Carolina Scarton

Also published as: Carolina Evaristo Scarton


2022

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Controlling Formality in Low-Resource NMT with Domain Adaptation and Re-Ranking: SLT-CDT-UoS at IWSLT2022
Sebastian Vincent | Loïc Barrault | Carolina Scarton
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2022)

This paper describes the SLT-CDT-UoS group’s submission to the first Special Task on Formality Control for Spoken Language Translation, part of the IWSLT 2022 Evaluation Campaign. Our efforts were split between two fronts: data engineering and altering the objective function for best hypothesis selection. We used language-independent methods to extract formal and informal sentence pairs from the provided corpora; using English as a pivot language, we propagated formality annotations to languages treated as zero-shot in the task; we also further improved formality controlling with a hypothesis re-ranking approach. On the test sets for English-to-German and English-to-Spanish, we achieved an average accuracy of .935 within the constrained setting and .995 within unconstrained setting. In a zero-shot setting for English-to-Russian and English-to-Italian, we scored average accuracy of .590 for constrained setting and .659 for unconstrained.

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Sample Efficient Approaches for Idiomaticity Detection
Dylan Phelps | Xuan-Rui Fan | Edward Gow-Smith | Harish Tayyar Madabushi | Carolina Scarton | Aline Villavicencio
Proceedings of the 18th Workshop on Multiword Expressions @LREC2022

Deep neural models, in particular Transformer-based pre-trained language models, require a significant amount of data to train. This need for data tends to lead to problems when dealing with idiomatic multiword expressions (MWEs), which are inherently less frequent in natural text. As such, this work explores sample efficient methods of idiomaticity detection. In particular we study the impact of Pattern Exploit Training (PET), a few-shot method of classification, and BERTRAM, an efficient method of creating contextual embeddings, on the task of idiomaticity detection. In addition, to further explore generalisability, we focus on the identification of MWEs not present in the training data. Our experiments show that while these methods improve performance on English, they are much less effective on Portuguese and Galician, leading to an overall performance about on par with vanilla mBERT. Regardless, we believe sample efficient methods for both identifying and representing potentially idiomatic MWEs are very encouraging and hold significant potential for future exploration.

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Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation
Helena Moniz | Lieve Macken | Andrew Rufener | Loïc Barrault | Marta R. Costa-jussà | Christophe Declercq | Maarit Koponen | Ellie Kemp | Spyridon Pilos | Mikel L. Forcada | Carolina Scarton | Joachim Van den Bogaert | Joke Daems | Arda Tezcan | Bram Vanroy | Margot Fonteyne
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

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Controlling Extra-Textual Attributes about Dialogue Participants: A Case Study of English-to-Polish Neural Machine Translation
Sebastian T. Vincent | Loïc Barrault | Carolina Scarton
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

Unlike English, morphologically rich languages can reveal characteristics of speakers or their conversational partners, such as gender and number, via pronouns, morphological endings of words and syntax. When translating from English to such languages, a machine translation model needs to opt for a certain interpretation of textual context, which may lead to serious translation errors if extra-textual information is unavailable. We investigate this challenge in the English-to-Polish language direction. We focus on the underresearched problem of utilising external metadata in automatic translation of TV dialogue, proposing a case study where a wide range of approaches for controlling attributes in translation is employed in a multi-attribute scenario. The best model achieves an improvement of +5.81 chrF++/+6.03 BLEU, with other models achieving competitive performance. We additionally contribute a novel attribute-annotated dataset of Polish TV dialogue and a morphological analysis script used to evaluate attribute control in models.

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SemEval-2022 Task 2: Multilingual Idiomaticity Detection and Sentence Embedding
Harish Tayyar Madabushi | Edward Gow-Smith | Marcos Garcia | Carolina Scarton | Marco Idiart | Aline Villavicencio
Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2022)

This paper presents the shared task on Multilingual Idiomaticity Detection and Sentence Embedding, which consists of two subtasks: (a) a binary classification task aimed at identifying whether a sentence contains an idiomatic expression, and (b) a task based on semantic text similarity which requires the model to adequately represent potentially idiomatic expressions in context. Each subtask includes different settings regarding the amount of training data. Besides the task description, this paper introduces the datasets in English, Portuguese, and Galician and their annotation procedure, the evaluation metrics, and a summary of the participant systems and their results. The task had close to 100 registered participants organised into twenty five teams making over 650 and 150 submissions in the practice and evaluation phases respectively.

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GateNLP-UShef at SemEval-2022 Task 8: Entity-Enriched Siamese Transformer for Multilingual News Article Similarity
Iknoor Singh | Yue Li | Melissa Thong | Carolina Scarton
Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2022)

This paper describes the second-placed system on the leaderboard of SemEval-2022 Task 8: Multilingual News Article Similarity. We propose an entity-enriched Siamese Transformer which computes news article similarity based on different sub-dimensions, such as the shared narrative, entities, location and time of the event discussed in the news article. Our system exploits a Siamese network architecture using a Transformer encoder to learn document-level representations for the purpose of capturing the narrative together with the auxiliary entity-based features extracted from the news articles. The intuition behind using all these features together is to capture the similarity between news articles at different granularity levels and to assess the extent to which different news outlets write about “the same events”. Our experimental results and detailed ablation study demonstrate the effectiveness and the validity of our proposed method.

2021

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AStitchInLanguageModels: Dataset and Methods for the Exploration of Idiomaticity in Pre-Trained Language Models
Harish Tayyar Madabushi | Edward Gow-Smith | Carolina Scarton | Aline Villavicencio
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Despite their success in a variety of NLP tasks, pre-trained language models, due to their heavy reliance on compositionality, fail in effectively capturing the meanings of multiword expressions (MWEs), especially idioms. Therefore, datasets and methods to improve the representation of MWEs are urgently needed. Existing datasets are limited to providing the degree of idiomaticity of expressions along with the literal and, where applicable, (a single) non-literal interpretation of MWEs. This work presents a novel dataset of naturally occurring sentences containing MWEs manually classified into a fine-grained set of meanings, spanning both English and Portuguese. We use this dataset in two tasks designed to test i) a language model’s ability to detect idiom usage, and ii) the effectiveness of a language model in generating representations of sentences containing idioms. Our experiments demonstrate that, on the task of detecting idiomatic usage, these models perform reasonably well in the one-shot and few-shot scenarios, but that there is significant scope for improvement in the zero-shot scenario. On the task of representing idiomaticity, we find that pre-training is not always effective, while fine-tuning could provide a sample efficient method of learning representations of sentences containing MWEs.

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Assessing the Representations of Idiomaticity in Vector Models with a Noun Compound Dataset Labeled at Type and Token Levels
Marcos Garcia | Tiago Kramer Vieira | Carolina Scarton | Marco Idiart | Aline Villavicencio
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Accurate assessment of the ability of embedding models to capture idiomaticity may require evaluation at token rather than type level, to account for degrees of idiomaticity and possible ambiguity between literal and idiomatic usages. However, most existing resources with annotation of idiomaticity include ratings only at type level. This paper presents the Noun Compound Type and Token Idiomaticity (NCTTI) dataset, with human annotations for 280 noun compounds in English and 180 in Portuguese at both type and token level. We compiled 8,725 and 5,091 token level annotations for English and Portuguese, respectively, which are strongly correlated with the corresponding scores obtained at type level. The NCTTI dataset is used to explore how vector space models reflect the variability of idiomaticity across sentences. Several experiments using state-of-the-art contextualised models suggest that their representations are not capturing the noun compounds idiomaticity as human annotators. This new multilingual resource also contains suggestions for paraphrases of the noun compounds both at type and token levels, with uses for lexical substitution or disambiguation in context.

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Probing for idiomaticity in vector space models
Marcos Garcia | Tiago Kramer Vieira | Carolina Scarton | Marco Idiart | Aline Villavicencio
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Contextualised word representation models have been successfully used for capturing different word usages and they may be an attractive alternative for representing idiomaticity in language. In this paper, we propose probing measures to assess if some of the expected linguistic properties of noun compounds, especially those related to idiomatic meanings, and their dependence on context and sensitivity to lexical choice, are readily available in some standard and widely used representations. For that, we constructed the Noun Compound Senses Dataset, which contains noun compounds and their paraphrases, in context neutral and context informative naturalistic sentences, in two languages: English and Portuguese. Results obtained using four types of probing measures with models like ELMo, BERT and some of its variants, indicate that idiomaticity is not yet accurately represented by contextualised models

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The (Un)Suitability of Automatic Evaluation Metrics for Text Simplification
Fernando Alva-Manchego | Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia
Computational Linguistics, Volume 47, Issue 4 - December 2021

Abstract In order to simplify sentences, several rewriting operations can be performed, such as replacing complex words per simpler synonyms, deleting unnecessary information, and splitting long sentences. Despite this multi-operation nature, evaluation of automatic simplification systems relies on metrics that moderately correlate with human judgments on the simplicity achieved by executing specific operations (e.g., simplicity gain based on lexical replacements). In this article, we investigate how well existing metrics can assess sentence-level simplifications where multiple operations may have been applied and which, therefore, require more general simplicity judgments. For that, we first collect a new and more reliable data set for evaluating the correlation of metrics and human judgments of overall simplicity. Second, we conduct the first meta-evaluation of automatic metrics in Text Simplification, using our new data set (and other existing data) to analyze the variation of the correlation between metrics’ scores and human judgments across three dimensions: the perceived simplicity level, the system type, and the set of references used for computation. We show that these three aspects affect the correlations and, in particular, highlight the limitations of commonly used operation-specific metrics. Finally, based on our findings, we propose a set of recommendations for automatic evaluation of multi-operation simplifications, suggesting which metrics to compute and how to interpret their scores.

2020

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ASSET: A Dataset for Tuning and Evaluation of Sentence Simplification Models with Multiple Rewriting Transformations
Fernando Alva-Manchego | Louis Martin | Antoine Bordes | Carolina Scarton | Benoît Sagot | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In order to simplify a sentence, human editors perform multiple rewriting transformations: they split it into several shorter sentences, paraphrase words (i.e. replacing complex words or phrases by simpler synonyms), reorder components, and/or delete information deemed unnecessary. Despite these varied range of possible text alterations, current models for automatic sentence simplification are evaluated using datasets that are focused on a single transformation, such as lexical paraphrasing or splitting. This makes it impossible to understand the ability of simplification models in more realistic settings. To alleviate this limitation, this paper introduces ASSET, a new dataset for assessing sentence simplification in English. ASSET is a crowdsourced multi-reference corpus where each simplification was produced by executing several rewriting transformations. Through quantitative and qualitative experiments, we show that simplifications in ASSET are better at capturing characteristics of simplicity when compared to other standard evaluation datasets for the task. Furthermore, we motivate the need for developing better methods for automatic evaluation using ASSET, since we show that current popular metrics may not be suitable when multiple simplification transformations are performed.

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Revisiting Rumour Stance Classification: Dealing with Imbalanced Data
Yue Li | Carolina Scarton
Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Rumours and Deception in Social Media (RDSM)

Correctly classifying stances of replies can be significantly helpful for the automatic detection and classification of online rumours. One major challenge is that there are considerably more non-relevant replies (comments) than informative ones (supports and denies), making the task highly imbalanced. In this paper we revisit the task of rumour stance classification, aiming to improve the performance over the informative minority classes. We experiment with traditional methods for imbalanced data treatment with feature- and BERT-based classifiers. Our models outperform all systems in RumourEval 2017 shared task and rank second in RumourEval 2019.

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Data-Driven Sentence Simplification: Survey and Benchmark
Fernando Alva-Manchego | Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia
Computational Linguistics, Volume 46, Issue 1 - March 2020

Sentence Simplification (SS) aims to modify a sentence in order to make it easier to read and understand. In order to do so, several rewriting transformations can be performed such as replacement, reordering, and splitting. Executing these transformations while keeping sentences grammatical, preserving their main idea, and generating simpler output, is a challenging and still far from solved problem. In this article, we survey research on SS, focusing on approaches that attempt to learn how to simplify using corpora of aligned original-simplified sentence pairs in English, which is the dominant paradigm nowadays. We also include a benchmark of different approaches on common data sets so as to compare them and highlight their strengths and limitations. We expect that this survey will serve as a starting point for researchers interested in the task and help spark new ideas for future developments.

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Measuring the Impact of Readability Features in Fake News Detection
Roney Santos | Gabriela Pedro | Sidney Leal | Oto Vale | Thiago Pardo | Kalina Bontcheva | Carolina Scarton
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

The proliferation of fake news is a current issue that influences a number of important areas of society, such as politics, economy and health. In the Natural Language Processing area, recent initiatives tried to detect fake news in different ways, ranging from language-based approaches to content-based verification. In such approaches, the choice of the features for the classification of fake and true news is one of the most important parts of the process. This paper presents a study on the impact of readability features to detect fake news for the Brazilian Portuguese language. The results show that such features are relevant to the task (achieving, alone, up to 92% classification accuracy) and may improve previous classification results.

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Toxic Language Detection in Social Media for Brazilian Portuguese: New Dataset and Multilingual Analysis
João Augusto Leite | Diego Silva | Kalina Bontcheva | Carolina Scarton
Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

Hate speech and toxic comments are a common concern of social media platform users. Although these comments are, fortunately, the minority in these platforms, they are still capable of causing harm. Therefore, identifying these comments is an important task for studying and preventing the proliferation of toxicity in social media. Previous work in automatically detecting toxic comments focus mainly in English, with very few work in languages like Brazilian Portuguese. In this paper, we propose a new large-scale dataset for Brazilian Portuguese with tweets annotated as either toxic or non-toxic or in different types of toxicity. We present our dataset collection and annotation process, where we aimed to select candidates covering multiple demographic groups. State-of-the-art BERT models were able to achieve 76% macro-F1 score using monolingual data in the binary case. We also show that large-scale monolingual data is still needed to create more accurate models, despite recent advances in multilingual approaches. An error analysis and experiments with multi-label classification show the difficulty of classifying certain types of toxic comments that appear less frequently in our data and highlights the need to develop models that are aware of different categories of toxicity.

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Measuring What Counts: The Case of Rumour Stance Classification
Carolina Scarton | Diego Silva | Kalina Bontcheva
Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

Stance classification can be a powerful tool for understanding whether and which users believe in online rumours. The task aims to automatically predict the stance of replies towards a given rumour, namely support, deny, question, or comment. Numerous methods have been proposed and their performance compared in the RumourEval shared tasks in 2017 and 2019. Results demonstrated that this is a challenging problem since naturally occurring rumour stance data is highly imbalanced. This paper specifically questions the evaluation metrics used in these shared tasks. We re-evaluate the systems submitted to the two RumourEval tasks and show that the two widely adopted metrics – accuracy and macro-F1 – are not robust for the four-class imbalanced task of rumour stance classification, as they wrongly favour systems with highly skewed accuracy towards the majority class. To overcome this problem, we propose new evaluation metrics for rumour stance detection. These are not only robust to imbalanced data but also score higher systems that are capable of recognising the two most informative minority classes (support and deny).

2019

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EASSE: Easier Automatic Sentence Simplification Evaluation
Fernando Alva-Manchego | Louis Martin | Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP): System Demonstrations

We introduce EASSE, a Python package aiming to facilitate and standardise automatic evaluation and comparison of Sentence Simplification (SS) systems. EASSE provides a single access point to a broad range of evaluation resources: standard automatic metrics for assessing SS outputs (e.g. SARI), word-level accuracy scores for certain simplification transformations, reference-independent quality estimation features (e.g. compression ratio), and standard test data for SS evaluation (e.g. TurkCorpus). Finally, EASSE generates easy-to-visualise reports on the various metrics and features above and on how a particular SS output fares against reference simplifications. Through experiments, we show that these functionalities allow for better comparison and understanding of the performance of SS systems.

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Cross-Sentence Transformations in Text Simplification
Fernando Alva-Manchego | Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the 2019 Workshop on Widening NLP

Current approaches to Text Simplification focus on simplifying sentences individually. However, certain simplification transformations span beyond single sentences (e.g. joining and re-ordering sentences). In this paper, we motivate the need for modelling the simplification task at the document level, and assess the performance of sequence-to-sequence neural models in this setup. We analyse parallel original-simplified documents created by professional editors and show that there are frequent rewriting transformations that are not restricted to sentence boundaries. We also propose strategies to automatically evaluate the performance of a simplification model on these cross-sentence transformations. Our experiments show the inability of standard sequence-to-sequence neural models to learn these transformations, and suggest directions towards document-level simplification.

2018

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Exploring gap filling as a cheaper alternative to reading comprehension questionnaires when evaluating machine translation for gisting
Mikel L. Forcada | Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia | Barry Haddow | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Research Papers

A popular application of machine translation (MT) is gisting: MT is consumed as is to make sense of text in a foreign language. Evaluation of the usefulness of MT for gisting is surprisingly uncommon. The classical method uses reading comprehension questionnaires (RCQ), in which informants are asked to answer professionally-written questions in their language about a foreign text that has been machine-translated into their language. Recently, gap-filling (GF), a form of cloze testing, has been proposed as a cheaper alternative to RCQ. In GF, certain words are removed from reference translations and readers are asked to fill the gaps left using the machine-translated text as a hint. This paper reports, for the first time, a comparative evaluation, using both RCQ and GF, of translations from multiple MT systems for the same foreign texts, and a systematic study on the effect of variables such as gap density, gap-selection strategies, and document context in GF. The main findings of the study are: (a) both RCQ and GF clearly identify MT to be useful; (b) global RCQ and GF rankings for the MT systems are mostly in agreement; (c) GF scores vary very widely across informants, making comparisons among MT systems hard, and (d) unlike RCQ, which is framed around documents, GF evaluation can be framed at the sentence level. These findings support the use of GF as a cheaper alternative to RCQ.

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Sheffield Submissions for WMT18 Multimodal Translation Shared Task
Chiraag Lala | Pranava Swaroop Madhyastha | Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers

This paper describes the University of Sheffield’s submissions to the WMT18 Multimodal Machine Translation shared task. We participated in both tasks 1 and 1b. For task 1, we build on a standard sequence to sequence attention-based neural machine translation system (NMT) and investigate the utility of multimodal re-ranking approaches. More specifically, n-best translation candidates from this system are re-ranked using novel multimodal cross-lingual word sense disambiguation models. For task 1b, we explore three approaches: (i) re-ranking based on cross-lingual word sense disambiguation (as for task 1), (ii) re-ranking based on consensus of NMT n-best lists from German-Czech, French-Czech and English-Czech systems, and (iii) data augmentation by generating English source data through machine translation from French to English and from German to English followed by hypothesis selection using a multimodal-reranker.

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Sheffield Submissions for the WMT18 Quality Estimation Shared Task
Julia Ive | Carolina Scarton | Frédéric Blain | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers

In this paper we present the University of Sheffield submissions for the WMT18 Quality Estimation shared task. We discuss our submissions to all four sub-tasks, where ours is the only team to participate in all language pairs and variations (37 combinations). Our systems show competitive results and outperform the baseline in nearly all cases.

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Learning Simplifications for Specific Target Audiences
Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Text simplification (TS) is a monolingual text-to-text transformation task where an original (complex) text is transformed into a target (simpler) text. Most recent work is based on sequence-to-sequence neural models similar to those used for machine translation (MT). Different from MT, TS data comprises more elaborate transformations, such as sentence splitting. It can also contain multiple simplifications of the same original text targeting different audiences, such as school grade levels. We explore these two features of TS to build models tailored for specific grade levels. Our approach uses a standard sequence-to-sequence architecture where the original sequence is annotated with information about the target audience and/or the (predicted) type of simplification operation. We show that it outperforms state-of-the-art TS approaches (up to 3 and 12 BLEU and SARI points, respectively), including when training data for the specific complex-simple combination of grade levels is not available, i.e. zero-shot learning.

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Text Simplification from Professionally Produced Corpora
Carolina Scarton | Gustavo Paetzold | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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SimPA: A Sentence-Level Simplification Corpus for the Public Administration Domain
Carolina Scarton | Gustavo Paetzold | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

2017

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Learning How to Simplify From Explicit Labeling of Complex-Simplified Text Pairs
Fernando Alva-Manchego | Joachim Bingel | Gustavo Paetzold | Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Current research in text simplification has been hampered by two central problems: (i) the small amount of high-quality parallel simplification data available, and (ii) the lack of explicit annotations of simplification operations, such as deletions or substitutions, on existing data. While the recently introduced Newsela corpus has alleviated the first problem, simplifications still need to be learned directly from parallel text using black-box, end-to-end approaches rather than from explicit annotations. These complex-simple parallel sentence pairs often differ to such a high degree that generalization becomes difficult. End-to-end models also make it hard to interpret what is actually learned from data. We propose a method that decomposes the task of TS into its sub-problems. We devise a way to automatically identify operations in a parallel corpus and introduce a sequence-labeling approach based on these annotations. Finally, we provide insights on the types of transformations that different approaches can model.

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MUSST: A Multilingual Syntactic Simplification Tool
Carolina Scarton | Alessio Palmero Aprosio | Sara Tonelli | Tamara Martín Wanton | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the IJCNLP 2017, System Demonstrations

We describe MUSST, a multilingual syntactic simplification tool. The tool supports sentence simplifications for English, Italian and Spanish, and can be easily extended to other languages. Our implementation includes a set of general-purpose simplification rules, as well as a sentence selection module (to select sentences to be simplified) and a confidence model (to select only promising simplifications). The tool was implemented in the context of the European project SIMPATICO on text simplification for Public Administration (PA) texts. Our evaluation on sentences in the PA domain shows that we obtain correct simplifications for 76% of the simplified cases in English, 71% of the cases in Spanish. For Italian, the results are lower (38%) but the tool is still under development.

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Improving Evaluation of Document-level Machine Translation Quality Estimation
Yvette Graham | Qingsong Ma | Timothy Baldwin | Qun Liu | Carla Parra | Carolina Scarton
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 2, Short Papers

Meaningful conclusions about the relative performance of NLP systems are only possible if the gold standard employed in a given evaluation is both valid and reliable. In this paper, we explore the validity of human annotations currently employed in the evaluation of document-level quality estimation for machine translation (MT). We demonstrate the degree to which MT system rankings are dependent on weights employed in the construction of the gold standard, before proposing direct human assessment as a valid alternative. Experiments show direct assessment (DA) scores for documents to be highly reliable, achieving a correlation of above 0.9 in a self-replication experiment, in addition to a substantial estimated cost reduction through quality controlled crowd-sourcing. The original gold standard based on post-edits incurs a 10–20 times greater cost than DA.

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Bilexical Embeddings for Quality Estimation
Frédéric Blain | Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the Second Conference on Machine Translation

2016

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Quality Estimation for Language Output Applications
Carolina Scarton | Gustavo Paetzold | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Tutorial Abstracts

Quality Estimation (QE) of language output applications is a research area that has been attracting significant attention. The goal of QE is to estimate the quality of language output applications without the need of human references. Instead, machine learning algorithms are used to build supervised models based on a few labelled training instances. Such models are able to generalise over unseen data and thus QE is a robust method applicable to scenarios where human input is not available or possible. One such a scenario where QE is particularly appealing is that of Machine Translation, where a score for predicted quality can help decide whether or not a translation is useful (e.g. for post-editing) or reliable (e.g. for gisting). Other potential applications within Natural Language Processing (NLP) include Text Summarisation and Text Simplification. In this tutorial we present the task of QE and its application in NLP, focusing on Machine Translation. We also introduce QuEst++, a toolkit for QE that encompasses feature extraction and machine learning, and propose a practical activity to extend this toolkit in various ways.

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A Reading Comprehension Corpus for Machine Translation Evaluation
Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Effectively assessing Natural Language Processing output tasks is a challenge for research in the area. In the case of Machine Translation (MT), automatic metrics are usually preferred over human evaluation, given time and budget constraints.However, traditional automatic metrics (such as BLEU) are not reliable for absolute quality assessment of documents, often producing similar scores for documents translated by the same MT system.For scenarios where absolute labels are necessary for building models, such as document-level Quality Estimation, these metrics can not be fully trusted. In this paper, we introduce a corpus of reading comprehension tests based on machine translated documents, where we evaluate documents based on answers to questions by fluent speakers of the target language. We describe the process of creating such a resource, the experiment design and agreement between the test takers. Finally, we discuss ways to convert the reading comprehension test into document-level quality scores.

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Findings of the 2016 Conference on Machine Translation
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | Varvara Logacheva | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Martin Popel | Matt Post | Raphael Rubino | Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor | Marcos Zampieri
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 2, Shared Task Papers

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Word embeddings and discourse information for Quality Estimation
Carolina Scarton | Daniel Beck | Kashif Shah | Karin Sim Smith | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 2, Shared Task Papers

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SAARSHEFF at SemEval-2016 Task 1: Semantic Textual Similarity with Machine Translation Evaluation Metrics and (eXtreme) Boosted Tree Ensembles
Liling Tan | Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2016)

2015

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Searching for Context: a Study on Document-Level Labels for Translation Quality Estimation
Carolina Scarton | Marcos Zampieri | Mihaela Vela | Josef van Genabith | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

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Multi-level Translation Quality Prediction with QuEst++
Lucia Specia | Gustavo Paetzold | Carolina Scarton
Proceedings of ACL-IJCNLP 2015 System Demonstrations

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USAAR-SHEFFIELD: Semantic Textual Similarity with Deep Regression and Machine Translation Evaluation Metrics
Liling Tan | Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2015)

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Discourse and Document-level Information for Evaluating Language Output Tasks
Carolina Scarton
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

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Findings of the 2015 Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Chris Hokamp | Philipp Koehn | Varvara Logacheva | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Matt Post | Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia | Marco Turchi
Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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USHEF and USAAR-USHEF participation in the WMT15 QE shared task
Carolina Scarton | Liling Tan | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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Searching for Context: a Study on Document-Level Labels for Translation Quality Estimation
Carolina Scarton | Marcos Zampieri | Mihaela Vela | Josef van Genabith | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

2014

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Document-level translation quality estimation: exploring discourse and pseudo-references
Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the 17th Annual conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

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Exploring Consensus in Machine Translation for Quality Estimation
Carolina Scarton | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

2013

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Identifying Pronominal Verbs: Towards Automatic Disambiguation of the Clitic ‘se’ in Portuguese
Magali Sanches Duran | Carolina Evaristo Scarton | Sandra Maria Aluísio | Carlos Ramisch
Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Multiword Expressions

2011

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VerbNet.Br: construção semiautomática de um léxico computacional de verbos para o português do Brasil (VerbNet.Br: semiautomatic construction of a computational verb lexicon for Brazilian Portuguese) [in Portuguese]
Carolina Evaristo Scarton
Proceedings of the 8th Brazilian Symposium in Information and Human Language Technology

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Comparando Avaliações de Inteligibilidade Textual entre Originais e Traduções de Textos Literários (Comparing Textual Intelligibility Evaluations among Literary Source Texts and their Translations) [in Portuguese]
Bianca Franco Pasqualini | Carolina Evaristo Scarton | Maria José B. Finatto
Proceedings of the 8th Brazilian Symposium in Information and Human Language Technology

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Características do jornalismo popular: avaliação da inteligibilidade e auxílio à descrição do gênero (Characteristics of Popular News: the Evaluation of Intelligibility and Support to the Genre Description) [in Portuguese]
Maria José B. Finatto | Carolina Evaristo Scarton | Amanda Rocha | Sandra Aluísio
Proceedings of the 8th Brazilian Symposium in Information and Human Language Technology

2010

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Readability Assessment for Text Simplification
Sandra Aluisio | Lucia Specia | Caroline Gasperin | Carolina Scarton
Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 Fifth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

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SIMPLIFICA: a tool for authoring simplified texts in Brazilian Portuguese guided by readability assessments
Carolina Scarton | Matheus Oliveira | Arnaldo Candido Jr. | Caroline Gasperin | Sandra Aluísio
Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 Demonstration Session

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