Byungseok Roh


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Large Language Models are Temporal and Causal Reasoners for Video Question Answering
Dohwan Ko | Ji Lee | Woo-Young Kang | Byungseok Roh | Hyunwoo Kim
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large Language Models (LLMs) have shown remarkable performances on a wide range of natural language understanding and generation tasks. We observe that the LLMs provide effective priors in exploiting linguistic shortcuts for temporal and causal reasoning in Video Question Answering (VideoQA). However, such priors often cause suboptimal results on VideoQA by leading the model to over-rely on questions, i.e., linguistic bias, while ignoring visual content. This is also known as ‘ungrounded guesses’ or ‘hallucinations’. To address this problem while leveraging LLMs’ prior on VideoQA, we propose a novel framework, Flipped-VQA, encouraging the model to predict all the combinations of V, Q, A triplet by flipping the source pair and the target label to understand their complex relationships, i.e., predict A, Q, and V given a VQ, VA, and QA pairs, respectively. In this paper, we develop LLaMA-VQA by applying Flipped-VQA to LLaMA, and it outperforms both LLMs-based and non-LLMs-based models on five challenging VideoQA benchmarks. Furthermore, our Flipped-VQA is a general framework that is applicable to various LLMs (OPT and GPT-J) and consistently improves their performances. We empirically demonstrate that Flipped-VQA not only enhances the exploitation of linguistic shortcuts but also mitigates the linguistic bias, which causes incorrect answers over-relying on the question. Code is available at


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Efficient Multilingual Multi-modal Pre-training through Triple Contrastive Loss
Youhan Lee | KyungTae Lim | Woonhyuk Baek | Byungseok Roh | Saehoon Kim
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Learning visual and textual representations in the shared space from web-scale image-text pairs improves the performance of diverse vision-and-language tasks, as well as modality-specific tasks. Many attempts in this framework have been made to connect English-only texts and images, and only a few works have been proposed to extend this framework in multilingual settings with the help of many translation pairs. In this multilingual approach, a typical setup is to use pairs of (image and English-text) and translation pairs. The major limitation of this approach is that the learning signal of aligning visual representation with under-resourced language representation is not strong, achieving a sub-optimal performance of vision-and-language tasks. In this work, we propose a simple yet effective enhancement scheme for previous multilingual multi-modal representation methods by using a limited number of pairs of images and non-English texts. In specific, our scheme fine-tunes a pre-trained multilingual model by minimizing a triplet contrastive loss on triplets of image and two different language texts with the same meaning, improving the connection between images and non-English texts. Experiments confirm that our enhancement strategy achieves performance gains in image-text retrieval, zero-shot image classification, and sentence embedding tasks.