Bo Wu


pdf bib
Distance-Based Propagation for Efficient Knowledge Graph Reasoning
Harry Shomer | Yao Ma | Juanhui Li | Bo Wu | Charu Aggarwal | Jiliang Tang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Knowledge graph completion (KGC) aims to predict unseen edges in knowledge graphs (KGs), resulting in the discovery of new facts. A new class of methods have been proposed to tackle this problem by aggregating path information. These methods have shown tremendous ability in the task of KGC. However they are plagued by efficiency issues. Though there are a few recent attempts to address this through learnable path pruning, they often sacrifice the performance to gain efficiency. In this work, we identify two intrinsic limitations of these methods that affect the efficiency and representation quality. To address the limitations, we introduce a new method, TAGNet, which is able to efficiently propagate information. This is achieved by only aggregating paths in a fixed window for each source-target pair. We demonstrate that the complexity of TAGNet is independent of the number of layers. Extensive experiments demonstrate that TAGNet can cut down on the number of propagated messages by as much as 90% while achieving competitive performance on multiple KG datasets.

pdf bib
Learning from Children: Improving Image-Caption Pretraining via Curriculum
Hammad Ayyubi | Rahul Lokesh | Alireza Zareian | Bo Wu | Shih-Fu Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Image-caption pretraining has been quite successfully used for downstream vision tasks like zero-shot image classification and object detection. However, image-caption pretraining is still a hard problem – it requires multiple concepts (nouns) from captions to be aligned to several objects in images. To tackle this problem, we go to the roots – the best learner, children. We take inspiration from cognitive science studies dealing with children’s language learning to propose a curriculum learning framework. The learning begins with easy-to-align image caption pairs containing one concept per caption. The difficulty is progressively increased with each new phase by adding one more concept per caption. Correspondingly, the knowledge acquired in each learning phase is utilized in subsequent phases to effectively constrain the learning problem to aligning one new concept-object pair in each phase. We show that this learning strategy improves over vanilla image-caption training in various settings – pretraining from scratch, using a pretrained image or/and pretrained text encoder, low data regime etc.


pdf bib
Eureka: Neural Insight Learning for Knowledge Graph Reasoning
Alex X. Zhang | Xun Liang | Bo Wu | Xiangping Zheng | Sensen Zhang | Yuhui Guo | Jun Wang | Xinyao Liu
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The human recognition system has presented the remarkable ability to effortlessly learn novel knowledge from only a few trigger events based on prior knowledge, which is called insight learning. Mimicking such behavior on Knowledge Graph Reasoning (KGR) is an interesting and challenging research problem with many practical applications. Simultaneously, existing works, such as knowledge embedding and few-shot learning models, have been limited to conducting KGR in either “seen-to-seen” or “unseen-to-unseen” scenarios. To this end, we propose a neural insight learning framework named Eureka to bridge the “seen” to “unseen” gap. Eureka is empowered to learn the seen relations with sufficient training triples while providing the flexibility of learning unseen relations given only one trigger without sacrificing its performance on seen relations. Eureka meets our expectation of the model to acquire seen and unseen relations at no extra cost, and eliminate the need to retrain when encountering emerging unseen relations. Experimental results on two real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed framework also outperforms various state-of-the-art baselines on datasets of both seen and unseen relations.


pdf bib
GAIA: A Fine-grained Multimedia Knowledge Extraction System
Manling Li | Alireza Zareian | Ying Lin | Xiaoman Pan | Spencer Whitehead | Brian Chen | Bo Wu | Heng Ji | Shih-Fu Chang | Clare Voss | Daniel Napierski | Marjorie Freedman
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

We present the first comprehensive, open source multimedia knowledge extraction system that takes a massive stream of unstructured, heterogeneous multimedia data from various sources and languages as input, and creates a coherent, structured knowledge base, indexing entities, relations, and events, following a rich, fine-grained ontology. Our system, GAIA, enables seamless search of complex graph queries, and retrieves multimedia evidence including text, images and videos. GAIA achieves top performance at the recent NIST TAC SM-KBP2019 evaluation. The system is publicly available at GitHub and DockerHub, with a narrated video that documents the system.

pdf bib
Enhancing Neural Models with Vulnerability via Adversarial Attack
Rong Zhang | Qifei Zhou | Bo An | Weiping Li | Tong Mo | Bo Wu
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Natural Language Sentence Matching (NLSM) serves as the core of many natural language processing tasks. 1) Most previous work develops a single specific neural model for NLSM tasks. 2) There is no previous work considering adversarial attack to improve the performance of NLSM tasks. 3) Adversarial attack is usually used to generate adversarial samples that can fool neural models. In this paper, we first find a phenomenon that different categories of samples have different vulnerabilities. Vulnerability is the difficulty degree in changing the label of a sample. Considering the phenomenon, we propose a general two-stage training framework to enhance neural models with Vulnerability via Adversarial Attack (VAA). We design criteria to measure the vulnerability which is obtained by adversarial attack. VAA framework can be adapted to various neural models by incorporating the vulnerability. In addition, we prove a theorem and four corollaries to explain the factors influencing vulnerability effectiveness. Experimental results show that VAA significantly improves the performance of neural models on NLSM datasets. The results are also consistent with the theorem and corollaries. The code is released on