Cao Liu


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Interpreting Sentiment Composition with Latent Semantic Tree
Zhongtao Jiang | Yuanzhe Zhang | Cao Liu | Jiansong Chen | Jun Zhao | Kang Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

As the key to sentiment analysis, sentiment composition considers the classification of a constituent via classifications of its contained sub-constituents and rules operated on them. Such compositionality has been widely studied previously in the form of hierarchical trees including untagged and sentiment ones, which are intrinsically suboptimal in our view. To address this, we propose semantic tree, a new tree form capable of interpreting the sentiment composition in a principled way. Semantic tree is a derivation of a context-free grammar (CFG) describing the specific composition rules on difference semantic roles, which is designed carefully following previous linguistic conclusions. However, semantic tree is a latent variable since there is no its annotation in regular datasets. Thus, in our method, it is marginalized out via inside algorithm and learned to optimize the classification performance. Quantitative and qualitative results demonstrate that our method not only achieves better or competitive results compared to baselines in the setting of regular and domain adaptation classification, and also generates plausible tree explanations.

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Generative Calibration for In-context Learning
Zhongtao Jiang | Yuanzhe Zhang | Cao Liu | Jun Zhao | Kang Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

As one of the most exciting features of large language models (LLMs), in-context learning is a mixed blessing. While it allows users to fast-prototype a task solver with only a few training examples, the performance is generally sensitive to various configurations of the prompt such as the choice or order of the training examples. In this paper, we for the first time theoretically and empirically identify that such a paradox is mainly due to the label shift of the in-context model to the data distribution, in which LLMs shift the label marginal p(y) while having a good label conditional p(x|y). With this understanding, we can simply calibrate the in-context predictive distribution by adjusting the label marginal, which is estimated via Monte-Carlo sampling over the in-context model, i.e., generation of LLMs. We call our approach as generative calibration. We conduct exhaustive experiments with 12 text classification tasks and 12 LLMs scaling from 774M to 33B, generally find that the proposed method greatly and consistently outperforms the ICL as well as state-of-the-art calibration methods, by up to 27% absolute in macro-F1. Meanwhile, the proposed method is also stable under different prompt configurations.

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Representative Demonstration Selection for In-Context Learning with Two-Stage Determinantal Point Process
Zhao Yang | Yuanzhe Zhang | Dianbo Sui | Cao Liu | Jun Zhao | Kang Liu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Although In-Context Learning has proven effective across a broad array of tasks, its efficiency is noticeably influenced by the selection of demonstrations. Existing methods tend to select different demonstrations for each test instance, which is time-consuming and poses limitations in practical scenarios. Therefore, this study aims to address the challenge of selecting a representative subset of in-context demonstrations that can effectively prompt different test instances in a specific task. We propose that this representative subset should be of high quality and diversity. Our empirical analyses confirm that demonstrations that meet these criteria can indeed bolster model performance. To satisfy these criteria, this paper further introduces a two-stage Determinantal Point Process (DPP) method designed to incorporate both quality and diversity in the process of demonstration selection, thereby obtaining representative in-context demonstrations. Through comprehensive experimentation, we have confirmed the efficacy of our proposed method, paving the way for more practical and effective In-Context Learning.

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Ambiguous Learning from Retrieval: Towards Zero-shot Semantic Parsing
Shan Wu | Chunlei Xin | Hongyu Lin | Xianpei Han | Cao Liu | Jiansong Chen | Fan Yang | Guanglu Wan | Le Sun
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Current neural semantic parsers take a supervised approach requiring a considerable amount of training data which is expensive and difficult to obtain. Thus, minimizing the supervision effort is one of the key challenges in semantic parsing. In this paper, we propose the Retrieval as Ambiguous Supervision framework, in which we construct a retrieval system based on pretrained language models to collect high-coverage candidates. Assuming candidates always contain the correct ones, we convert zero-shot task into ambiguously supervised task. To improve the precision and coverage of such ambiguous supervision, we propose a confidence-driven self-training algorithm, in which a semantic parser is learned and exploited to disambiguate the candidates iteratively. Experimental results show that our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art zero-shot semantic parsing methods.


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MT-Speech at SemEval-2022 Task 10: Incorporating Data Augmentation and Auxiliary Task with Cross-Lingual Pretrained Language Model for Structured Sentiment Analysis
Cong Chen | Jiansong Chen | Cao Liu | Fan Yang | Guanglu Wan | Jinxiong Xia
Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2022)

Sentiment analysis is a fundamental task, and structure sentiment analysis (SSA) is an important component of sentiment analysis. However, traditional SSA is suffering from some important issues: (1) lack of interactive knowledge of different languages; (2) small amount of annotation data or even no annotation data. To address the above problems, we incorporate data augment and auxiliary tasks within a cross-lingual pretrained language model into SSA. Specifically, we employ XLM-Roberta to enhance mutually interactive information when parallel data is available in the pretraining stage. Furthermore, we leverage two data augment strategies and auxiliary tasks to improve the performance on few-label data and zero-shot cross-lingual settings. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our models. Our models rank first on the cross-lingual sub-task and rank second on the monolingual sub-task of SemEval-2022 task 10.


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Domain-Lifelong Learning for Dialogue State Tracking via Knowledge Preservation Networks
Qingbin Liu | Pengfei Cao | Cao Liu | Jiansong Chen | Xunliang Cai | Fan Yang | Shizhu He | Kang Liu | Jun Zhao
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Dialogue state tracking (DST), which estimates user goals given a dialogue context, is an essential component of task-oriented dialogue systems. Conventional DST models are usually trained offline, which requires a fixed dataset prepared in advance. This paradigm is often impractical in real-world applications since online dialogue systems usually involve continually emerging new data and domains. Therefore, this paper explores Domain-Lifelong Learning for Dialogue State Tracking (DLL-DST), which aims to continually train a DST model on new data to learn incessantly emerging new domains while avoiding catastrophically forgetting old learned domains. To this end, we propose a novel domain-lifelong learning method, called Knowledge Preservation Networks (KPN), which consists of multi-prototype enhanced retrospection and multi-strategy knowledge distillation, to solve the problems of expression diversity and combinatorial explosion in the DLL-DST task. Experimental results show that KPN effectively alleviates catastrophic forgetting and outperforms previous state-of-the-art lifelong learning methods by 4.25% and 8.27% of whole joint goal accuracy on the MultiWOZ benchmark and the SGD benchmark, respectively.


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Incorporating Interlocutor-Aware Context into Response Generation on Multi-Party Chatbots
Cao Liu | Kang Liu | Shizhu He | Zaiqing Nie | Jun Zhao
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Conventional chatbots focus on two-party response generation, which simplifies the real dialogue scene. In this paper, we strive toward a novel task of Response Generation on Multi-Party Chatbot (RGMPC), where the generated responses heavily rely on the interlocutors’ roles (e.g., speaker and addressee) and their utterances. Unfortunately, complex interactions among the interlocutors’ roles make it challenging to precisely capture conversational contexts and interlocutors’ information. Facing this challenge, we present a response generation model which incorporates Interlocutor-aware Contexts into Recurrent Encoder-Decoder frameworks (ICRED) for RGMPC. Specifically, we employ interactive representations to capture dialogue contexts for different interlocutors. Moreover, we leverage an addressee memory to enhance contextual interlocutor information for the target addressee. Finally, we construct a corpus for RGMPC based on an existing open-access dataset. Automatic and manual evaluations demonstrate that the ICRED remarkably outperforms strong baselines.

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Generating Questions for Knowledge Bases via Incorporating Diversified Contexts and Answer-Aware Loss
Cao Liu | Kang Liu | Shizhu He | Zaiqing Nie | Jun Zhao
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We tackle the task of question generation over knowledge bases. Conventional methods for this task neglect two crucial research issues: 1) the given predicate needs to be expressed; 2) the answer to the generated question needs to be definitive. In this paper, we strive toward the above two issues via incorporating diversified contexts and answer-aware loss. Specifically, we propose a neural encoder-decoder model with multi-level copy mechanisms to generate such questions. Furthermore, the answer aware loss is introduced to make generated questions corresponding to more definitive answers. Experiments demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance. Meanwhile, such generated question is able to express the given predicate and correspond to a definitive answer.

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Vocabulary Pyramid Network: Multi-Pass Encoding and Decoding with Multi-Level Vocabularies for Response Generation
Cao Liu | Shizhu He | Kang Liu | Jun Zhao
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We study the task of response generation. Conventional methods employ a fixed vocabulary and one-pass decoding, which not only make them prone to safe and general responses but also lack further refining to the first generated raw sequence. To tackle the above two problems, we present a Vocabulary Pyramid Network (VPN) which is able to incorporate multi-pass encoding and decoding with multi-level vocabularies into response generation. Specifically, the dialogue input and output are represented by multi-level vocabularies which are obtained from hierarchical clustering of raw words. Then, multi-pass encoding and decoding are conducted on the multi-level vocabularies. Since VPN is able to leverage rich encoding and decoding information with multi-level vocabularies, it has the potential to generate better responses. Experiments on English Twitter and Chinese Weibo datasets demonstrate that VPN remarkably outperforms strong baselines.


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Generating Natural Answers by Incorporating Copying and Retrieving Mechanisms in Sequence-to-Sequence Learning
Shizhu He | Cao Liu | Kang Liu | Jun Zhao
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Generating answer with natural language sentence is very important in real-world question answering systems, which needs to obtain a right answer as well as a coherent natural response. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end question answering system called COREQA in sequence-to-sequence learning, which incorporates copying and retrieving mechanisms to generate natural answers within an encoder-decoder framework. Specifically, in COREQA, the semantic units (words, phrases and entities) in a natural answer are dynamically predicted from the vocabulary, copied from the given question and/or retrieved from the corresponding knowledge base jointly. Our empirical study on both synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrates the efficiency of COREQA, which is able to generate correct, coherent and natural answers for knowledge inquired questions.

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IJCNLP-2017 Task 5: Multi-choice Question Answering in Examinations
Shangmin Guo | Kang Liu | Shizhu He | Cao Liu | Jun Zhao | Zhuoyu Wei
Proceedings of the IJCNLP 2017, Shared Tasks

The IJCNLP-2017 Multi-choice Question Answering(MCQA) task aims at exploring the performance of current Question Answering(QA) techniques via the realworld complex questions collected from Chinese Senior High School Entrance Examination papers and CK12 website1. The questions are all 4-way multi-choice questions writing in Chinese and English respectively that cover a wide range of subjects, e.g. Biology, History, Life Science and etc. And, all questions are restrained within the elementary and middle school level. During the whole procedure of this task, 7 teams submitted 323 runs in total. This paper describes the collected data, the format and size of these questions, formal run statistics and results, overview and performance statistics of different methods