Bo Cheng


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Analyzing Modality Robustness in Multimodal Sentiment Analysis
Devamanyu Hazarika | Yingting Li | Bo Cheng | Shuai Zhao | Roger Zimmermann | Soujanya Poria
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Building robust multimodal models are crucial for achieving reliable deployment in the wild. Despite its importance, less attention has been paid to identifying and improving the robustness of Multimodal Sentiment Analysis (MSA) models. In this work, we hope to address that by (i) Proposing simple diagnostic checks for modality robustness in a trained multimodal model. Using these checks, we find MSA models to be highly sensitive to a single modality, which creates issues in their robustness; (ii) We analyze well-known robust training strategies to alleviate the issues. Critically, we observe that robustness can be achieved without compromising on the original performance. We hope our extensive study–performed across five models and two benchmark datasets–and proposed procedures would make robustness an integral component in MSA research. Our diagnostic checks and robust training solutions are simple to implement and available at


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Exploring Task Difficulty for Few-Shot Relation Extraction
Jiale Han | Bo Cheng | Wei Lu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Few-shot relation extraction (FSRE) focuses on recognizing novel relations by learning with merely a handful of annotated instances. Meta-learning has been widely adopted for such a task, which trains on randomly generated few-shot tasks to learn generic data representations. Despite impressive results achieved, existing models still perform suboptimally when handling hard FSRE tasks, where the relations are fine-grained and similar to each other. We argue this is largely because existing models do not distinguish hard tasks from easy ones in the learning process. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach based on contrastive learning that learns better representations by exploiting relation label information. We further design a method that allows the model to adaptively learn how to focus on hard tasks. Experiments on two standard datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

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FCM: A Fine-grained Comparison Model for Multi-turn Dialogue Reasoning
Xu Wang | Hainan Zhang | Shuai Zhao | Yanyan Zou | Hongshen Chen | Zhuoye Ding | Bo Cheng | Yanyan Lan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Despite the success of neural dialogue systems in achieving high performance on the leader-board, they cannot meet users’ requirements in practice, due to their poor reasoning skills. The underlying reason is that most neural dialogue models only capture the syntactic and semantic information, but fail to model the logical consistency between the dialogue history and the generated response. Recently, a new multi-turn dialogue reasoning task has been proposed, to facilitate dialogue reasoning research. However, this task is challenging, because there are only slight differences between the illogical response and the dialogue history. How to effectively solve this challenge is still worth exploring. This paper proposes a Fine-grained Comparison Model (FCM) to tackle this problem. Inspired by human’s behavior in reading comprehension, a comparison mechanism is proposed to focus on the fine-grained differences in the representation of each response candidate. Specifically, each candidate representation is compared with the whole history to obtain a history consistency representation. Furthermore, the consistency signals between each candidate and the speaker’s own history are considered to drive a model prefer a candidate that is logically consistent with the speaker’s history logic. Finally, the above consistency representations are employed to output a ranking list of the candidate responses for multi-turn dialogue reasoning. Experimental results on two public dialogue datasets show that our method obtains higher ranking scores than the baseline models.


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Modelling Long-distance Node Relations for KBQA with Global Dynamic Graph
Xu Wang | Shuai Zhao | Jiale Han | Bo Cheng | Hao Yang | Jianchang Ao | Zhenzi Li
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The structural information of Knowledge Bases (KBs) has proven effective to Question Answering (QA). Previous studies rely on deep graph neural networks (GNNs) to capture rich structural information, which may not model node relations in particularly long distance due to oversmoothing issue. To address this challenge, we propose a novel framework GlobalGraph, which models long-distance node relations from two views: 1) Node type similarity: GlobalGraph assigns each node a global type label and models long-distance node relations through the global type label similarity; 2) Correlation between nodes and questions: we learn similarity scores between nodes and the question, and model long-distance node relations through the sum score of two nodes. We conduct extensive experiments on two widely used multi-hop KBQA datasets to prove the effectiveness of our method.

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Open Domain Question Answering based on Text Enhanced Knowledge Graph with Hyperedge Infusion
Jiale Han | Bo Cheng | Xu Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

The incompleteness of knowledge base (KB) is a vital factor limiting the performance of question answering (QA). This paper proposes a novel QA method by leveraging text information to enhance the incomplete KB. The model enriches the entity representation through semantic information contained in the text, and employs graph convolutional networks to update the entity status. Furthermore, to exploit the latent structural information of text, we treat the text as hyperedges connecting entities among it to complement the deficient relations in KB, and hypergraph convolutional networks are further applied to reason on the hypergraph-formed text. Extensive experiments on the WebQuestionsSP benchmark with different KB settings prove the effectiveness of our model.


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An End-to-End Multi-task Learning Model for Fact Checking
Sizhen Li | Shuai Zhao | Bo Cheng | Hao Yang
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Fact Extraction and VERification (FEVER)

With huge amount of information generated every day on the web, fact checking is an important and challenging task which can help people identify the authenticity of most claims as well as providing evidences selected from knowledge source like Wikipedia. Here we decompose this problem into two parts: an entity linking task (retrieving relative Wikipedia pages) and recognizing textual entailment between the claim and selected pages. In this paper, we present an end-to-end multi-task learning with bi-direction attention (EMBA) model to classify the claim as “supports”, “refutes” or “not enough info” with respect to the pages retrieved and detect sentences as evidence at the same time. We conduct experiments on the FEVER (Fact Extraction and VERification) paper test dataset and shared task test dataset, a new public dataset for verification against textual sources. Experimental results show that our method achieves comparable performance compared with the baseline system.