Bo Zheng


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XLM-E: Cross-lingual Language Model Pre-training via ELECTRA
Zewen Chi | Shaohan Huang | Li Dong | Shuming Ma | Bo Zheng | Saksham Singhal | Payal Bajaj | Xia Song | Xian-Ling Mao | Heyan Huang | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In this paper, we introduce ELECTRA-style tasks to cross-lingual language model pre-training. Specifically, we present two pre-training tasks, namely multilingual replaced token detection, and translation replaced token detection. Besides, we pretrain the model, named as XLM-E, on both multilingual and parallel corpora. Our model outperforms the baseline models on various cross-lingual understanding tasks with much less computation cost. Moreover, analysis shows that XLM-E tends to obtain better cross-lingual transferability.

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StableMoE: Stable Routing Strategy for Mixture of Experts
Damai Dai | Li Dong | Shuming Ma | Bo Zheng | Zhifang Sui | Baobao Chang | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) technique can scale up the model size of Transformers with an affordable computational overhead. We point out that existing learning-to-route MoE methods suffer from the routing fluctuation issue, i.e., the target expert of the same input may change along with training, but only one expert will be activated for the input during inference. The routing fluctuation tends to harm sample efficiency because the same input updates different experts but only one is finally used. In this paper, we propose StableMoE with two training stages to address the routing fluctuation problem. In the first training stage, we learn a balanced and cohesive routing strategy and distill it into a lightweight router decoupled from the backbone model. In the second training stage, we utilize the distilled router to determine the token-to-expert assignment and freeze it for a stable routing strategy. We validate our method on language modeling and multilingual machine translation. The results show that StableMoE outperforms existing MoE methods in terms of both convergence speed and performance.

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CREATER: CTR-driven Advertising Text Generation with Controlled Pre-Training and Contrastive Fine-Tuning
Penghui Wei | Xuanhua Yang | ShaoGuo Liu | Liang Wang | Bo Zheng
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Track

This paper focuses on automatically generating the text of an ad, and the goal is that the generated text can capture user interest for achieving higher click-through rate (CTR). We propose CREATER, a CTR-driven advertising text generation approach, to generate ad texts based on high-quality user reviews. To incorporate CTR objective, our model learns from online A/B test data with contrastive learning, which encourages the model to generate ad texts that obtain higher CTR. To make use of large-scale unpaired reviews, we design a customized self-supervised objective reducing the gap between pre-training and fine-tuning. Experiments on industrial datasets show that CREATER significantly outperforms current approaches. It has been deployed online in a leading advertising platform and brings uplift on core online metrics.


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Consistency Regularization for Cross-Lingual Fine-Tuning
Bo Zheng | Li Dong | Shaohan Huang | Wenhui Wang | Zewen Chi | Saksham Singhal | Wanxiang Che | Ting Liu | Xia Song | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Fine-tuning pre-trained cross-lingual language models can transfer task-specific supervision from one language to the others. In this work, we propose to improve cross-lingual fine-tuning with consistency regularization. Specifically, we use example consistency regularization to penalize the prediction sensitivity to four types of data augmentations, i.e., subword sampling, Gaussian noise, code-switch substitution, and machine translation. In addition, we employ model consistency to regularize the models trained with two augmented versions of the same training set. Experimental results on the XTREME benchmark show that our method significantly improves cross-lingual fine-tuning across various tasks, including text classification, question answering, and sequence labeling.

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Improving Pretrained Cross-Lingual Language Models via Self-Labeled Word Alignment
Zewen Chi | Li Dong | Bo Zheng | Shaohan Huang | Xian-Ling Mao | Heyan Huang | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The cross-lingual language models are typically pretrained with masked language modeling on multilingual text or parallel sentences. In this paper, we introduce denoising word alignment as a new cross-lingual pre-training task. Specifically, the model first self-label word alignments for parallel sentences. Then we randomly mask tokens in a bitext pair. Given a masked token, the model uses a pointer network to predict the aligned token in the other language. We alternately perform the above two steps in an expectation-maximization manner. Experimental results show that our method improves cross-lingual transferability on various datasets, especially on the token-level tasks, such as question answering, and structured prediction. Moreover, the model can serve as a pretrained word aligner, which achieves reasonably low error rate on the alignment benchmarks. The code and pretrained parameters are available at

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Allocating Large Vocabulary Capacity for Cross-Lingual Language Model Pre-Training
Bo Zheng | Li Dong | Shaohan Huang | Saksham Singhal | Wanxiang Che | Ting Liu | Xia Song | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Compared to monolingual models, cross-lingual models usually require a more expressive vocabulary to represent all languages adequately. We find that many languages are under-represented in recent cross-lingual language models due to the limited vocabulary capacity. To this end, we propose an algorithm VoCap to determine the desired vocabulary capacity of each language. However, increasing the vocabulary size significantly slows down the pre-training speed. In order to address the issues, we propose k-NN-based target sampling to accelerate the expensive softmax. Our experiments show that the multilingual vocabulary learned with VoCap benefits cross-lingual language model pre-training. Moreover, k-NN-based target sampling mitigates the side-effects of increasing the vocabulary size while achieving comparable performance and faster pre-training speed. The code and the pretrained multilingual vocabularies are available at


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Document Modeling with Graph Attention Networks for Multi-grained Machine Reading Comprehension
Bo Zheng | Haoyang Wen | Yaobo Liang | Nan Duan | Wanxiang Che | Daxin Jiang | Ming Zhou | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Natural Questions is a new challenging machine reading comprehension benchmark with two-grained answers, which are a long answer (typically a paragraph) and a short answer (one or more entities inside the long answer). Despite the effectiveness of existing methods on this benchmark, they treat these two sub-tasks individually during training while ignoring their dependencies. To address this issue, we present a novel multi-grained machine reading comprehension framework that focuses on modeling documents at their hierarchical nature, which are different levels of granularity: documents, paragraphs, sentences, and tokens. We utilize graph attention networks to obtain different levels of representations so that they can be learned simultaneously. The long and short answers can be extracted from paragraph-level representation and token-level representation, respectively. In this way, we can model the dependencies between the two-grained answers to provide evidence for each other. We jointly train the two sub-tasks, and our experiments show that our approach significantly outperforms previous systems at both long and short answer criteria.


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An AMR Aligner Tuned by Transition-based Parser
Yijia Liu | Wanxiang Che | Bo Zheng | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we propose a new rich resource enhanced AMR aligner which produces multiple alignments and a new transition system for AMR parsing along with its oracle parser. Our aligner is further tuned by our oracle parser via picking the alignment that leads to the highest-scored achievable AMR graph. Experimental results show that our aligner outperforms the rule-based aligner in previous work by achieving higher alignment F1 score and consistently improving two open-sourced AMR parsers. Based on our aligner and transition system, we develop a transition-based AMR parser that parses a sentence into its AMR graph directly. An ensemble of our parsers with only words and POS tags as input leads to 68.4 Smatch F1 score, which outperforms the current state-of-the-art parser.

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Towards Better UD Parsing: Deep Contextualized Word Embeddings, Ensemble, and Treebank Concatenation
Wanxiang Che | Yijia Liu | Yuxuan Wang | Bo Zheng | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the CoNLL 2018 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies

This paper describes our system (HIT-SCIR) submitted to the CoNLL 2018 shared task on Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies. We base our submission on Stanford’s winning system for the CoNLL 2017 shared task and make two effective extensions: 1) incorporating deep contextualized word embeddings into both the part of speech tagger and parser; 2) ensembling parsers trained with different initialization. We also explore different ways of concatenating treebanks for further improvements. Experimental results on the development data show the effectiveness of our methods. In the final evaluation, our system was ranked first according to LAS (75.84%) and outperformed the other systems by a large margin.


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The HIT-SCIR System for End-to-End Parsing of Universal Dependencies
Wanxiang Che | Jiang Guo | Yuxuan Wang | Bo Zheng | Huaipeng Zhao | Yang Liu | Dechuan Teng | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the CoNLL 2017 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies

This paper describes our system (HIT-SCIR) for the CoNLL 2017 shared task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies. Our system includes three pipelined components: tokenization, Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging and dependency parsing. We use character-based bidirectional long short-term memory (LSTM) networks for both tokenization and POS tagging. Afterwards, we employ a list-based transition-based algorithm for general non-projective parsing and present an improved Stack-LSTM-based architecture for representing each transition state and making predictions. Furthermore, to parse low/zero-resource languages and cross-domain data, we use a model transfer approach to make effective use of existing resources. We demonstrate substantial gains against the UDPipe baseline, with an average improvement of 3.76% in LAS of all languages. And finally, we rank the 4th place on the official test sets.


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Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis with Long Short-Term Memory Networks
Bo Zheng | Wanxiang Che | Jiang Guo | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Natural Language Processing Techniques for Educational Applications (NLPTEA2016)

Grammatical error diagnosis is an important task in natural language processing. This paper introduces our Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis (CGED) system in the NLP-TEA-3 shared task for CGED. The CGED system can diagnose four types of grammatical errors which are redundant words (R), missing words (M), bad word selection (S) and disordered words (W). We treat the CGED task as a sequence labeling task and describe three models, including a CRF-based model, an LSTM-based model and an ensemble model using stacking. We also show in details how we build and train the models. Evaluation includes three levels, which are detection level, identification level and position level. On the CGED-HSK dataset of NLP-TEA-3 shared task, our system presents the best F1-scores in all the three levels and also the best recall in the last two levels.