding. By reconstructing both individual time points and time series, UniCoRN establishes a robust encoder for cognitive signals (fMRI & EEG). Leveraging a pre-trained language model as decoder, UniCoRN proves its efficacy in decoding coherent text from fMRI series across various split settings. Our model achieves a 34.77% BLEU score on fMRI2text, and a 37.04% BLEU when generalized to EEG-to-text decoding, thereby surpassing the former baseline. Experimental results indicate the feasibility of decoding consecutive fMRI volumes, and the effectiveness of decoding different cognitive signals using a unified structure.

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NoisywikiHow: A Benchmark for Learning with Real-world Noisy Labels in Natural Language Processing
Tingting Wu | Xiao Ding | Minji Tang | Hao Zhang | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Large-scale datasets in the real world inevitably involve label noise. Deep models can gradually overfit noisy labels and thus degrade model generalization. To mitigate the effects of label noise, learning with noisy labels (LNL) methods are designed to achieve better generalization performance. Due to the lack of suitable datasets, previous studies have frequently employed synthetic label noise to mimic real-world label noise. However, synthetic noise is not instance-dependent, making this approximation not always effective in practice. Recent research has proposed benchmarks for learning with real-world noisy labels. However, the noise sources within may be single or fuzzy, making benchmarks different from data with heterogeneous label noises in the real world. To tackle these issues, we contribute NoisywikiHow, the largest NLP benchmark built with minimal supervision. Specifically, inspired by human cognition, we explicitly construct multiple sources of label noise to imitate human errors throughout the annotation, replicating real-world noise, whose corruption is affected by both ground-truth labels and instances. Moreover, we provide a variety of noise levels to support controlled experiments on noisy data, enabling us to evaluate LNL methods systematically and comprehensively. After that, we conduct extensive multi-dimensional experiments on a broad range of LNL methods, obtaining new and intriguing findings.

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Improved Visual Story Generation with Adaptive Context Modeling
Zhangyin Feng | Yuchen Ren | Xinmiao Yu | Xiaocheng Feng | Duyu Tang | Shuming Shi | Bing Qin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Diffusion models developed on top of powerful text-to-image generation models like Stable Diffusion achieve remarkable success in visual story generation. However, the best-performing approach considers historically generated results as flattened memory cells, ignoring the fact that not all preceding images contribute equally to the generation of the characters and scenes at the current stage. To address this, we present a simple method that improves the leading system with adaptive context modeling, which is not only incorporated in the encoder but also adopted as additional guidance in the sampling stage to boost the global consistency of the generated story. We evaluate our model on PororoSV and FlintstonesSV datasets and show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art FID scores on both story visualization and continuation scenarios. We conduct detailed model analysis and show that our model excels at generating semantically consistent images for stories.

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TransESC: Smoothing Emotional Support Conversation via Turn-Level State Transition
Weixiang Zhao | Yanyan Zhao | Shilong Wang | Bing Qin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Emotion Support Conversation (ESC) is an emerging and challenging task with the goal of reducing the emotional distress of people. Previous attempts fail to maintain smooth transitions between utterances in ESC because they ignoring to grasp the fine-grained transition information at each dialogue turn. To solve this problem, we propose to take into account turn-level state Transitions of ESC (TransESC) from three perspectives, including semantics transition, strategy transition and emotion transition, to drive the conversation in a smooth and natural way. Specifically, we construct the state transition graph with a two-step way, named transit-then-interact, to grasp such three types of turn-level transition information. Finally, they are injected into the transition aware decoder to generate more engaging responses. Both automatic and human evaluations on the benchmark dataset demonstrate the superiority of TransESC to generate more smooth and effective supportive responses. Our source code will be publicly available.

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An Empirical Study of Sentiment-Enhanced Pre-Training for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis
Yice Zhang | Yifan Yang | Bin Liang | Shiwei Chen | Bing Qin | Ruifeng Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) aims to recognize fine-grained opinions and sentiments of users, which is an important problem in sentiment analysis. Recent work has shown that Sentiment-enhanced Pre-Training (SPT) can substantially improve the performance of various ABSA tasks. However, there is currently a lack of comprehensive evaluation and fair comparison of existing SPT approaches. Therefore, this paper performs an empirical study to investigate the effectiveness of different SPT approaches. First, we develop an effective knowledge-mining method and leverage it to build a large-scale knowledge-annotated SPT corpus. Second, we systematically analyze the impact of integrating sentiment knowledge and other linguistic knowledge in pre-training. For each type of sentiment knowledge, we also examine and compare multiple integration methods. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments on a wide range of ABSA tasks to see how much SPT can facilitate the understanding of aspect-level sentiments.

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A Diffusion Model for Event Skeleton Generation
Fangqi Zhu | Lin Zhang | Jun Gao | Bing Qin | Ruifeng Xu | Haiqin Yang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Event skeleton generation, aiming to induce an event schema skeleton graph with abstracted event nodes and their temporal relations from a set of event instance graphs, is a critical step in the temporal complex event schema induction task. Existing methods effectively address this task from a graph generation perspective but suffer from noise-sensitive and error accumulation, e.g., the inability to correct errors while generating schema. We, therefore, propose a novel Diffusion Event Graph Model (DEGM) to address these issues. Our DEGM is the first workable diffusion model for event skeleton generation, where the embedding and rounding techniques with a custom edge-based loss are introduced to transform a discrete event graph into learnable latent representations. Furthermore, we propose a denoising training process to maintain the model’s robustness. Consequently, DEGM derives the final schema, where error correction is guaranteed by iteratively refining the latent representations during the schema generation process. Experimental results on three IED bombing datasets demonstrate that our DEGM achieves better results than other state-of-the-art baselines. Our code and data are available at https://github.com/zhufq00/EventSkeletonGeneration.

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Don’t Lose Yourself! Empathetic Response Generation via Explicit Self-Other Awareness
Weixiang Zhao | Yanyan Zhao | Xin Lu | Bing Qin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

As a critical step to achieve human-like chatbots, empathetic response generation has attained increasing interests. Previous attempts are incomplete and not sufficient enough to elicit empathy because they only stay on the initial stage of empathy to automatically sense and simulate the feelings and thoughts of others via other-awareness. However, they ignore to include self-awareness to consider the own views of the self in their responses, which is a crucial process to achieve the empathy. To this end, we propose to generate Empathetic response with explicit Self-Other Awareness (EmpSOA). Specifically, three stages, self-other differentiation, self-other modulation and self-other generation, are devised to clearly maintain, regulate and inject the self-other aware information into the process of empathetic response generation. Both automatic and human evaluations on the benchmark dataset demonstrate the superiority of EmpSOA to generate more empathetic responses. Our source code will be publicly available.

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Make Your Decision Convincing! A Unified Two-Stage Framework: Self-Attribution and Decision-Making
Yanrui Du | Sendong Zhao | Haochun Wang | Yuhan Chen | Rui Bai | Zewen Qiang | Muzhen Cai | Bing Qin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Explaining black-box model behavior with natural language has achieved impressive results in various NLP tasks. Recent research has explored the utilization of subsequences from the input text as a rationale, providing users with evidence to support the model decision. Although existing frameworks excel in generating high-quality rationales while achieving high task performance, they neglect to account for the unreliable link between the generated rationale and model decision. In simpler terms, a model may make correct decisions while attributing wrong rationales, or make poor decisions while attributing correct rationales. To mitigate this issue, we propose a unified two-stage framework known as Self-Attribution and Decision-Making (SADM). Through extensive experiments on five reasoning datasets from the ERASER benchmark, we demonstrate that our framework not only establishes a more reliable link between the generated rationale and model decision but also achieves competitive results in task performance and the quality of rationale. Furthermore, we explore the potential of our framework in semi-supervised scenarios.

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In-context Learning for Few-shot Multimodal Named Entity Recognition
Chenran Cai | Qianlong Wang | Bin Liang | Bing Qin | Min Yang | Kam-Fai Wong | Ruifeng Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Thanks in part to the availability of copious annotated resources for some entity categories, existing studies have achieved superior performance in multimodal named entity recognition (MNER). However, in the real-world scenario, it is infeasible to enumerate all entity categories in advance. Therefore, in this paper, we formulate a new few-shot multimodal named entity recognition (FewMNER) task, which aims to effectively locate and identify named entities for a text-image pair only using a small number of labeled examples. Further, we explore the merit of in-context learning (ICL) and propose a novel framework to deal with FewMNER, where three points are taken into account: i.e., converting visual modality, selecting useful examples, and designing an effective task demonstration. Specifically, we first employ an image caption model to convert images into textual descriptions, enabling large language models to absorb information from visual modality. Then, we use the ranking of the sum of similarity rankings from both text and image modalities to select k-nearest examples, which form a demonstration context. Finally, we utilize the MNER definition and the meaning of each entity category as effective instruction. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our framework outperforms baselines under several few-shot settings.

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Hierarchical Catalogue Generation for Literature Review: A Benchmark
Kun Zhu | Xiaocheng Feng | Xiachong Feng | Yingsheng Wu | Bing Qin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Scientific literature review generation aims to extract and organize important information from an abundant collection of reference papers and produces corresponding reviews while lacking a clear and logical hierarchy. We observe that a high-quality catalogue-guided generation process can effectively alleviate this problem. Therefore, we present an atomic and challenging task named Hierarchical Catalogue Generation for Literature Review as the first step for review generation, which aims to produce a hierarchical catalogue of a review paper given various references. We construct a novel English Hierarchical Catalogues of Literature Reviews Dataset with 7.6k literature review catalogues and 389k reference papers. To accurately assess the model performance, we design two evaluation metrics for informativeness and similarity to ground truth from semantics and structure. Our extensive analyses verify the high quality of our dataset and the effectiveness of our evaluation metrics. We further benchmark diverse experiments on state-of-the-art summarization models like BART and large language models like ChatGPT to evaluate their capabilities. We further discuss potential directions for this task to motivate future research.

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Examining Inter-Consistency of Large Language Models Collaboration: An In-depth Analysis via Debate
Kai Xiong | Xiao Ding | Yixin Cao | Ting Liu | Bing Qin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large Language Models (LLMs) have shown impressive capabilities in various applications, but they still face various inconsistency issues. Existing works primarily focus on the inconsistency issues within a single LLM, while we complementarily explore the inter-consistency among multiple LLMs for collaboration. To examine whether LLMs can collaborate effectively to achieve a consensus for a shared goal, we focus on commonsense reasoning, and introduce a formal debate framework (FORD) to conduct a three-stage debate among LLMs with real-world scenarios alignment: fair debate, mismatched debate, and roundtable debate. Through extensive experiments on various datasets, LLMs can effectively collaborate to reach a consensus despite noticeable inter-inconsistencies, but imbalances in their abilities can lead to domination by superior LLMs. Leveraging a more advanced LLM like GPT-4 as an authoritative judge can boost collaboration performance. Our work contributes to understanding the inter-consistency among LLMs and lays the foundation for developing future collaboration methods. Codes and data are available at https://github.com/Waste-Wood/FORD.

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C2D2 Dataset: A Resource for the Cognitive Distortion Analysis and Its Impact on Mental Health
Bichen Wang | Pengfei Deng | Yanyan Zhao | Bing Qin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Cognitive distortions refer to patterns of irrational thinking that can lead to distorted perceptions of reality and mental health problems in individuals. Despite previous attempts to detect cognitive distortion through language, progress has been slow due to the lack of appropriate data. In this paper, we present the C2D2 dataset, the first expert-supervised Chinese Cognitive Distortion Dataset, which contains 7,500 cognitive distortion thoughts in everyday life scenes. Additionally, we examine the presence of cognitive distortions in social media texts shared by individuals diagnosed with mental disorders, providing insights into the association between cognitive distortions and mental health conditions. We propose that incorporating information about users’ cognitive distortions can enhance the performance of existing models mental disorder detection. We contribute to a better understanding of how cognitive distortions appear in individuals’ language and their impact on mental health.

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Is ChatGPT a Good Causal Reasoner? A Comprehensive Evaluation
Jinglong Gao | Xiao Ding | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Causal reasoning ability is crucial for numerous NLP applications. Despite the impressive emerging ability of ChatGPT in various NLP tasks, it is unclear how well ChatGPT performs in causal reasoning. In this paper, we conduct the first comprehensive evaluation of the ChatGPT’s causal reasoning capabilities. Experiments show that ChatGPT is not a good causal reasoner, but a good causal interpreter. Besides, ChatGPT has a serious hallucination on causal reasoning, possibly due to the reporting biases between causal and non-causal relationships in natural language, as well as ChatGPT’s upgrading processes, such as RLHF. The In-Context Learning (ICL) and Chain-of-Thought (COT) techniques can further exacerbate such causal hallucination. Additionally, the causal reasoning ability of ChatGPT is sensitive to the words used to express the causal concept in prompts, and close-ended prompts perform better than open-ended prompts. For events in sentences, ChatGPT excels at capturing explicit causality rather than implicit causality, and performs better in sentences with lower event density and smaller lexical distance between events.

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An Empirical Study on Multiple Knowledge from ChatGPT for Emotion Recognition in Conversations
Geng Tu | Bin Liang | Bing Qin | Kam-Fai Wong | Ruifeng Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Multiple knowledge (e.g., co-reference, topics, emotional causes, etc) has been demonstrated effective for emotion detection. However, exploring this knowledge in Emotion Recognition in Conversations (ERC) is currently a blank slate due to the lack of annotated data and the high cost involved in obtaining such knowledge. Fortunately, the emergence of Large Language Models (LLMs) holds promise in filling this void. Therefore, we propose a Multiple Knowledge Fusion Model (MKFM) to effectively integrate such knowledge generated by LLMs for ERC and empirically study its impact on the model. Experimental results on three public datasets have demonstrated the effectiveness of multiple knowledge for ERC. Furthermore, we conduct a detailed analysis of the contribution and complementarity of this knowledge.

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Enabling Unsupervised Neural Machine Translation with Word-level Visual Representations
Chengpeng Fu | Xiaocheng Feng | Yichong Huang | Wenshuai Huo | Hui Wang | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Unsupervised neural machine translation has recently made remarkable strides, achieving impressive results with the exclusive use of monolingual corpora. Nonetheless, these methods still exhibit fundamental flaws, such as confusing similar words. A straightforward remedy to rectify this drawback is to employ bilingual dictionaries, however, high-quality bilingual dictionaries can be costly to obtain. To overcome this limitation, we propose a method that incorporates images at the word level to augment the lexical mappings. Specifically, our method inserts visual representations into the model, modifying the corresponding embedding layer information. Besides, a visible matrix is adopted to isolate the impact of images on other unrelated words. Experiments on the Multi30k dataset with over 300,000 self-collected images validate the effectiveness in generating more accurate word translation, achieving an improvement of up to +2.81 BLEU score, which is comparable or even superior to using bilingual dictionaries.

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MTGER: Multi-view Temporal Graph Enhanced Temporal Reasoning over Time-Involved Document
Zheng Chu | Zekun Wang | Jiafeng Liang | Ming Liu | Bing Qin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

The facts and time in the document are intricately intertwined, making temporal reasoning over documents challenging. Previous work models time implicitly, making it difficult to handle such complex relationships. To address this issue, we propose MTGER, a novel Multi-view Temporal Graph Enhanced Reasoning framework for temporal reasoning over time-involved documents. Concretely, MTGER explicitly models the temporal relationships among facts by multi-view temporal graphs. On the one hand, the heterogeneous temporal graphs explicitly model the temporal and discourse relationships among facts; on the other hand, the multi-view mechanism captures both time-focused and fact-focused information, allowing the two views to complement each other through adaptive fusion. To further improve the implicit reasoning capability of the model, we design a self-supervised time-comparing objective. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on the TimeQA and SituatedQA datasets. Furthermore, MTGER gives more consistent answers under question perturbations.

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Learning to Describe for Predicting Zero-shot Drug-Drug Interactions
Fangqi Zhu | Yongqi Zhang | Lei Chen | Bing Qin | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Adverse drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can compromise the effectiveness of concurrent drug administration, posing a significant challenge in healthcare. As the development of new drugs continues, the potential for unknown adverse effects resulting from DDIs becomes a growing concern. Traditional computational methods for DDI prediction may fail to capture interactions for new drugs due to the lack of knowledge. In this paper, we introduce a new problem setup as zero-shot DDI prediction that deals with the case of new drugs. Leveraging textual information from online databases like DrugBank and PubChem, we propose an innovative approach TextDDI with a language model-based DDI predictor and a reinforcement learning (RL)-based information selector, enabling the selection of concise and pertinent text for accurate DDI prediction on new drugs. Empirical results show the benefits of the proposed approach on several settings including zero-shot and few-shot DDI prediction, and the selected texts are semantically relevant. Our code and data are available at https://github.com/zhufq00/DDIs-Prediction.

2022

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Prompt Combines Paraphrase: Teaching Pre-trained Models to Understand Rare Biomedical Words
Haochun Wang | Chi Liu | Nuwa Xi | Sendong Zhao | Meizhi Ju | Shiwei Zhang | Ziheng Zhang | Yefeng Zheng | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Prompt-based fine-tuning for pre-trained models has proven effective for many natural language processing tasks under few-shot settings in general domain. However, tuning with prompt in biomedical domain has not been investigated thoroughly. Biomedical words are often rare in general domain, but quite ubiquitous in biomedical contexts, which dramatically deteriorates the performance of pre-trained models on downstream biomedical applications even after fine-tuning, especially in low-resource scenarios. We propose a simple yet effective approach to helping models learn rare biomedical words during tuning with prompt. Experimental results show that our method can achieve up to 6% improvement in biomedical natural language inference task without any extra parameters or training steps using few-shot vanilla prompt settings.

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CogBERT: Cognition-Guided Pre-trained Language Models
Xiao Ding | Bowen Chen | Li Du | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

We study the problem of integrating cognitive language processing signals (e.g., eye-tracking or EEG data) into pre-trained language models like BERT. Existing methods typically fine-tune pre-trained models on cognitive data, ignoring the semantic gap between the texts and cognitive signals. To fill the gap, we propose CogBERT, a framework that can induce fine-grained cognitive features from cognitive data and incorporate cognitive features into BERT by adaptively adjusting the weight of cognitive features for different NLP tasks. Extensive experiments show that: (1) Cognition-guided pre-trained models can consistently perform better than basic pre-trained models on ten NLP tasks. (2) Different cognitive features contribute differently to different NLP tasks. Based on this observation, we give a fine-grained explanation of why cognitive data is helpful for NLP. (3) Different transformer layers of pre-trained models should encode different cognitive features, with word-level cognitive features at the bottom and semantic-level cognitive features at the top. (4) Attention visualization demonstrates that CogBERT aligns with human gaze patterns and improves its natural language comprehension ability.

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SSR: Utilizing Simplified Stance Reasoning Process for Robust Stance Detection
Jianhua Yuan | Yanyan Zhao | Yanyue Lu | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Dataset bias in stance detection tasks allows models to achieve superior performance without using targets. Most existing debiasing methods are task-agnostic, which fail to utilize task knowledge to better discriminate between genuine and bias features. Motivated by how humans tackle stance detection tasks, we propose to incorporate the stance reasoning process as task knowledge to assist in learning genuine features and reducing reliance on bias features. The full stance reasoning process usually involves identifying the span of the mentioned target and corresponding opinion expressions, such fine-grained annotations are hard and expensive to obtain. To alleviate this, we simplify the stance reasoning process to relax the granularity of annotations from token-level to sentence-level, where labels for sub-tasks can be easily inferred from existing resources. We further implement those sub-tasks by maximizing mutual information between the texts and the opinioned targets. To evaluate whether stance detection models truly understand the task from various aspects, we collect and construct a series of new test sets. Our proposed model achieves better performance than previous task-agnostic debiasing methods on most of those new test sets while maintaining comparable performances to existing stance detection models.

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MuCDN: Mutual Conversational Detachment Network for Emotion Recognition in Multi-Party Conversations
Weixiang Zhao | Yanyan Zhao | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

As an emerging research topic in natural language processing community, emotion recognition in multi-party conversations has attained increasing interest. Previous approaches that focus either on dyadic or multi-party scenarios exert much effort to cope with the challenge of emotional dynamics and achieve appealing results. However, since emotional interactions among speakers are often more complicated within the entangled multi-party conversations, these works are limited in capturing effective emotional clues in conversational context. In this work, we propose Mutual Conversational Detachment Network (MuCDN) to clearly and effectively understand the conversational context by separating conversations into detached threads. Specifically, two detachment ways are devised to perform context and speaker-specific modeling within detached threads and they are bridged through a mutual module. Experimental results on two datasets show that our model achieves better performance over the baseline models.

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面向话题的讽刺识别:新任务、新数据和新方法(Topic-Oriented Sarcasm Detection: New Task, New Dataset and New Method)
Bin Liang (梁斌) | Zijie Lin (林子杰) | Bing Qin (秦兵) | Ruifeng Xu (徐睿峰)
Proceedings of the 21st Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics

“现有的文本讽刺识别研究通常只停留在句子级别的讽刺表达分类,缺乏考虑讽刺对象对讽刺表达的影响。针对这一问题,本文提出一个新的面向话题的讽刺识别任务。该任务通过话题的引入,以话题作为讽刺对象,有助于更好地理解和建模讽刺表达。对应地,本文构建了一个新的面向话题的讽刺识别数据集。这个数据集包含了707个话题,以及对应的4871个话题-评论对组。在此基础上,基于提示学习和大规模预训练语言模型,提出了一种面向话题的讽刺表达提示学习模型。在本文构建的面向话题讽刺识别数据集上的实验结果表明,相比基线模型,本文所提出的面向话题的讽刺表达提示学习模型取得了更优的性能。同时,实验分析也表明本文提出的面向话题的讽刺识别任务相比传统的句子级讽刺识别任务更具挑战性。”

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Sentiment Word Aware Multimodal Refinement for Multimodal Sentiment Analysis with ASR Errors
Yang Wu | Yanyan Zhao | Hao Yang | Song Chen | Bing Qin | Xiaohuan Cao | Wenting Zhao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Multimodal sentiment analysis has attracted increasing attention and lots of models have been proposed. However, the performance of the state-of-the-art models decreases sharply when they are deployed in the real world. We find that the main reason is that real-world applications can only access the text outputs by the automatic speech recognition (ASR) models, which may be with errors because of the limitation of model capacity. Through further analysis of the ASR outputs, we find that in some cases the sentiment words, the key sentiment elements in the textual modality, are recognized as other words, which makes the sentiment of the text change and hurts the performance of multimodal sentiment analysis models directly. To address this problem, we propose the sentiment word aware multimodal refinement model (SWRM), which can dynamically refine the erroneous sentiment words by leveraging multimodal sentiment clues. Specifically, we first use the sentiment word position detection module to obtain the most possible position of the sentiment word in the text and then utilize the multimodal sentiment word refinement module to dynamically refine the sentiment word embeddings. The refined embeddings are taken as the textual inputs of the multimodal feature fusion module to predict the sentiment labels. We conduct extensive experiments on the real-world datasets including MOSI-Speechbrain, MOSI-IBM, and MOSI-iFlytek and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our model, which surpasses the current state-of-the-art models on three datasets. Furthermore, our approach can be adapted for other multimodal feature fusion models easily.

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A Graph Enhanced BERT Model for Event Prediction
Li Du | Xiao Ding | Yue Zhang | Ting Liu | Bing Qin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Predicting the subsequent event for an existing event context is an important but challenging task, as it requires understanding the underlying relationship between events. Previous methods propose to retrieve relational features from event graph to enhance the modeling of event correlation. However, the sparsity of event graph may restrict the acquisition of relevant graph information, and hence influence the model performance. To address this issue, we consider automatically building of event graph using a BERT model. To this end, we incorporate an additional structured variable into BERT to learn to predict the event connections in the training process. Hence, in the test process, the connection relationship for unseen events can be predicted by the structured variable. Results on two event prediction tasks: script event prediction and story ending prediction, show that our approach can outperform state-of-the-art baseline methods.

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Improving Controllable Text Generation with Position-Aware Weighted Decoding
Yuxuan Gu | Xiaocheng Feng | Sicheng Ma | Jiaming Wu | Heng Gong | Bing Qin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Weighted decoding methods composed of the pretrained language model (LM) and the controller have achieved promising results for controllable text generation. However, these models often suffer from a control strength/fluency trade-off problem as higher control strength is more likely to generate incoherent and repetitive text. In this paper, we illustrate this trade-off is arisen by the controller imposing the target attribute on the LM at improper positions. And we propose a novel framework based on existing weighted decoding methods called CAT-PAW, which introduces a lightweight regulator to adjust bias signals from the controller at different decoding positions. Experiments on positive sentiment control, topic control, and language detoxification show the effectiveness of our CAT-PAW upon 4 SOTA models.

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Masked Language Models Know Which are Popular: A Simple Ranking Strategy for Commonsense Question Answering
Xuan Luo | Chuang Fan | Yice Zhang | Wanguo Jiang | Bing Qin | Ruifeng Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

We propose a simple ranking strategy to solve a generative commonsense question answering (QA) problem. Compared with multiple-choice QA, it is challenging because the answers to a question are not unique and they are supposed to be popular and diverse. Our strategy exploits the dataset itself and negative samples that we collect from WordNet to train a ranker that picks out the most popular answers for commonsense questions. The effectiveness of our strategy is verified on different pre-trained masked language models (MLMs) in a pipeline framework, where an MLM reranks the generated answers. Further, we explore an end-to-end framework where MLMs are utilized to guide the generation of generative language models (GLMs). Taking advantage of reinforcement learning, we apply policy gradient to train a GLM with the rewards fed back by an MLM. Empirical results on ProtoQA dataset demonstrate that MLMs can acquire the ability to distinguish the popular answers and improve the typical answer generation of GLMs as well.

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e-CARE: a New Dataset for Exploring Explainable Causal Reasoning
Li Du | Xiao Ding | Kai Xiong | Ting Liu | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Understanding causality has vital importance for various Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications. Beyond the labeled instances, conceptual explanations of the causality can provide deep understanding of the causal fact to facilitate the causal reasoning process. However, such explanation information still remains absent in existing causal reasoning resources. In this paper, we fill this gap by presenting a human-annotated explainable CAusal REasoning dataset (e-CARE), which contains over 20K causal reasoning questions, together with natural language formed explanations of the causal questions. Experimental results show that generating valid explanations for causal facts still remains especially challenging for the state-of-the-art models, and the explanation information can be helpful for promoting the accuracy and stability of causal reasoning models.

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MSAMSum: Towards Benchmarking Multi-lingual Dialogue Summarization
Xiachong Feng | Xiaocheng Feng | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the Second DialDoc Workshop on Document-grounded Dialogue and Conversational Question Answering

Dialogue summarization helps users capture salient information from various types of dialogues has received much attention recently. However, current works mainly focus on English dialogue summarization, leaving other languages less well explored. Therefore, we present a multi-lingual dialogue summarization dataset, namely MSAMSum, which covers dialogue-summary pairs in six languages. Specifically, we derive MSAMSum from the standard SAMSum using sophisticated translation techniques and further employ two methods to ensure the integral translation quality and summary factual consistency. Given the proposed MSAMum, we systematically set up five multi-lingual settings for this task, including a novel mix-lingual dialogue summarization setting. To illustrate the utility of our dataset, we benchmark various experiments with pre-trained models under different settings and report results in both supervised and zero-shot manners. We also discuss some future works towards this task to motivate future researches.

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A Distributional Lens for Multi-Aspect Controllable Text Generation
Yuxuan Gu | Xiaocheng Feng | Sicheng Ma | Lingyuan Zhang | Heng Gong | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multi-aspect controllable text generation is a more challenging and practical task than single-aspect control. Existing methods achieve complex multi-aspect control by fusing multiple controllers learned from single-aspect, but suffer from attribute degeneration caused by the mutual interference of these controllers. To address this, we provide observations on attribute fusion from a distributional perspective and propose to directly search for the intersection areas of multiple attribute distributions as their combination for generation. Our method first estimates the attribute space with an autoencoder structure. Afterward, we iteratively approach the intersections by jointly minimizing distances to points representing different attributes. Finally, we map them to attribute-relevant sentences with a prefix-tuning-based decoder. Experiments on the three-aspect control task, including sentiment, topic, and detoxification aspects, reveal that our method outperforms several strong baselines on attribute relevance and text quality and achieves the SOTA. Further analysis also supplies some explanatory support for the effectiveness of our approach.

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Face-Sensitive Image-to-Emotional-Text Cross-modal Translation for Multimodal Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis
Hao Yang | Yanyan Zhao | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Aspect-level multimodal sentiment analysis, which aims to identify the sentiment of the target aspect from multimodal data, recently has attracted extensive attention in the community of multimedia and natural language processing. Despite the recent success in textual aspect-based sentiment analysis, existing models mainly focused on utilizing the object-level semantic information in the image but ignore explicitly using the visual emotional cues, especially the facial emotions. How to distill visual emotional cues and align them with the textual content remains a key challenge to solve the problem. In this work, we introduce a face-sensitive image-to-emotional-text translation (FITE) method, which focuses on capturing visual sentiment cues through facial expressions and selectively matching and fusing with the target aspect in textual modality. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first that explicitly utilize the emotional information from images in the multimodal aspect-based sentiment analysis task. Experiment results show that our method achieves state-of-the-art results on the Twitter-2015 and Twitter-2017 datasets. The improvement demonstrates the superiority of our model in capturing aspect-level sentiment in multimodal data with facial expressions.

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ReCo: Reliable Causal Chain Reasoning via Structural Causal Recurrent Neural Networks
Kai Xiong | Xiao Ding | Zhongyang Li | Li Du | Ting Liu | Bing Qin | Yi Zheng | Baoxing Huai
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Causal chain reasoning (CCR) is an essential ability for many decision-making AI systems, which requires the model to build reliable causal chains by connecting causal pairs. However, CCR suffers from two main transitive problems: threshold effect and scene drift. In other words, the causal pairs to be spliced may have a conflicting threshold boundary or scenario. To address these issues, we propose a novel Reliable Causal chain reasoning framework (ReCo), which introduces exogenous variables to represent the threshold and scene factors of each causal pair within the causal chain, and estimates the threshold and scene contradictions across exogenous variables via structural causal recurrent neural networks (SRNN). Experiments show that ReCo outperforms a series of strong baselines on both Chinese and English CCR datasets. Moreover, by injecting reliable causal chain knowledge distilled by ReCo, BERT can achieve better performances on four downstream causal-related tasks than BERT models enhanced by other kinds of knowledge.

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Unifying the Convergences in Multilingual Neural Machine Translation
Yichong Huang | Xiaocheng Feng | Xinwei Geng | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Although all-in-one-model multilingual neural machine translation (MNMT) has achieved remarkable progress, the convergence inconsistency in the joint training is ignored, i.e., different language pairs reaching convergence in different epochs. This leads to the trained MNMT model over-fitting low-resource language translations while under-fitting high-resource ones. In this paper, we propose a novel training strategy named LSSD (LanguageSpecific Self-Distillation), which can alleviate the convergence inconsistency and help MNMT models achieve the best performance on each language pair simultaneously. Specifically, LSSD picks up language-specific best checkpoints for each language pair to teach the current model on the fly. Furthermore, we systematically explore three sample-level manipulations of knowledge transferring. Experimental results on three datasets show that LSSD obtains consistent improvements towards all language pairs and achieves the state-of-the-art.

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STGN: an Implicit Regularization Method for Learning with Noisy Labels in Natural Language Processing
Tingting Wu | Xiao Ding | Minji Tang | Hao Zhang | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Noisy labels are ubiquitous in natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Existing work, namely learning with noisy labels in NLP, is often limited to dedicated tasks or specific training procedures, making it hard to be widely used. To address this issue, SGD noise has been explored to provide a more general way to alleviate the effect of noisy labels by involving benign noise in the process of stochastic gradient descent. However, previous studies exert identical perturbation for all samples, which may cause overfitting on incorrect ones or optimizing correct ones inadequately. To facilitate this, we propose a novel stochastic tailor-made gradient noise (STGN), mitigating the effect of inherent label noise by introducing tailor-made benign noise for each sample. Specifically, we investigate multiple principles to precisely and stably discriminate correct samples from incorrect ones and thus apply different intensities of perturbation to them. A detailed theoretical analysis shows that STGN has good properties, beneficial for model generalization. Experiments on three different NLP tasks demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of STGN. Also, STGN can boost existing robust training methods.

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Distilled Dual-Encoder Model for Vision-Language Understanding
Zekun Wang | Wenhui Wang | Haichao Zhu | Ming Liu | Bing Qin | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

On vision-language understanding (VLU) tasks, fusion-encoder vision-language models achieve superior results but sacrifice efficiency because of the simultaneous encoding of images and text. On the contrary, the dual encoder model that separately encodes images and text has the advantage in efficiency, while failing on VLU tasks due to the lack of deep cross-modal interactions. To get the best of both worlds, we propose DiDE, a framework that distills the knowledge of the fusion-encoder teacher model into the dual-encoder student model. Since the cross-modal interaction is the key to the superior performance of teacher model but is absent in the student model, we encourage the student not only to mimic the predictions of teacher, but also to calculate the cross-modal attention distributions and align with the teacher. Experimental results demonstrate that DiDE is competitive with the fusion-encoder teacher model in performance (only a 1% drop) while enjoying 4 times faster inference. Further analyses reveal that the proposed cross-modal attention distillation is crucial to the success of our framework.

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A Generative Model for End-to-End Argument Mining with Reconstructed Positional Encoding and Constrained Pointer Mechanism
Jianzhu Bao | Yuhang He | Yang Sun | Bin Liang | Jiachen Du | Bing Qin | Min Yang | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Argument mining (AM) is a challenging task as it requires recognizing the complex argumentation structures involving multiple subtasks. To handle all subtasks of AM in an end-to-end fashion, previous works generally transform AM into a dependency parsing task. However, such methods largely require complex pre- and post-processing to realize the task transformation. In this paper, we investigate the end-to-end AM task from a novel perspective by proposing a generative framework, in which the expected outputs of AM are framed as a simple target sequence. Then, we employ a pre-trained sequence-to-sequence language model with a constrained pointer mechanism (CPM) to model the clues for all the subtasks of AM in the light of the target sequence. Furthermore, we devise a reconstructed positional encoding (RPE) to alleviate the order biases induced by the autoregressive generation paradigm. Experimental results show that our proposed framework achieves new state-of-the-art performance on two AM benchmarks.

2021

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Language Model as an Annotator: Exploring DialoGPT for Dialogue Summarization
Xiachong Feng | Xiaocheng Feng | Libo Qin | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Current dialogue summarization systems usually encode the text with a number of general semantic features (e.g., keywords and topics) to gain more powerful dialogue modeling capabilities. However, these features are obtained via open-domain toolkits that are dialog-agnostic or heavily relied on human annotations. In this paper, we show how DialoGPT, a pre-trained model for conversational response generation, can be developed as an unsupervised dialogue annotator, which takes advantage of dialogue background knowledge encoded in DialoGPT. We apply DialoGPT to label three types of features on two dialogue summarization datasets, SAMSum and AMI, and employ pre-trained and non pre-trained models as our summarizers. Experimental results show that our proposed method can obtain remarkable improvements on both datasets and achieves new state-of-the-art performance on the SAMSum dataset.

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ExCAR: Event Graph Knowledge Enhanced Explainable Causal Reasoning
Li Du | Xiao Ding | Kai Xiong | Ting Liu | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Prior work infers the causation between events mainly based on the knowledge induced from the annotated causal event pairs. However, additional evidence information intermediate to the cause and effect remains unexploited. By incorporating such information, the logical law behind the causality can be unveiled, and the interpretability and stability of the causal reasoning system can be improved. To facilitate this, we present an Event graph knowledge enhanced explainable CAusal Reasoning framework (ExCAR). ExCAR first acquires additional evidence information from a large-scale causal event graph as logical rules for causal reasoning. To learn the conditional probabilistic of logical rules, we propose the Conditional Markov Neural Logic Network (CMNLN) that combines the representation learning and structure learning of logical rules in an end-to-end differentiable manner. Experimental results demonstrate that ExCAR outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods. Adversarial evaluation shows the improved stability of ExCAR over baseline systems. Human evaluation shows that ExCAR can achieve a promising explainable performance.

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Learning Event Graph Knowledge for Abductive Reasoning
Li Du | Xiao Ding | Ting Liu | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Abductive reasoning aims at inferring the most plausible explanation for observed events, which would play critical roles in various NLP applications, such as reading comprehension and question answering. To facilitate this task, a narrative text based abductive reasoning task 𝛼NLI is proposed, together with explorations about building reasoning framework using pretrained language models. However, abundant event commonsense knowledge is not well exploited for this task. To fill this gap, we propose a variational autoencoder based model ege-RoBERTa, which employs a latent variable to capture the necessary commonsense knowledge from event graph for guiding the abductive reasoning task. Experimental results show that through learning the external event graph knowledge, our approach outperforms the baseline methods on the 𝛼NLI task.

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Learning to Rewrite for Non-Autoregressive Neural Machine Translation
Xinwei Geng | Xiaocheng Feng | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Non-autoregressive neural machine translation, which decomposes the dependence on previous target tokens from the inputs of the decoder, has achieved impressive inference speedup but at the cost of inferior accuracy. Previous works employ iterative decoding to improve the translation by applying multiple refinement iterations. However, a serious drawback is that these approaches expose the serious weakness in recognizing the erroneous translation pieces. In this paper, we propose an architecture named RewriteNAT to explicitly learn to rewrite the erroneous translation pieces. Specifically, RewriteNAT utilizes a locator module to locate the erroneous ones, which are then revised into the correct ones by a revisor module. Towards keeping the consistency of data distribution with iterative decoding, an iterative training strategy is employed to further improve the capacity of rewriting. Extensive experiments conducted on several widely-used benchmarks show that RewriteNAT can achieve better performance while significantly reducing decoding time, compared with previous iterative decoding strategies. In particular, RewriteNAT can obtain competitive results with autoregressive translation on WMT14 En-De, En-Fr and WMT16 Ro-En translation benchmarks.

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Neural Natural Logic Inference for Interpretable Question Answering
Jihao Shi | Xiao Ding | Li Du | Ting Liu | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Many open-domain question answering problems can be cast as a textual entailment task, where a question and candidate answers are concatenated to form hypotheses. A QA system then determines if the supporting knowledge bases, regarded as potential premises, entail the hypotheses. In this paper, we investigate a neural-symbolic QA approach that integrates natural logic reasoning within deep learning architectures, towards developing effective and yet explainable question answering models. The proposed model gradually bridges a hypothesis and candidate premises following natural logic inference steps to build proof paths. Entailment scores between the acquired intermediate hypotheses and candidate premises are measured to determine if a premise entails the hypothesis. As the natural logic reasoning process forms a tree-like, hierarchical structure, we embed hypotheses and premises in a Hyperbolic space rather than Euclidean space to acquire more precise representations. Empirically, our method outperforms prior work on answering multiple-choice science questions, achieving the best results on two publicly available datasets. The natural logic inference process inherently provides evidence to help explain the prediction process.

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A Text-Centered Shared-Private Framework via Cross-Modal Prediction for Multimodal Sentiment Analysis
Yang Wu | Zijie Lin | Yanyan Zhao | Bing Qin | Li-Nan Zhu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Less Is More: Domain Adaptation with Lottery Ticket for Reading Comprehension
Haichao Zhu | Zekun Wang | Heng Zhang | Ming Liu | Sendong Zhao | Bing Qin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

In this paper, we propose a simple few-shot domain adaptation paradigm for reading comprehension. We first identify the lottery subnetwork structure within the Transformer-based source domain model via gradual magnitude pruning. Then, we only fine-tune the lottery subnetwork, a small fraction of the whole parameters, on the annotated target domain data for adaptation. To obtain more adaptable subnetworks, we introduce self-attention attribution to weigh parameters, beyond simply pruning the smallest magnitude parameters, which can be seen as combining structured pruning and unstructured magnitude pruning softly. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the full model fine-tuning adaptation on four out of five domains when only a small amount of annotated data available for adaptation. Moreover, introducing self-attention attribution reserves more parameters for important attention heads in the lottery subnetwork and improves the target domain model performance. Our further analyses reveal that, besides exploiting fewer parameters, the choice of subnetworks is critical to the effectiveness.

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Retrieve, Discriminate and Rewrite: A Simple and Effective Framework for Obtaining Affective Response in Retrieval-Based Chatbots
Xin Lu | Yijian Tian | Yanyan Zhao | Bing Qin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Obtaining affective response is a key step in building empathetic dialogue systems. This task has been studied a lot in generation-based chatbots, but the related research in retrieval-based chatbots is still in the early stage. Existing works in retrieval-based chatbots are based on Retrieve-and-Rerank framework, which have a common problem of satisfying affect label at the expense of response quality. To address this problem, we propose a simple and effective Retrieve-Discriminate-Rewrite framework. The framework replaces the reranking mechanism with a new discriminate-and-rewrite mechanism, which predicts the affect label of the retrieved high-quality response via discrimination module and further rewrites the affect unsatisfied response via rewriting module. This can not only guarantee the quality of the response, but also satisfy the given affect label. In addition, another challenge for this line of research is the lack of an off-the-shelf affective response dataset. To address this problem and test our proposed framework, we annotate a Sentimental Douban Conversation Corpus based on the original Douban Conversation Corpus. Experimental results show that our proposed framework is effective and outperforms competitive baselines.

2020

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TableGPT: Few-shot Table-to-Text Generation with Table Structure Reconstruction and Content Matching
Heng Gong | Yawei Sun | Xiaocheng Feng | Bing Qin | Wei Bi | Xiaojiang Liu | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Although neural table-to-text models have achieved remarkable progress with the help of large-scale datasets, they suffer insufficient learning problem with limited training data. Recently, pre-trained language models show potential in few-shot learning with linguistic knowledge learnt from pretraining on large-scale corpus. However, benefiting table-to-text generation in few-shot setting with the powerful pretrained language model faces three challenges, including (1) the gap between the task’s structured input and the natural language input for pretraining language model. (2) The lack of modeling for table structure and (3) improving text fidelity with less incorrect expressions that are contradicting to the table. To address aforementioned problems, we propose TableGPT for table-to-text generation. At first, we utilize table transformation module with template to rewrite structured table in natural language as input for GPT-2. In addition, we exploit multi-task learning with two auxiliary tasks that preserve table’s structural information by reconstructing the structure from GPT-2’s representation and improving the text’s fidelity with content matching task aligning the table and information in the generated text. By experimenting on Humans, Songs and Books, three few-shot table-to-text datasets in different domains, our model outperforms existing systems on most few-shot settings.

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Molweni: A Challenge Multiparty Dialogues-based Machine Reading Comprehension Dataset with Discourse Structure
Jiaqi Li | Ming Liu | Min-Yen Kan | Zihao Zheng | Zekun Wang | Wenqiang Lei | Ting Liu | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Research into the area of multiparty dialog has grown considerably over recent years. We present the Molweni dataset, a machine reading comprehension (MRC) dataset with discourse structure built over multiparty dialog. Molweni’s source samples from the Ubuntu Chat Corpus, including 10,000 dialogs comprising 88,303 utterances. We annotate 30,066 questions on this corpus, including both answerable and unanswerable questions. Molweni also uniquely contributes discourse dependency annotations in a modified Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT; Asher et al., 2016) style for all of its multiparty dialogs, contributing large-scale (78,245 annotated discourse relations) data to bear on the task of multiparty dialog discourse parsing. Our experiments show that Molweni is a challenging dataset for current MRC models: BERT-wwm, a current, strong SQuAD 2.0 performer, achieves only 67.7% F1 on Molweni’s questions, a 20+% significant drop as compared against its SQuAD 2.0 performance.

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An Iterative Emotion Interaction Network for Emotion Recognition in Conversations
Xin Lu | Yanyan Zhao | Yang Wu | Yijian Tian | Huipeng Chen | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Emotion recognition in conversations (ERC) has received much attention recently in the natural language processing community. Considering that the emotions of the utterances in conversations are interactive, previous works usually implicitly model the emotion interaction between utterances by modeling dialogue context, but the misleading emotion information from context often interferes with the emotion interaction. We noticed that the gold emotion labels of the context utterances can provide explicit and accurate emotion interaction, but it is impossible to input gold labels at inference time. To address this problem, we propose an iterative emotion interaction network, which uses iteratively predicted emotion labels instead of gold emotion labels to explicitly model the emotion interaction. This approach solves the above problem, and can effectively retain the performance advantages of explicit modeling. We conduct experiments on two datasets, and our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance.

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How Does Selective Mechanism Improve Self-Attention Networks?
Xinwei Geng | Longyue Wang | Xing Wang | Bing Qin | Ting Liu | Zhaopeng Tu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Self-attention networks (SANs) with selective mechanism has produced substantial improvements in various NLP tasks by concentrating on a subset of input words. However, the underlying reasons for their strong performance have not been well explained. In this paper, we bridge the gap by assessing the strengths of selective SANs (SSANs), which are implemented with a flexible and universal Gumbel-Softmax. Experimental results on several representative NLP tasks, including natural language inference, semantic role labelling, and machine translation, show that SSANs consistently outperform the standard SANs. Through well-designed probing experiments, we empirically validate that the improvement of SSANs can be attributed in part to mitigating two commonly-cited weaknesses of SANs: word order encoding and structure modeling. Specifically, the selective mechanism improves SANs by paying more attention to content words that contribute to the meaning of the sentence.

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Revisiting Pre-Trained Models for Chinese Natural Language Processing
Yiming Cui | Wanxiang Che | Ting Liu | Bing Qin | Shijin Wang | Guoping Hu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) has shown marvelous improvements across various NLP tasks, and consecutive variants have been proposed to further improve the performance of the pre-trained language models. In this paper, we target on revisiting Chinese pre-trained language models to examine their effectiveness in a non-English language and release the Chinese pre-trained language model series to the community. We also propose a simple but effective model called MacBERT, which improves upon RoBERTa in several ways, especially the masking strategy that adopts MLM as correction (Mac). We carried out extensive experiments on eight Chinese NLP tasks to revisit the existing pre-trained language models as well as the proposed MacBERT. Experimental results show that MacBERT could achieve state-of-the-art performances on many NLP tasks, and we also ablate details with several findings that may help future research. https://github.com/ymcui/MacBERT

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CodeBERT: A Pre-Trained Model for Programming and Natural Languages
Zhangyin Feng | Daya Guo | Duyu Tang | Nan Duan | Xiaocheng Feng | Ming Gong | Linjun Shou | Bing Qin | Ting Liu | Daxin Jiang | Ming Zhou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

We present CodeBERT, a bimodal pre-trained model for programming language (PL) and natural language (NL). CodeBERT learns general-purpose representations that support downstream NL-PL applications such as natural language code search, code documentation generation, etc. We develop CodeBERT with Transformer-based neural architecture, and train it with a hybrid objective function that incorporates the pre-training task of replaced token detection, which is to detect plausible alternatives sampled from generators. This enables us to utilize both “bimodal” data of NL-PL pairs and “unimodal data, where the former provides input tokens for model training while the latter helps to learn better generators. We evaluate CodeBERT on two NL-PL applications by fine-tuning model parameters. Results show that CodeBERT achieves state-of-the-art performance on both natural language code search and code documentation generation. Furthermore, to investigate what type of knowledge is learned in CodeBERT, we construct a dataset for NL-PL probing, and evaluate in a zero-shot setting where parameters of pre-trained models are fixed. Results show that CodeBERT performs better than previous pre-trained models on NLPL probing.

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Enhancing Content Planning for Table-to-Text Generation with Data Understanding and Verification
Heng Gong | Wei Bi | Xiaocheng Feng | Bing Qin | Xiaojiang Liu | Ting Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Neural table-to-text models, which select and order salient data, as well as verbalizing them fluently via surface realization, have achieved promising progress. Based on results from previous work, the performance bottleneck of current models lies in the stage of content planing (selecting and ordering salient content from the input). That is, performance drops drastically when an oracle content plan is replaced by a model-inferred one during surface realization. In this paper, we propose to enhance neural content planning by (1) understanding data values with contextual numerical value representations that bring the sense of value comparison into content planning; (2) verifying the importance and ordering of the selected sequence of records with policy gradient. We evaluated our model on ROTOWIRE and MLB, two datasets on this task, and results show that our model outperforms existing systems with respect to content planning metrics.

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HIT-SCIR at SemEval-2020 Task 5: Training Pre-trained Language Model with Pseudo-labeling Data for Counterfactuals Detection
Xiao Ding | Dingkui Hao | Yuewei Zhang | Kuo Liao | Zhongyang Li | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

We describe our system for Task 5 of SemEval 2020: Modelling Causal Reasoning in Language: Detecting Counterfactuals. Despite deep learning has achieved significant success in many fields, it still hardly drives today’s AI to strong AI, as it lacks of causation, which is a fundamental concept in human thinking and reasoning. In this task, we dedicate to detecting causation, especially counterfactuals from texts. We explore multiple pre-trained models to learn basic features and then fine-tune models with counterfactual data and pseudo-labeling data. Our team HIT-SCIR wins the first place (1st) in Sub-task 1 — Detecting Counterfactual Statements and is ranked 4th in Sub-task 2 — Detecting Antecedent and Consequence. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the approach, as well as the results obtained in this task.

2019

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Multi-Input Multi-Output Sequence Labeling for Joint Extraction of Fact and Condition Tuples from Scientific Text
Tianwen Jiang | Tong Zhao | Bing Qin | Ting Liu | Nitesh Chawla | Meng Jiang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Condition is essential in scientific statement. Without the conditions (e.g., equipment, environment) that were precisely specified, facts (e.g., observations) in the statements may no longer be valid. Existing ScienceIE methods, which aim at extracting factual tuples from scientific text, do not consider the conditions. In this work, we propose a new sequence labeling framework (as well as a new tag schema) to jointly extract the fact and condition tuples from statement sentences. The framework has (1) a multi-output module to generate one or multiple tuples and (2) a multi-input module to feed in multiple types of signals as sequences. It improves F1 score relatively by 4.2% on BioNLP2013 and by 6.2% on a new bio-text dataset for tuple extraction.

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Cross-Lingual Machine Reading Comprehension
Yiming Cui | Wanxiang Che | Ting Liu | Bing Qin | Shijin Wang | Guoping Hu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Though the community has made great progress on Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) task, most of the previous works are solving English-based MRC problems, and there are few efforts on other languages mainly due to the lack of large-scale training data. In this paper, we propose Cross-Lingual Machine Reading Comprehension (CLMRC) task for the languages other than English. Firstly, we present several back-translation approaches for CLMRC task which is straightforward to adopt. However, to exactly align the answer into source language is difficult and could introduce additional noise. In this context, we propose a novel model called Dual BERT, which takes advantage of the large-scale training data provided by rich-resource language (such as English) and learn the semantic relations between the passage and question in bilingual context, and then utilize the learned knowledge to improve reading comprehension performance of low-resource language. We conduct experiments on two Chinese machine reading comprehension datasets CMRC 2018 and DRCD. The results show consistent and significant improvements over various state-of-the-art systems by a large margin, which demonstrate the potentials in CLMRC task. Resources available: https://github.com/ymcui/Cross-Lingual-MRC

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Enhancing Neural Data-To-Text Generation Models with External Background Knowledge
Shuang Chen | Jinpeng Wang | Xiaocheng Feng | Feng Jiang | Bing Qin | Chin-Yew Lin
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Recent neural models for data-to-text generation rely on massive parallel pairs of data and text to learn the writing knowledge. They often assume that writing knowledge can be acquired from the training data alone. However, when people are writing, they not only rely on the data but also consider related knowledge. In this paper, we enhance neural data-to-text models with external knowledge in a simple but effective way to improve the fidelity of generated text. Besides relying on parallel data and text as in previous work, our model attends to relevant external knowledge, encoded as a temporary memory, and combines this knowledge with the context representation of data before generating words. This allows the model to infer relevant facts which are not explicitly stated in the data table from an external knowledge source. Experimental results on twenty-one Wikipedia infobox-to-text datasets show our model, KBAtt, consistently improves a state-of-the-art model on most of the datasets. In addition, to quantify when and why external knowledge is effective, we design a metric, KBGain, which shows a strong correlation with the observed performance boost. This result demonstrates the relevance of external knowledge and sparseness of original data are the main factors affecting system performance.

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Table-to-Text Generation with Effective Hierarchical Encoder on Three Dimensions (Row, Column and Time)
Heng Gong | Xiaocheng Feng | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Although Seq2Seq models for table-to-text generation have achieved remarkable progress, modeling table representation in one dimension is inadequate. This is because (1) the table consists of multiple rows and columns, which means that encoding a table should not depend only on one dimensional sequence or set of records and (2) most of the tables are time series data (e.g. NBA game data, stock market data), which means that the description of the current table may be affected by its historical data. To address aforementioned problems, not only do we model each table cell considering other records in the same row, we also enrich table’s representation by modeling each table cell in context of other cells in the same column or with historical (time dimension) data respectively. In addition, we develop a table cell fusion gate to combine representations from row, column and time dimension into one dense vector according to the saliency of each dimension’s representation. We evaluated our methods on ROTOWIRE, a benchmark dataset of NBA basketball games. Both automatic and human evaluation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our model with improvement of 2.66 in BLEU over the strong baseline and outperformance of state-of-the-art model.

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Learning to Ask Unanswerable Questions for Machine Reading Comprehension
Haichao Zhu | Li Dong | Furu Wei | Wenhui Wang | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Machine reading comprehension with unanswerable questions is a challenging task. In this work, we propose a data augmentation technique by automatically generating relevant unanswerable questions according to an answerable question paired with its corresponding paragraph that contains the answer. We introduce a pair-to-sequence model for unanswerable question generation, which effectively captures the interactions between the question and the paragraph. We also present a way to construct training data for our question generation models by leveraging the existing reading comprehension dataset. Experimental results show that the pair-to-sequence model performs consistently better compared with the sequence-to-sequence baseline. We further use the automatically generated unanswerable questions as a means of data augmentation on the SQuAD 2.0 dataset, yielding 1.9 absolute F1 improvement with BERT-base model and 1.7 absolute F1 improvement with BERT-large model.

2018

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Parsing Tweets into Universal Dependencies
Yijia Liu | Yi Zhu | Wanxiang Che | Bing Qin | Nathan Schneider | Noah A. Smith
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

We study the problem of analyzing tweets with universal dependencies (UD). We extend the UD guidelines to cover special constructions in tweets that affect tokenization, part-of-speech tagging, and labeled dependencies. Using the extended guidelines, we create a new tweet treebank for English (Tweebank v2) that is four times larger than the (unlabeled) Tweebank v1 introduced by Kong et al. (2014). We characterize the disagreements between our annotators and show that it is challenging to deliver consistent annotation due to ambiguity in understanding and explaining tweets. Nonetheless, using the new treebank, we build a pipeline system to parse raw tweets into UD. To overcome the annotation noise without sacrificing computational efficiency, we propose a new method to distill an ensemble of 20 transition-based parsers into a single one. Our parser achieves an improvement of 2.2 in LAS over the un-ensembled baseline and outperforms parsers that are state-of-the-art on other treebanks in both accuracy and speed.

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Adaptive Multi-pass Decoder for Neural Machine Translation
Xinwei Geng | Xiaocheng Feng | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Although end-to-end neural machine translation (NMT) has achieved remarkable progress in the recent years, the idea of adopting multi-pass decoding mechanism into conventional NMT is not well explored. In this paper, we propose a novel architecture called adaptive multi-pass decoder, which introduces a flexible multi-pass polishing mechanism to extend the capacity of NMT via reinforcement learning. More specifically, we adopt an extra policy network to automatically choose a suitable and effective number of decoding passes, according to the complexity of source sentences and the quality of the generated translations. Extensive experiments on Chinese-English translation demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed adaptive multi-pass decoder upon the conventional NMT with a significant improvement about 1.55 BLEU.

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An AMR Aligner Tuned by Transition-based Parser
Yijia Liu | Wanxiang Che | Bo Zheng | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we propose a new rich resource enhanced AMR aligner which produces multiple alignments and a new transition system for AMR parsing along with its oracle parser. Our aligner is further tuned by our oracle parser via picking the alignment that leads to the highest-scored achievable AMR graph. Experimental results show that our aligner outperforms the rule-based aligner in previous work by achieving higher alignment F1 score and consistently improving two open-sourced AMR parsers. Based on our aligner and transition system, we develop a transition-based AMR parser that parses a sentence into its AMR graph directly. An ensemble of our parsers with only words and POS tags as input leads to 68.4 Smatch F1 score, which outperforms the current state-of-the-art parser.

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Semantic Parsing with Syntax- and Table-Aware SQL Generation
Yibo Sun | Duyu Tang | Nan Duan | Jianshu Ji | Guihong Cao | Xiaocheng Feng | Bing Qin | Ting Liu | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We present a generative model to map natural language questions into SQL queries. Existing neural network based approaches typically generate a SQL query word-by-word, however, a large portion of the generated results is incorrect or not executable due to the mismatch between question words and table contents. Our approach addresses this problem by considering the structure of table and the syntax of SQL language. The quality of the generated SQL query is significantly improved through (1) learning to replicate content from column names, cells or SQL keywords; and (2) improving the generation of WHERE clause by leveraging the column-cell relation. Experiments are conducted on WikiSQL, a recently released dataset with the largest question- SQL pairs. Our approach significantly improves the state-of-the-art execution accuracy from 69.0% to 74.4%.

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Distilling Knowledge for Search-based Structured Prediction
Yijia Liu | Wanxiang Che | Huaipeng Zhao | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Many natural language processing tasks can be modeled into structured prediction and solved as a search problem. In this paper, we distill an ensemble of multiple models trained with different initialization into a single model. In addition to learning to match the ensemble’s probability output on the reference states, we also use the ensemble to explore the search space and learn from the encountered states in the exploration. Experimental results on two typical search-based structured prediction tasks – transition-based dependency parsing and neural machine translation show that distillation can effectively improve the single model’s performance and the final model achieves improvements of 1.32 in LAS and 2.65 in BLEU score on these two tasks respectively over strong baselines and it outperforms the greedy structured prediction models in previous literatures.

2017

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Benben: A Chinese Intelligent Conversational Robot
Wei-Nan Zhang | Ting Liu | Bing Qin | Yu Zhang | Wanxiang Che | Yanyan Zhao | Xiao Ding
Proceedings of ACL 2017, System Demonstrations

2016

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Aspect Level Sentiment Classification with Deep Memory Network
Duyu Tang | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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SemEval-2016 Task 5: Aspect Based Sentiment Analysis
Maria Pontiki | Dimitris Galanis | Haris Papageorgiou | Ion Androutsopoulos | Suresh Manandhar | Mohammad AL-Smadi | Mahmoud Al-Ayyoub | Yanyan Zhao | Bing Qin | Orphée De Clercq | Véronique Hoste | Marianna Apidianaki | Xavier Tannier | Natalia Loukachevitch | Evgeniy Kotelnikov | Nuria Bel | Salud María Jiménez-Zafra | Gülşen Eryiğit
Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2016)

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A Language-Independent Neural Network for Event Detection
Xiaocheng Feng | Lifu Huang | Duyu Tang | Heng Ji | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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English-Chinese Knowledge Base Translation with Neural Network
Xiaocheng Feng | Duyu Tang | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Knowledge base (KB) such as Freebase plays an important role for many natural language processing tasks. English knowledge base is obviously larger and of higher quality than low resource language like Chinese. To expand Chinese KB by leveraging English KB resources, an effective way is to translate English KB (source) into Chinese (target). In this direction, two major challenges are to model triple semantics and to build a robust KB translator. We address these challenges by presenting a neural network approach, which learns continuous triple representation with a gated neural network. Accordingly, source triples and target triples are mapped in the same semantic vector space. We build a new dataset for English-Chinese KB translation from Freebase, and compare with several baselines on it. Experimental results show that the proposed method improves translation accuracy compared with baseline methods. We show that adaptive composition model improves standard solution such as neural tensor network in terms of translation accuracy.

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Effective LSTMs for Target-Dependent Sentiment Classification
Duyu Tang | Bing Qin | Xiaocheng Feng | Ting Liu
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Target-dependent sentiment classification remains a challenge: modeling the semantic relatedness of a target with its context words in a sentence. Different context words have different influences on determining the sentiment polarity of a sentence towards the target. Therefore, it is desirable to integrate the connections between target word and context words when building a learning system. In this paper, we develop two target dependent long short-term memory (LSTM) models, where target information is automatically taken into account. We evaluate our methods on a benchmark dataset from Twitter. Empirical results show that modeling sentence representation with standard LSTM does not perform well. Incorporating target information into LSTM can significantly boost the classification accuracy. The target-dependent LSTM models achieve state-of-the-art performances without using syntactic parser or external sentiment lexicons.

2015

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Transition-Based Syntactic Linearization
Yijia Liu | Yue Zhang | Wanxiang Che | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Encoding World Knowledge in the Evaluation of Local Coherence
Muyu Zhang | Vanessa Wei Feng | Bing Qin | Graeme Hirst | Ting Liu | Jingwen Huang
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Document Modeling with Gated Recurrent Neural Network for Sentiment Classification
Duyu Tang | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Encoding Distributional Semantics into Triple-Based Knowledge Ranking for Document Enrichment
Muyu Zhang | Bing Qin | Mao Zheng | Graeme Hirst | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Learning Semantic Representations of Users and Products for Document Level Sentiment Classification
Duyu Tang | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2014

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Learning Semantic Hierarchies via Word Embeddings
Ruiji Fu | Jiang Guo | Bing Qin | Wanxiang Che | Haifeng Wang | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Learning Sentiment-Specific Word Embedding for Twitter Sentiment Classification
Duyu Tang | Furu Wei | Nan Yang | Ming Zhou | Ting Liu | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Building Large-Scale Twitter-Specific Sentiment Lexicon : A Representation Learning Approach
Duyu Tang | Furu Wei | Bing Qin | Ming Zhou | Ting Liu
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

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Triple based Background Knowledge Ranking for Document Enrichment
Muyu Zhang | Bing Qin | Ting Liu | Mao Zheng
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

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Sentence Compression for Target-Polarity Word Collocation Extraction
Yanyan Zhao | Wanxiang Che | Honglei Guo | Bing Qin | Zhong Su | Ting Liu
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

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A Joint Segmentation and Classification Framework for Sentiment Analysis
Duyu Tang | Furu Wei | Bing Qin | Li Dong | Ting Liu | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

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Coooolll: A Deep Learning System for Twitter Sentiment Classification
Duyu Tang | Furu Wei | Bing Qin | Ting Liu | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2014)

2013

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Building Chinese Event Type Paradigm Based on Trigger Clustering
Xiao Ding | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the Sixth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

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Topical Key Concept Extraction from Folksonomy
Han Xue | Bing Qin | Ting Liu | Chao Xiang
Proceedings of the Sixth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

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Improving Web Search Ranking by Incorporating Structured Annotation of Queries
Xiao Ding | Zhicheng Dou | Bing Qin | Ting Liu | Ji-Rong Wen
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Microblog Entity Linking by Leveraging Extra Posts
Yuhang Guo | Bing Qin | Ting Liu | Sheng Li
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Exploiting Multiple Sources for Open-Domain Hypernym Discovery
Ruiji Fu | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2012

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Collocation Polarity Disambiguation Using Web-based Pseudo Contexts
Yanyan Zhao | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning

2011

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Generating Chinese Named Entity Data from a Parallel Corpus
Ruiji Fu | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of 5th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

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Coreference Resolution System using Maximum Entropy Classifier
Weipeng Chen | Muyu Zhang | Bing Qin
Proceedings of the Fifteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning: Shared Task

2010

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Generalizing Syntactic Structures for Product Attribute Candidate Extraction
Yanyan Zhao | Bing Qin | Shen Hu | Ting Liu
Human Language Technologies: The 2010 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

2009

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Multilingual Dependency-based Syntactic and Semantic Parsing
Wanxiang Che | Zhenghua Li | Yongqiang Li | Yuhang Guo | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL 2009): Shared Task

2008

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A Cascaded Syntactic and Semantic Dependency Parsing System
Wanxiang Che | Zhenghua Li | Yuxuan Hu | Yongqiang Li | Bing Qin | Ting Liu | Sheng Li
CoNLL 2008: Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

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