Budhaditya Deb


2023

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Logical Transformers: Infusing Logical Structures into Pre-Trained Language Models
Borui Wang | Qiuyuan Huang | Budhaditya Deb | Aaron Halfaker | Liqun Shao | Daniel McDuff | Ahmed Hassan Awadallah | Dragomir Radev | Jianfeng Gao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Natural language contains rich logical structures and logical information, and correctly detecting and accurately understanding these logical structures and information underlying natural language texts is very crucial for NLP models’ performance on many important NLU and NLG tasks. Existing pre-trained language models based on the transformer architecture mostly adopt a classical design for constructing their input embeddings that ignores the logical structures underlying natural language texts, thus limiting their ability to better capture and encode key logical information in the input sequences. To overcome such limitations, in this paper we first propose a novel approach to construct logic-aware input embeddings for transformer language models through a combination of logic detection, logic mapping and hierarchical logical projections, and then develop a corresponding new modeling paradigm that can upgrade existing transformer language models into logical transformers to boost their performance on different NLU and NLG tasks. Our empirical experiments on four important and challenging NLU and NLG tasks demonstrate that our proposed logical transformer language models can achieve superior performance over their baseline transformer models through a deeper understanding of the logical structures of texts.

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What are the Desired Characteristics of Calibration Sets? Identifying Correlates on Long Form Scientific Summarization
Griffin Adams | Bichlien Nguyen | Jake Smith | Yingce Xia | Shufang Xie | Anna Ostropolets | Budhaditya Deb | Yuan-Jyue Chen | Tristan Naumann | Noémie Elhadad
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Summarization models often generate text that is poorly calibrated to quality metrics because they are trained to maximize the likelihood of a single reference (MLE). To address this, recent work has added a calibration step, which exposes a model to its own ranked outputs to improve relevance or, in a separate line of work, contrasts positive and negative sets to improve faithfulness. While effective, much of this work has focused on how to generate and optimize these sets. Less is known about why one setup is more effective than another. In this work, we uncover the underlying characteristics of effective sets. For each training instance, we form a large, diverse pool of candidates and systematically vary the subsets used for calibration fine-tuning. Each selection strategy targets distinct aspects of the sets, such as lexical diversity or the size of the gap between positive and negatives. On three diverse scientific long-form summarization datasets (spanning biomedical, clinical, and chemical domains), we find, among others, that faithfulness calibration is optimal when the negative sets are extractive and more likely to be generated, whereas for relevance calibration, the metric margin between candidates should be maximized and surprise–the disagreement between model and metric defined candidate rankings–minimized.

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On Improving Summarization Factual Consistency from Natural Language Feedback
Yixin Liu | Budhaditya Deb | Milagro Teruel | Aaron Halfaker | Dragomir Radev | Ahmed Hassan Awadallah
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Despite the recent progress in language generation models, their outputs may not always meet user expectations. In this work, we study whether informational feedback in natural language can be leveraged to improve generation quality and user preference alignment. To this end, we consider factual consistency in summarization, the quality that the summary should only contain information supported by the input documents, as the user-expected preference. We collect a high-quality dataset, DeFacto, containing human demonstrations and informational natural language feedback consisting of corrective instructions, edited summaries, and explanations with respect to the factual consistency of the summary. Using our dataset, we study three natural language generation tasks: (1) editing a summary by following the human feedback, (2) generating human feedback for editing the original summary, and (3) revising the initial summary to correct factual errors by generating both the human feedback and edited summary. We show that DeFacto can provide factually consistent human-edited summaries and further insights into summarization factual consistency thanks to its informational natural language feedback. We further demonstrate that fine-tuned language models can leverage our dataset to improve the summary factual consistency, while large language models lack the zero-shot learning ability in our proposed tasks that require controllable text generation.

2022

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SummN: A Multi-Stage Summarization Framework for Long Input Dialogues and Documents
Yusen Zhang | Ansong Ni | Ziming Mao | Chen Henry Wu | Chenguang Zhu | Budhaditya Deb | Ahmed Awadallah | Dragomir Radev | Rui Zhang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Text summarization helps readers capture salient information from documents, news, interviews, and meetings. However, most state-of-the-art pretrained language models (LM) are unable to efficiently process long text for many summarization tasks. In this paper, we propose SummN, a simple, flexible, and effective multi-stage framework for input texts that are longer than the maximum context length of typical pretrained LMs. SummN first splits the data samples and generates a coarse summary in multiple stages and then produces the final fine-grained summary based on it. Our framework can process input text of arbitrary length by adjusting the number of stages while keeping the LM input size fixed. Moreover, it can deal with both single-source documents and dialogues, and it can be used on top of different backbone abstractive summarization models. To the best of our knowledge, SummN is the first multi-stage split-then-summarize framework for long input summarization. Our experiments demonstrate that SummN outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods by improving ROUGE scores on three long meeting summarization datasets AMI, ICSI, and QMSum, two long TV series datasets from SummScreen, and a long document summarization dataset GovReport. Our data and code are available at https://github.com/psunlpgroup/Summ-N.

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DYLE: Dynamic Latent Extraction for Abstractive Long-Input Summarization
Ziming Mao | Chen Henry Wu | Ansong Ni | Yusen Zhang | Rui Zhang | Tao Yu | Budhaditya Deb | Chenguang Zhu | Ahmed Awadallah | Dragomir Radev
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Transformer-based models have achieved state-of-the-art performance on short-input summarization. However, they still struggle with summarizing longer text. In this paper, we present DYLE, a novel dynamic latent extraction approach for abstractive long-input summarization. DYLE jointly trains an extractor and a generator and treats the extracted text snippets as the latent variable, allowing dynamic snippet-level attention weights during decoding. To provide adequate supervision, we propose simple yet effective heuristics for oracle extraction as well as a consistency loss term, which encourages the extractor to approximate the averaged dynamic weights predicted by the generator. We evaluate our method on different long-document and long-dialogue summarization tasks: GovReport, QMSum, and arXiv. Experiment results show that DYLE outperforms all existing methods on GovReport and QMSum, with gains up to 6.1 ROUGE, while yielding strong results on arXiv. Further analysis shows that the proposed dynamic weights provide interpretability of our generation process.

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Leveraging Locality in Abstractive Text Summarization
Yixin Liu | Ansong Ni | Linyong Nan | Budhaditya Deb | Chenguang Zhu | Ahmed Hassan Awadallah | Dragomir Radev
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Neural attention models have achieved significant improvements on many natural language processing tasks. However, the quadratic memory complexity of the self-attention module with respect to the input length hinders their applications in long text summarization. Instead of designing more efficient attention modules, we approach this problem by investigating if models with a restricted context can have competitive performance compared with the memory-efficient attention models that maintain a global context by treating the input as a single sequence. Our model is applied to individual pages, which contain parts of inputs grouped by the principle of locality, during both the encoding and decoding stages. We empirically investigated three kinds of locality in text summarization at different levels of granularity, ranging from sentences to documents. Our experimental results show that our model has a better performance compared with strong baseline models with efficient attention modules, and our analysis provides further insights into our locality-aware modeling strategy.

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Boosting Natural Language Generation from Instructions with Meta-Learning
Budhaditya Deb | Ahmed Hassan Awadallah | Guoqing Zheng
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent work has shown that language models (LMs) trained with multi-task instructional learning (MTIL) can solve diverse NLP tasks in zero- and few-shot settings with improved performance compared to prompt tuning. MTIL illustrates that LMs can extract and use information about the task from instructions beyond the surface patterns of the inputs and outputs. This suggests that meta-learning may further enhance the utilization of instructions for effective task transfer. In this paper we investigate whether meta-learning applied to MTIL can further improve generalization to unseen tasks in a zero-shot setting. Specifically, we propose to adapt meta-learning to MTIL in three directions: 1) Model Agnostic Meta Learning (MAML), 2) Hyper-Network (HNet) based adaptation to generate task specific parameters conditioned on instructions, and 3) an approach combining HNet and MAML. Through extensive experiments on the large scale Natural Instructions V2 dataset, we show that our proposed approaches significantly improve over strong baselines in zero-shot settings. In particular, meta-learning improves the effectiveness of instructions and is most impactful when the test tasks are strictly zero-shot (i.e. no similar tasks in the training set) and are “hard” for LMs, illustrating the potential of meta-learning for MTIL for out-of-distribution tasks.

2021

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Language Scaling for Universal Suggested Replies Model
Qianlan Ying | Payal Bajaj | Budhaditya Deb | Yu Yang | Wei Wang | Bojia Lin | Milad Shokouhi | Xia Song | Yang Yang | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Papers

We consider the problem of scaling automated suggested replies for a commercial email application to multiple languages. Faced with increased compute requirements and low language resources for language expansion, we build a single universal model for improving the quality and reducing run-time costs of our production system. However, restricted data movement across regional centers prevents joint training across languages. To this end, we propose a multi-lingual multi-task continual learning framework, with auxiliary tasks and language adapters to train universal language representation across regions. The experimental results show positive cross-lingual transfer across languages while reducing catastrophic forgetting across regions. Our online results on real user traffic show significant CTR and Char-saved gain as well as 65% training cost reduction compared with per-language models. As a consequence, we have scaled the feature in multiple languages including low-resource markets.

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A Conditional Generative Matching Model for Multi-lingual Reply Suggestion
Budhaditya Deb | Guoqing Zheng | Milad Shokouhi | Ahmed Hassan Awadallah
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

We study the problem of multilingual automated reply suggestions (RS) model serving many languages simultaneously. Multilingual models are often challenged by model capacity and severe data distribution skew across languages. While prior works largely focus on monolingual models, we propose Conditional Generative Matching models (CGM), optimized within a Variational Autoencoder framework to address challenges arising from multilingual RS. CGM does so with expressive message conditional priors, mixture densities to enhance multilingual data representation, latent alignment for language discrimination, and effective variational optimization techniques for training multilingual RS. The enhancements result in performance that exceed competitive baselines in relevance (ROUGE score) by more than 10% on average, and 16%for low resource languages. CGM also shows remarkable improvements in diversity (80%) illustrating its expressiveness in representation of multi-lingual data.

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An Exploratory Study on Long Dialogue Summarization: What Works and What’s Next
Yusen Zhang | Ansong Ni | Tao Yu | Rui Zhang | Chenguang Zhu | Budhaditya Deb | Asli Celikyilmaz | Ahmed Hassan Awadallah | Dragomir Radev
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Dialogue summarization helps readers capture salient information from long conversations in meetings, interviews, and TV series. However, real-world dialogues pose a great challenge to current summarization models, as the dialogue length typically exceeds the input limits imposed by recent transformer-based pre-trained models, and the interactive nature of dialogues makes relevant information more context-dependent and sparsely distributed than news articles. In this work, we perform a comprehensive study on long dialogue summarization by investigating three strategies to deal with the lengthy input problem and locate relevant information: (1) extended transformer models such as Longformer, (2) retrieve-then-summarize pipeline models with several dialogue utterance retrieval methods, and (3) hierarchical dialogue encoding models such as HMNet. Our experimental results on three long dialogue datasets (QMSum, MediaSum, SummScreen) show that the retrieve-then-summarize pipeline models yield the best performance. We also demonstrate that the summary quality can be further improved with a stronger retrieval model and pretraining on proper external summarization datasets.

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A Dataset and Baselines for Multilingual Reply Suggestion
Mozhi Zhang | Wei Wang | Budhaditya Deb | Guoqing Zheng | Milad Shokouhi | Ahmed Hassan Awadallah
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Reply suggestion models help users process emails and chats faster. Previous work only studies English reply suggestion. Instead, we present MRS, a multilingual reply suggestion dataset with ten languages. MRS can be used to compare two families of models: 1) retrieval models that select the reply from a fixed set and 2) generation models that produce the reply from scratch. Therefore, MRS complements existing cross-lingual generalization benchmarks that focus on classification and sequence labeling tasks. We build a generation model and a retrieval model as baselines for MRS. The two models have different strengths in the monolingual setting, and they require different strategies to generalize across languages. MRS is publicly available at https://github.com/zhangmozhi/mrs.

2019

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Diversifying Reply Suggestions Using a Matching-Conditional Variational Autoencoder
Budhaditya Deb | Peter Bailey | Milad Shokouhi
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Industry Papers)

We consider the problem of diversifying automated reply suggestions for a commercial instant-messaging (IM) system (Skype). Our conversation model is a standard matching based information retrieval architecture, which consists of two parallel encoders to project messages and replies into a common feature representation. During inference, we select replies from a fixed response set using nearest neighbors in the feature space. To diversify responses, we formulate the model as a generative latent variable model with Conditional Variational Auto-Encoder (M-CVAE). We propose a constrained-sampling approach to make the variational inference in M-CVAE efficient for our production system. In offline experiments, M-CVAE consistently increased diversity by ∼30−40% without significant impact on relevance. This translated to a ∼5% gain in click-rate in our online production system.