Bo Xiong


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zrLLM: Zero-Shot Relational Learning on Temporal Knowledge Graphs with Large Language Models
Zifeng Ding | Heling Cai | Jingpei Wu | Yunpu Ma | Ruotong Liao | Bo Xiong | Volker Tresp
Proceedings of the 2024 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Modeling evolving knowledge over temporal knowledge graphs (TKGs) has become a heated topic. Various methods have been proposed to forecast links on TKGs. Most of them are embedding-based, where hidden representations are learned to represent knowledge graph (KG) entities and relations based on the observed graph contexts. Although these methods show strong performance on traditional TKG forecasting (TKGF) benchmarks, they face a strong challenge in modeling the unseen zero-shot relations that have no prior graph context. In this paper, we try to mitigate this problem as follows. We first input the text descriptions of KG relations into large language models (LLMs) for generating relation representations, and then introduce them into embedding-based TKGF methods. LLM-empowered representations can capture the semantic information in the relation descriptions. This makes the relations, whether seen or unseen, with similar semantic meanings stay close in the embedding space, enabling TKGF models to recognize zero-shot relations even without any observed graph context. Experimental results show that our approach helps TKGF models to achieve much better performance in forecasting the facts with previously unseen relations, while still maintaining their ability in link forecasting regarding seen relations.


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Knowledge Graph Embeddings using Neural Ito Process: From Multiple Walks to Stochastic Trajectories
Mojtaba Nayyeri | Bo Xiong | Majid Mohammadi | Mst. Mahfuja Akter | Mirza Mohtashim Alam | Jens Lehmann | Steffen Staab
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Knowledge graphs mostly exhibit a mixture of branching relations, e.g., hasFriend, and complex structures, e.g., hierarchy and loop. Most knowledge graph embeddings have problems expressing them, because they model a specific relation r from a head h to tails by starting at the node embedding of h and transitioning deterministically to exactly one other point in the embedding space. We overcome this issue in our novel framework ItCAREToE by modeling relations between nodes by relation-specific, stochastic transitions. Our framework is based on stochastic ItCARETo processes, which operate on low-dimensional manifolds. ItCAREToE is highly expressive and generic subsuming various state-of-the-art models operating on different, also non-Euclidean, manifolds. Experimental results show the superiority of ItCAREToE over other deterministic embedding models with regard to the KG completion task.

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Shrinking Embeddings for Hyper-Relational Knowledge Graphs
Bo Xiong | Mojtaba Nayyeri | Shirui Pan | Steffen Staab
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Link prediction on knowledge graphs (KGs) has been extensively studied on binary relational KGs, wherein each fact is represented by a triple. A significant amount of important knowledge, however, is represented by hyper-relational facts where each fact is composed of a primal triple and a set of qualifiers comprising a key-value pair that allows for expressing more complicated semantics. Although some recent works have proposed to embed hyper-relational KGs, these methods fail to capture essential inference patterns of hyper-relational facts such as qualifier monotonicity, qualifier implication, and qualifier mutual exclusion, limiting their generalization capability. To unlock this, we present ShrinkE, a geometric hyper-relational KG embedding method aiming to explicitly model these patterns. ShrinkE models the primal triple as a spatial-functional transformation from the head into a relation-specific box. Each qualifier “shrinks” the box to narrow down the possible answer set and, thus, realizes qualifier monotonicity. The spatial relationships between the qualifier boxes allow for modeling core inference patterns of qualifiers such as implication and mutual exclusion. Experimental results demonstrate ShrinkE’s superiority on three benchmarks of hyper-relational KGs.


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Normalized Contrastive Learning for Text-Video Retrieval
Yookoon Park | Mahmoud Azab | Seungwhan Moon | Bo Xiong | Florian Metze | Gourab Kundu | Kirmani Ahmed
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Cross-modal contrastive learning has led the recent advances in multimodal retrieval with its simplicity and effectiveness. In this work, however, we reveal that cross-modal contrastive learning suffers from incorrect normalization of the sum retrieval probabilities of each text or video instance. Specifically, we show that many test instances are either over- or under-represented during retrieval, significantly hurting the retrieval performance. To address this problem, we propose Normalized Contrastive Learning (NCL) which utilizes the Sinkhorn-Knopp algorithm to compute the instance-wise biases that properly normalize the sum retrieval probabilities of each instance so that every text and video instance is fairly represented during cross-modal retrieval. Empirical study shows that NCL brings consistent and significant gains in text-video retrieval on different model architectures, with new state-of-the-art multimodal retrieval metrics on the ActivityNet, MSVD, and MSR-VTT datasets without any architecture engineering.