Borui Wang


2022

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KAT: A Knowledge Augmented Transformer for Vision-and-Language
Liangke Gui | Borui Wang | Qiuyuan Huang | Alexander Hauptmann | Yonatan Bisk | Jianfeng Gao
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

The primary focus of recent work with large-scale transformers has been on optimizing the amount of information packed into the model’s parameters. In this work, we ask a complementary question: Can multimodal transformers leverage explicit knowledge in their reasoning? Existing, primarily unimodal, methods have explored approaches under the paradigm of knowledge retrieval followed by answer prediction, but leave open questions about the quality and relevance of the retrieved knowledge used, and how the reasoning processes over implicit and explicit knowledge should be integrated. To address these challenges, we propose a - Knowledge Augmented Transformer (KAT) - which achieves a strong state-of-the-art result (+6% absolute) on the open-domain multimodal task of OK-VQA. Our approach integrates implicit and explicit knowledge in an encoder-decoder architecture, while still jointly reasoning over both knowledge sources during answer generation. Additionally, explicit knowledge integration improves interpretability of model predictions in our analysis.

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CONFIT: Toward Faithful Dialogue Summarization with Linguistically-Informed Contrastive Fine-tuning
Xiangru Tang | Arjun Nair | Borui Wang | Bingyao Wang | Jai Desai | Aaron Wade | Haoran Li | Asli Celikyilmaz | Yashar Mehdad | Dragomir Radev
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Factual inconsistencies in generated summaries severely limit the practical applications of abstractive dialogue summarization. Although significant progress has been achieved by using pre-trained neural language models, substantial amounts of hallucinated content are found during the human evaluation. In this work, we first devised a typology of factual errors to better understand the types of hallucinations generated by current models and conducted human evaluation on popular dialog summarization dataset. We further propose a training strategy that improves the factual consistency and overall quality of summaries via a novel contrastive fine-tuning, called CONFIT. To tackle top factual errors from our annotation, we introduce additional contrastive loss with carefully designed hard negative samples and self-supervised dialogue-specific loss to capture the key information between speakers. We show that our model significantly reduces all kinds of factual errors on both SAMSum dialogue summarization and AMI meeting summarization. On both datasets, we achieve significant improvements over state-of-the-art baselines using both automatic metrics, ROUGE and BARTScore, and human evaluation.

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Investigating Crowdsourcing Protocols for Evaluating the Factual Consistency of Summaries
Xiangru Tang | Alexander Fabbri | Haoran Li | Ziming Mao | Griffin Adams | Borui Wang | Asli Celikyilmaz | Yashar Mehdad | Dragomir Radev
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Current pre-trained models applied for summarization are prone to factual inconsistencies that misrepresent the source text. Evaluating the factual consistency of summaries is thus necessary to develop better models. However, the human evaluation setup for evaluating factual consistency has not been standardized. To determine the factors that affect the reliability of the human evaluation, we crowdsource evaluations for factual consistency across state-of-the-art models on two news summarization datasets using the rating-based Likert Scale and ranking-based Best-Worst Scaling. Our analysis reveals that the ranking-based Best-Worst Scaling offers a more reliable measure of summary quality across datasets and that the reliability of Likert ratings highly depends on the target dataset and the evaluation design. To improve crowdsourcing reliability, we extend the scale of the Likert rating and present a scoring algorithm for Best-Worst Scaling that we call value learning. Our crowdsourcing guidelines will be publicly available to facilitate future work on factual consistency in summarization.

2021

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ConvoSumm: Conversation Summarization Benchmark and Improved Abstractive Summarization with Argument Mining
Alexander Fabbri | Faiaz Rahman | Imad Rizvi | Borui Wang | Haoran Li | Yashar Mehdad | Dragomir Radev
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

While online conversations can cover a vast amount of information in many different formats, abstractive text summarization has primarily focused on modeling solely news articles. This research gap is due, in part, to the lack of standardized datasets for summarizing online discussions. To address this gap, we design annotation protocols motivated by an issues–viewpoints–assertions framework to crowdsource four new datasets on diverse online conversation forms of news comments, discussion forums, community question answering forums, and email threads. We benchmark state-of-the-art models on our datasets and analyze characteristics associated with the data. To create a comprehensive benchmark, we also evaluate these models on widely-used conversation summarization datasets to establish strong baselines in this domain. Furthermore, we incorporate argument mining through graph construction to directly model the issues, viewpoints, and assertions present in a conversation and filter noisy input, showing comparable or improved results according to automatic and human evaluations.