Chang Su


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PingAnTech at SMM4H task1: Multiple pre-trained model approaches for Adverse Drug Reactions
Xi Liu | Han Zhou | Chang Su
Proceedings of The Seventh Workshop on Social Media Mining for Health Applications, Workshop & Shared Task

This paper describes the solution for the Social Media Mining for Health (SMM4H) 2022 Shared Task. We participated in Task1a., Task1b. and Task1c. To solve the problem of the presence of Twitter data, we used a pre-trained language model. We used training strategies that involved: adversarial training, head layer weighted fusion, etc., to improve the performance of the model. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our designed system. For task 1a, the system achieved an F1 score of 0.68; for task 1b Overlapping F1 score of 0.65 and a Strict F1 score of 0.49. Task 1c yields Overlapping F1 and Strict F1 scores of 0.36 and 0.30, respectively.

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Diformer: Directional Transformer for Neural Machine Translation
Minghan Wang | Jiaxin Guo | Yuxia Wang | Daimeng Wei | Hengchao Shang | Yinglu Li | Chang Su | Yimeng Chen | Min Zhang | Shimin Tao | Hao Yang
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

Autoregressive (AR) and Non-autoregressive (NAR) models have their own superiority on the performance and latency, combining them into one model may take advantage of both. Current combination frameworks focus more on the integration of multiple decoding paradigms with a unified generative model, e.g. Masked Language Model. However, the generalization can be harmful on the performance due to the gap between training objective and inference. In this paper, we aim to close the gap by preserving the original objective of AR and NAR under a unified framework. Specifically, we propose the Directional Transformer (Diformer) by jointly modelling AR and NAR into three generation directions (left-to-right, right-to-left and straight) with a newly introduced direction variable, which works by controlling the prediction of each token to have specific dependencies under that direction. The unification achieved by direction successfully preserves the original dependency assumption used in AR and NAR, retaining both generalization and performance. Experiments on 4 WMT benchmarks demonstrate that Diformer outperforms current united-modelling works with more than 1.5 BLEU points for both AR and NAR decoding, and is also competitive to the state-of-the-art independent AR and NAR models.

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Probing Simile Knowledge from Pre-trained Language Models
Weijie Chen | Yongzhu Chang | Rongsheng Zhang | Jiashu Pu | Guandan Chen | Le Zhang | Yadong Xi | Yijiang Chen | Chang Su
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Simile interpretation (SI) and simile generation (SG) are challenging tasks for NLP because models require adequate world knowledge to produce predictions. Previous works have employed many hand-crafted resources to bring knowledge-related into models, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In recent years, pre-trained language models (PLMs) based approaches have become the de-facto standard in NLP since they learn generic knowledge from a large corpus. The knowledge embedded in PLMs may be useful for SI and SG tasks. Nevertheless, there are few works to explore it. In this paper, we probe simile knowledge from PLMs to solve the SI and SG tasks in the unified framework of simile triple completion for the first time. The backbone of our framework is to construct masked sentences with manual patterns and then predict the candidate words in the masked position. In this framework, we adopt a secondary training process (Adjective-Noun mask Training) with the masked language model (MLM) loss to enhance the prediction diversity of candidate words in the masked position. Moreover, pattern ensemble (PE) and pattern search (PS) are applied to improve the quality of predicted words. Finally, automatic and human evaluations demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework in both SI and SG tasks.

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Capture Human Disagreement Distributions by Calibrated Networks for Natural Language Inference
Yuxia Wang | Minghan Wang | Yimeng Chen | Shimin Tao | Jiaxin Guo | Chang Su | Min Zhang | Hao Yang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Natural Language Inference (NLI) datasets contain examples with highly ambiguous labels due to its subjectivity. Several recent efforts have been made to acknowledge and embrace the existence of ambiguity, and explore how to capture the human disagreement distribution. In contrast with directly learning from gold ambiguity labels, relying on special resource, we argue that the model has naturally captured the human ambiguity distribution as long as it’s calibrated, i.e. the predictive probability can reflect the true correctness likelihood. Our experiments show that when model is well-calibrated, either by label smoothing or temperature scaling, it can obtain competitive performance as prior work, on both divergence scores between predictive probability and the true human opinion distribution, and the accuracy. This reveals the overhead of collecting gold ambiguity labels can be cut, by broadly solving how to calibrate the NLI network.

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Part Represents Whole: Improving the Evaluation of Machine Translation System Using Entropy Enhanced Metrics
Yilun Liu | Shimin Tao | Chang Su | Min Zhang | Yanqing Zhao | Hao Yang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: AACL-IJCNLP 2022

Machine translation (MT) metrics often experience poor correlations with human assessments. In terms of MT system evaluation, most metrics pay equal attentions to every sample in an evaluation set, while in human evaluation, difficult sentences often make candidate systems distinguishable via notable fluctuations in human scores, especially when systems are competitive. We find that samples with high entropy values, which though usually count less than 5%, tend to play a key role in MT evaluation: when the evaluation set is shrunk to only the high-entropy portion, correlations with human assessments are actually improved. Thus, in this paper, we propose a fast and unsupervised approach to enhance MT metrics using entropy, expanding the dimension of evaluation by introducing sentence-level difficulty. A translation hypothesis with a significantly high entropy value is considered difficult and receives a large weight in aggregation of system-level scores. Experimental results on five sub-tracks in the WMT19 Metrics shared tasks show that our proposed method significantly enhanced the performance of commonly-used MT metrics in terms of system-level correlations with human assessments, even outperforming existing SOTA metrics. In particular, all enhanced metrics exhibit overall stability in correlations with human assessments in circumstances where only competitive MT systems are included, while the corresponding vanilla metrics fail to correlate with human assessments.

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The HW-TSC’s Offline Speech Translation System for IWSLT 2022 Evaluation
Yinglu Li | Minghan Wang | Jiaxin Guo | Xiaosong Qiao | Yuxia Wang | Daimeng Wei | Chang Su | Yimeng Chen | Min Zhang | Shimin Tao | Hao Yang | Ying Qin
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2022)

This paper describes the HW-TSC’s designation of the Offline Speech Translation System submitted for IWSLT 2022 Evaluation. We explored both cascade and end-to-end system on three language tracks (en-de, en-zh and en-ja), and we chose the cascade one as our primary submission. For the automatic speech recognition (ASR) model of cascade system, there are three ASR models including Conformer, S2T-Transformer and U2 trained on the mixture of five datasets. During inference, transcripts are generated with the help of domain controlled generation strategy. Context-aware reranking and ensemble based anti-interference strategy are proposed to produce better ASR outputs. For machine translation part, we pretrained three translation models on WMT21 dataset and fine-tuned them on in-domain corpora. Our cascade system shows competitive performance than the known offline systems in the industry and academia.

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The HW-TSC’s Simultaneous Speech Translation System for IWSLT 2022 Evaluation
Minghan Wang | Jiaxin Guo | Yinglu Li | Xiaosong Qiao | Yuxia Wang | Zongyao Li | Chang Su | Yimeng Chen | Min Zhang | Shimin Tao | Hao Yang | Ying Qin
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2022)

This paper presents our work in the participation of IWSLT 2022 simultaneous speech translation evaluation. For the track of text-to-text (T2T), we participate in three language pairs and build wait-k based simultaneous MT (SimulMT) model for the task. The model was pretrained on WMT21 news corpora, and was further improved with in-domain fine-tuning and self-training. For the speech-to-text (S2T) track, we designed both cascade and end-to-end form in three language pairs. The cascade system is composed of a chunking-based streaming ASR model and the SimulMT model used in the T2T track. The end-to-end system is a simultaneous speech translation (SimulST) model based on wait-k strategy, which is directly trained on a synthetic corpus produced by translating all texts of ASR corpora into specific target language with an offline MT model. It also contains a heuristic sentence breaking strategy, preventing it from finishing the translation before the the end of the speech. We evaluate our systems on the MUST-C tst-COMMON dataset and show that the end-to-end system is competitive to the cascade one. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that the SimulMT model can be efficiently optimized by these approaches, resulting in the improvements of 1-2 BLEU points.

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The HW-TSC’s Speech to Speech Translation System for IWSLT 2022 Evaluation
Jiaxin Guo | Yinglu Li | Minghan Wang | Xiaosong Qiao | Yuxia Wang | Hengchao Shang | Chang Su | Yimeng Chen | Min Zhang | Shimin Tao | Hao Yang | Ying Qin
Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2022)

The paper presents the HW-TSC’s pipeline and results of Offline Speech to Speech Translation for IWSLT 2022. We design a cascade system consisted of an ASR model, machine translation model and TTS model to convert the speech from one language into another language(en-de). For the ASR part, we find that better performance can be obtained by ensembling multiple heterogeneous ASR models and performing reranking on beam candidates. And we find that the combination of context-aware reranking strategy and MT model fine-tuned on the in-domain dataset is helpful to improve the performance. Because it can mitigate the problem that the inconsistency in transcripts caused by the lack of context. Finally, we use VITS model provided officially to reproduce audio files from the translation hypothesis.


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HW-TSC’s Participation at WMT 2021 Quality Estimation Shared Task
Yimeng Chen | Chang Su | Yingtao Zhang | Yuxia Wang | Xiang Geng | Hao Yang | Shimin Tao | Guo Jiaxin | Wang Minghan | Min Zhang | Yujia Liu | Shujian Huang
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper presents our work in WMT 2021 Quality Estimation (QE) Shared Task. We participated in all of the three sub-tasks, including Sentence-Level Direct Assessment (DA) task, Word and Sentence-Level Post-editing Effort task and Critical Error Detection task, in all language pairs. Our systems employ the framework of Predictor-Estimator, concretely with a pre-trained XLM-Roberta as Predictor and task-specific classifier or regressor as Estimator. For all tasks, we improve our systems by incorporating post-edit sentence or additional high-quality translation sentence in the way of multitask learning or encoding it with predictors directly. Moreover, in zero-shot setting, our data augmentation strategy based on Monte-Carlo Dropout brings up significant improvement on DA sub-task. Notably, our submissions achieve remarkable results over all tasks.

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Make the Blind Translator See The World: A Novel Transfer Learning Solution for Multimodal Machine Translation
Minghan Wang | Jiaxin Guo | Yimeng Chen | Chang Su | Min Zhang | Shimin Tao | Hao Yang
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XVIII: Research Track

Based on large-scale pretrained networks and the liability to be easily overfitting with limited labelled training data of multimodal translation (MMT) is a critical issue in MMT. To this end and we propose a transfer learning solution. Specifically and 1) A vanilla Transformer is pre-trained on massive bilingual text-only corpus to obtain prior knowledge; 2) A multimodal Transformer named VLTransformer is proposed with several components incorporated visual contexts; and 3) The parameters of VLTransformer are initialized with the pre-trained vanilla Transformer and then being fine-tuned on MMT tasks with a newly proposed method named cross-modal masking which forces the model to learn from both modalities. We evaluated on the Multi30k en-de and en-fr dataset and improving up to 8% BLEU score compared with the SOTA performance. The experimental result demonstrates that performing transfer learning with monomodal pre-trained NMT model on multimodal NMT tasks can obtain considerable boosts.

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Enhanced Metaphor Detection via Incorporation of External Knowledge Based on Linguistic Theories
Chang Su | Kechun Wu | Yijiang Chen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021