Bram Willemsen


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Collecting Visually-Grounded Dialogue with A Game Of Sorts
Bram Willemsen | Dmytro Kalpakchi | Gabriel Skantze
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

An idealized, though simplistic, view of the referring expression production and grounding process in (situated) dialogue assumes that a speaker must merely appropriately specify their expression so that the target referent may be successfully identified by the addressee. However, referring in conversation is a collaborative process that cannot be aptly characterized as an exchange of minimally-specified referring expressions. Concerns have been raised regarding assumptions made by prior work on visually-grounded dialogue that reveal an oversimplified view of conversation and the referential process. We address these concerns by introducing a collaborative image ranking task, a grounded agreement game we call “A Game Of Sorts”. In our game, players are tasked with reaching agreement on how to rank a set of images given some sorting criterion through a largely unrestricted, role-symmetric dialogue. By putting emphasis on the argumentation in this mixed-initiative interaction, we collect discussions that involve the collaborative referential process. We describe results of a small-scale data collection experiment with the proposed task. All discussed materials, which includes the collected data, the codebase, and a containerized version of the application, are publicly available.


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Context-sensitive Natural Language Generation for robot-assisted second language tutoring
Bram Willemsen | Jan de Wit | Emiel Krahmer | Mirjam de Haas | Paul Vogt
Proceedings of the Workshop on NLG for Human–Robot Interaction

This paper describes the L2TOR intelligent tutoring system (ITS), focusing primarily on its output generation module. The L2TOR ITS is developed for the purpose of investigating the efficacy of robot-assisted second language tutoring in early childhood. We explain the process of generating contextually-relevant utterances, such as task-specific feedback messages, and discuss challenges regarding multimodality and multilingualism for situated natural language generation from a robot tutoring perspective.