Nominalization re-writes a clause as a noun phrase. It requires the transformation of the head verb of the clause into a deverbal noun, and the verb’s modifiers into nominal modifiers. Past research has focused on the selection of deverbal nouns, but has paid less attention to predicting the word positions and word forms for the nominal modifiers. We propose the use of a textual entailment model for clause nominalization. We obtained the best performance by fine-tuning a textual entailment model on this task, outperforming a number of unsupervised approaches using language model scores from a state-of-the-art neural language model.
Commonly found in academic and formal texts, a nominalization uses a deverbal noun to describe an event associated with its corresponding verb. Nominalizations can be difficult to interpret because of ambiguous semantic relations between the deverbal noun and its arguments. Automatic generation of clausal paraphrases for nominalizations can help disambiguate their meaning. However, previous work has not identified cases where it is awkward or impossible to paraphrase a compound nominalization. This paper investigates unsupervised prediction of paraphrasability, which determines whether the prenominal modifier of a nominalization can be re-written as a noun or adverb in a clausal paraphrase. We adopt the approach of overgenerating candidate paraphrases followed by candidate ranking with a neural language model. In experiments on an English dataset, we show that features from an Abstract Meaning Representation graph lead to statistically significant improvement in both paraphrasability prediction and paraphrase generation.
A nominalization uses a deverbal noun to describe an event associated with its underlying verb. Commonly found in academic and formal texts, nominalizations can be difficult to interpret because of ambiguous semantic relations between the deverbal noun and its arguments. Our goal is to interpret nominalizations by generating clausal paraphrases. We address compound nominalizations with both nominal and adjectival modifiers, as well as prepositional phrases. In evaluations on a number of unsupervised methods, we obtained the strongest performance by using a pre-trained contextualized language model to re-rank paraphrase candidates identified by a textual entailment model.