Bo Zhang


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DAGCN: Distance-based and Aspect-oriented Graph Convolutional Network for Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis
Zhihao Wang | Bo Zhang | Ru Yang | Chang Guo | Maozhen Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2024

Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) is a task that aims to determine the sentiment polarity of aspects by identifying opinion words. Recent advancements have predominantly been rooted either in semantic or syntactic methods. However, both of them tend to interference from local factors such as irrelevant words and edges, hindering the precise identification of opinion words. In this paper, we present Distance-based and Aspect-oriented Graph Convolutional Network (DAGCN) to address the aforementioned issue. Firstly, we introduce the Distance-based Syntactic Weight (DSW). It focuses on the local scope of aspects in the pruned dependency trees, thereby reducing the candidate pool of opinion words. Additionally, we propose Aspect-Fusion Attention (AF) to further filter opinion words within the local context and consider cases where opinion words are distant from the aspect. With the combination of DSW and AF, we achieve precise identification of corresponding opinion words. Extensive experiments on three public datasets demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms state-of-the-art models and verify the effectiveness of the proposed architecture.


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CCL23-Eval任务7赛道一系统报告:Suda &Alibaba 文本纠错系统(CCL23-Eval Task 7 Track 1 System Report: Suda &Alibaba Team Text Error Correction System)
Haochen Jiang (蒋浩辰) | Yumeng Liu (刘雨萌) | Houquan Zhou (周厚全) | Ziheng Qiao (乔子恒) | Bo Zhang (波章,) | Chen Li (李辰) | Zhenghua Li (李正华) | Min Zhang (张民)
Proceedings of the 22nd Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics (Volume 3: Evaluations)

“本报告描述 Suda &Alibaba 纠错团队在 CCL2023 汉语学习者文本纠错评测任务的赛道一:多维度汉语学习者文本纠错(Multidimensional Chinese Learner Text Correc-tion)中提交的参赛系统。在模型方面,本队伍使用了序列到序列和序列到编辑两种纠错模型。在数据方面,本队伍分别使用基于混淆集构造的伪数据、Lang-8 真实数据以及 YACLC 开发集进行三阶段训练;在开放任务上还额外使用HSK、CGED等数据进行训练。本队伍还使用了一系列有效的性能提升技术,包括了基于规则的数据增强,数据清洗,后处理以及模型集成等 .除此之外,本队伍还在如何使用GPT3.5、GPT4等大模型来辅助中文文本纠错上进行了一些探索,提出了一种可以有效避免大模型过纠问题的方法,并尝试了多种 Prompt。在封闭和开放两个任务上,本队伍在最小改动、流利提升和平均 F0.5 得分上均位列第一。”

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Better Pre-Training by Reducing Representation Confusion
Haojie Zhang | Mingfei Liang | Ruobing Xie | Zhenlong Sun | Bo Zhang | Leyu Lin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023

In this work, we revisit the Transformer-based pre-trained language models and identify two different types of information confusion in position encoding and model representations, respectively. Firstly, we show that in the relative position encoding, the joint modeling about relative distances and directions brings confusion between two heterogeneous information. It may make the model unable to capture the associative semantics of the same distance and the opposite directions, which in turn affects the performance of downstream tasks. Secondly, we notice the BERT with Mask Language Modeling (MLM) pre-training objective outputs similar token representations (last hidden states of different tokens) and head representations (attention weightsof different heads), which may make the diversity of information expressed by different tokens and heads limited. Motivated by the above investigation, we propose two novel techniques to improve pre-trained language models: Decoupled Directional Relative Position (DDRP) encoding and MTH pre-training objective. DDRP decouples the relative distance features and the directional features in classical relative position encoding. MTH applies two novel auxiliary regularizers besides MLM to enlarge the dissimilarities between (a) last hidden states of different tokens, and (b) attention weights of different heads. These designs allow the model to capture different categories of information more clearly, as a way to alleviate information confusion in representation learning for better optimization. Extensive experiments and ablation studies on GLUE benchmark demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods.

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NaSGEC: a Multi-Domain Chinese Grammatical Error Correction Dataset from Native Speaker Texts
Yue Zhang | Bo Zhang | Haochen Jiang | Zhenghua Li | Chen Li | Fei Huang | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

We introduce NaSGEC, a new dataset to facilitate research on Chinese grammatical error correction (CGEC) for native speaker texts from multiple domains. Previous CGEC research primarily focuses on correcting texts from a single domain, especially learner essays. To broaden the target domain, we annotate multiple references for 12,500 sentences from three native domains, i.e., social media, scientific writing, and examination. We provide solid benchmark results for NaSGEC by employing cutting-edge CGEC models and different training data. We further perform detailed analyses of the connections and gaps between our domains from both empirical and statistical views. We hope this work can inspire future studies on an important but under-explored direction–cross-domain GEC.

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Improving Seq2Seq Grammatical Error Correction via Decoding Interventions
Houquan Zhou | Yumeng Liu | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang | Bo Zhang | Chen Li | Ji Zhang | Fei Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

The sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) approach has recently been widely used in grammatical error correction (GEC) and shows promising performance. However, the Seq2Seq GEC approach still suffers from two issues. First, a Seq2Seq GEC model can only be trained on parallel data, which, in GEC task, is often noisy and limited in quantity. Second, the decoder of a Seq2Seq GEC model lacks an explicit awareness of the correctness of the token being generated. In this paper, we propose a unified decoding intervention framework that employs an external critic to assess the appropriateness of the token to be generated incrementally, and then dynamically influence the choice of the next token. We discover and investigate two types of critics: a pre-trained left-to-right language model critic and an incremental target-side grammatical error detector critic. Through extensive experiments on English and Chinese datasets, our framework consistently outperforms strong baselines and achieves results competitive with state-of-the-art methods.


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MuCGEC: a Multi-Reference Multi-Source Evaluation Dataset for Chinese Grammatical Error Correction
Yue Zhang | Zhenghua Li | Zuyi Bao | Jiacheng Li | Bo Zhang | Chen Li | Fei Huang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

This paper presents MuCGEC, a multi-reference multi-source evaluation dataset for Chinese Grammatical Error Correction (CGEC), consisting of 7,063 sentences collected from three Chinese-as-a-Second-Language (CSL) learner sources. Each sentence is corrected by three annotators, and their corrections are carefully reviewed by a senior annotator, resulting in 2.3 references per sentence. We conduct experiments with two mainstream CGEC models, i.e., the sequence-to-sequence model and the sequence-to-edit model, both enhanced with large pretrained language models, achieving competitive benchmark performance on previous and our datasets. We also discuss CGEC evaluation methodologies, including the effect of multiple references and using a char-based metric. Our annotation guidelines, data, and code are available at

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SynGEC: Syntax-Enhanced Grammatical Error Correction with a Tailored GEC-Oriented Parser
Yue Zhang | Bo Zhang | Zhenghua Li | Zuyi Bao | Chen Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

This work proposes a syntax-enhanced grammatical error correction (GEC) approach named SynGEC that effectively incorporates dependency syntactic information into the encoder part of GEC models. The key challenge for this idea is that off-the-shelf parsers are unreliable when processing ungrammatical sentences. To confront this challenge, we propose to build a tailored GEC-oriented parser (GOPar) using parallel GEC training data as a pivot. First, we design an extended syntax representation scheme that allows us to represent both grammatical errors and syntax in a unified tree structure. Then, we obtain parse trees of the source incorrect sentences by projecting trees of the target correct sentences. Finally, we train GOPar with such projected trees. For GEC, we employ the graph convolution network to encode source-side syntactic information produced by GOPar, and fuse them with the outputs of the Transformer encoder. Experiments on mainstream English and Chinese GEC datasets show that our proposed SynGEC approach consistently and substantially outperforms strong baselines and achieves competitive performance. Our code and data are all publicly available at


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A Unified Span-Based Approach for Opinion Mining with Syntactic Constituents
Qingrong Xia | Bo Zhang | Rui Wang | Zhenghua Li | Yue Zhang | Fei Huang | Luo Si | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Fine-grained opinion mining (OM) has achieved increasing attraction in the natural language processing (NLP) community, which aims to find the opinion structures of “Who expressed what opinions towards what” in one sentence. In this work, motivated by its span-based representations of opinion expressions and roles, we propose a unified span-based approach for the end-to-end OM setting. Furthermore, inspired by the unified span-based formalism of OM and constituent parsing, we explore two different methods (multi-task learning and graph convolutional neural network) to integrate syntactic constituents into the proposed model to help OM. We conduct experiments on the commonly used MPQA 2.0 dataset. The experimental results show that our proposed unified span-based approach achieves significant improvements over previous works in the exact F1 score and reduces the number of wrongly-predicted opinion expressions and roles, showing the effectiveness of our method. In addition, incorporating the syntactic constituents achieves promising improvements over the strong baseline enhanced by contextualized word representations.

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Matching Distributions between Model and Data: Cross-domain Knowledge Distillation for Unsupervised Domain Adaptation
Bo Zhang | Xiaoming Zhang | Yun Liu | Lei Cheng | Zhoujun Li
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (UDA) aims to transfer the knowledge of source domain to the unlabeled target domain. Existing methods typically require to learn to adapt the target model by exploiting the source data and sharing the network architecture across domains. However, this pipeline makes the source data risky and is inflexible for deploying the target model. This paper tackles a novel setting where only a trained source model is available and different network architectures can be adapted for target domain in terms of deployment environments. We propose a generic framework named Cross-domain Knowledge Distillation (CdKD) without needing any source data. CdKD matches the joint distributions between a trained source model and a set of target data during distilling the knowledge from the source model to the target domain. As a type of important knowledge in the source domain, for the first time, the gradient information is exploited to boost the transfer performance. Experiments on cross-domain text classification demonstrate that CdKD achieves superior performance, which verifies the effectiveness in this novel setting.


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Syntax-Aware Opinion Role Labeling with Dependency Graph Convolutional Networks
Bo Zhang | Yue Zhang | Rui Wang | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Opinion role labeling (ORL) is a fine-grained opinion analysis task and aims to answer “who expressed what kind of sentiment towards what?”. Due to the scarcity of labeled data, ORL remains challenging for data-driven methods. In this work, we try to enhance neural ORL models with syntactic knowledge by comparing and integrating different representations. We also propose dependency graph convolutional networks (DEPGCN) to encode parser information at different processing levels. In order to compensate for parser inaccuracy and reduce error propagation, we introduce multi-task learning (MTL) to train the parser and the ORL model simultaneously. We verify our methods on the benchmark MPQA corpus. The experimental results show that syntactic information is highly valuable for ORL, and our final MTL model effectively boosts the F1 score by 9.29 over the syntax-agnostic baseline. In addition, we find that the contributions from syntactic knowledge do not fully overlap with contextualized word representations (BERT). Our best model achieves 4.34 higher F1 score than the current state-ofthe-art.


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Hierarchy Response Learning for Neural Conversation Generation
Bo Zhang | Xiaoming Zhang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

The neural encoder-decoder models have shown great promise in neural conversation generation. However, they cannot perceive and express the intention effectively, and hence often generate dull and generic responses. Unlike past work that has focused on diversifying the output at word-level or discourse-level with a flat model to alleviate this problem, we propose a hierarchical generation model to capture the different levels of diversity using the conditional variational autoencoders. Specifically, a hierarchical response generation (HRG) framework is proposed to capture the conversation intention in a natural and coherent way. It has two modules, namely, an expression reconstruction model to capture the hierarchical correlation between expression and intention, and an expression attention model to effectively combine the expressions with contents. Finally, the training procedure of HRG is improved by introducing reconstruction loss. Experiment results show that our model can generate the responses with more appropriate content and expression.


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Supervised Treebank Conversion: Data and Approaches
Xinzhou Jiang | Zhenghua Li | Bo Zhang | Min Zhang | Sheng Li | Luo Si
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Treebank conversion is a straightforward and effective way to exploit various heterogeneous treebanks for boosting parsing performance. However, previous work mainly focuses on unsupervised treebank conversion and has made little progress due to the lack of manually labeled data where each sentence has two syntactic trees complying with two different guidelines at the same time, referred as bi-tree aligned data. In this work, we for the first time propose the task of supervised treebank conversion. First, we manually construct a bi-tree aligned dataset containing over ten thousand sentences. Then, we propose two simple yet effective conversion approaches (pattern embedding and treeLSTM) based on the state-of-the-art deep biaffine parser. Experimental results show that 1) the two conversion approaches achieve comparable conversion accuracy, and 2) treebank conversion is superior to the widely used multi-task learning framework in multi-treebank exploitation and leads to significantly higher parsing accuracy.


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Discriminative Deep Random Walk for Network Classification
Juzheng Li | Jun Zhu | Bo Zhang
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Segment-Level Sequence Modeling using Gated Recursive Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields
Jingwei Zhuo | Yong Cao | Jun Zhu | Bo Zhang | Zaiqing Nie
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)


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Improved Bayesian Logistic Supervised Topic Models with Data Augmentation
Jun Zhu | Xun Zheng | Bo Zhang
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)


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Extracting and Visualizing Semantic Relationships from Chinese Biomedical Text
Qingliang Miao | Shu Zhang | Bo Zhang | Hao Yu
Proceedings of the 26th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information, and Computation