Previous works on syntactically controlled paraphrase generation heavily rely on large-scale parallel paraphrase data that is not easily available for many languages and domains. In this paper, we take this research direction to the extreme and investigate whether it is possible to learn syntactically controlled paraphrase generation with nonparallel data. We propose a syntactically-informed unsupervised paraphrasing model based on conditional variational auto-encoder (VAE) which can generate texts in a specified syntactic structure. Particularly, we design a two-stage learning method to effectively train the model using non-parallel data. The conditional VAE is trained to reconstruct the input sentence according to the given input and its syntactic structure. Furthermore, to improve the syntactic controllability and semantic consistency of the pre-trained conditional VAE, we fine-tune it using syntax controlling and cycle reconstruction learning objectives, and employ Gumbel-Softmax to combine these new learning objectives. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed model trained only on non-parallel data is capable of generating diverse paraphrases with specified syntactic structure. Additionally, we validate the effectiveness of our method for generating syntactically adversarial examples on the sentiment analysis task.
Unsupervised text style transfer is full of challenges due to the lack of parallel data and difficulties in content preservation. In this paper, we propose a novel neural approach to unsupervised text style transfer which we refer to as Cycle-consistent Adversarial autoEncoders (CAE) trained from non-parallel data. CAE consists of three essential components: (1) LSTM autoencoders that encode a text in one style into its latent representation and decode an encoded representation into its original text or a transferred representation into a style-transferred text, (2) adversarial style transfer networks that use an adversarially trained generator to transform a latent representation in one style into a representation in another style, and (3) a cycle-consistent constraint that enhances the capacity of the adversarial style transfer networks in content preservation. The entire CAE with these three components can be trained end-to-end. Extensive experiments and in-depth analyses on two widely-used public datasets consistently validate the effectiveness of proposed CAE in both style transfer and content preservation against several strong baselines in terms of four automatic evaluation metrics and human evaluation.
Paraphrase generation (PG) is of great importance to many downstream tasks in natural language processing. Diversity is an essential nature to PG for enhancing generalization capability and robustness of downstream applications. Recently, neural sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) models have shown promising results in PG. However, traditional model training for PG focuses on optimizing model prediction against single reference and employs cross-entropy loss, which objective is unable to encourage model to generate diverse paraphrases. In this work, we present a novel approach with multi-objective learning to PG. We propose a learning-exploring method to generate sentences as learning objectives from the learned data distribution, and employ reinforcement learning to combine these new learning objectives for model training. We first design a sample-based algorithm to explore diverse sentences. Then we introduce several reward functions to evaluate the sampled sentences as learning signals in terms of expressive diversity and semantic fidelity, aiming to generate diverse and high-quality paraphrases. To effectively optimize model performance satisfying different evaluating aspects, we use a GradNorm-based algorithm that automatically balances these training objectives. Experiments and analyses on Quora and Twitter datasets demonstrate that our proposed method not only gains a significant increase in diversity but also improves generation quality over several state-of-the-art baselines.
Joint intent detection and slot filling has recently achieved tremendous success in advancing the performance of utterance understanding. However, many joint models still suffer from the robustness problem, especially on noisy inputs or rare/unseen events. To address this issue, we propose a Joint Adversarial Training (JAT) model to improve the robustness of joint intent detection and slot filling, which consists of two parts: (1) automatically generating joint adversarial examples to attack the joint model, and (2) training the model to defend against the joint adversarial examples so as to robustify the model on small perturbations. As the generated joint adversarial examples have different impacts on the intent detection and slot filling loss, we further propose a Balanced Joint Adversarial Training (BJAT) model that applies a balance factor as a regularization term to the final loss function, which yields a stable training procedure. Extensive experiments and analyses on the lightweight models show that our proposed methods achieve significantly higher scores and substantially improve the robustness of both intent detection and slot filling. In addition, the combination of our BJAT with BERT-large achieves state-of-the-art results on two datasets.
In this paper, we explore a new approach based on discourse analysis for the task of intent segmentation. Our target texts are user queries from a real-world chatbot. Our results show the feasibility of our approach with an F1-score of 82.97 points, and some advantages and disadvantages compared to two machine learning baselines: BERT and LSTM+CRF.
In this work, we introduce a bootstrapped, iterative NER model that integrates a PU learning algorithm for recognizing named entities in a low-resource setting. Our approach combines dictionary-based labeling with syntactically-informed label expansion to efficiently enrich the seed dictionaries. Experimental results on a dataset of manually annotated e-commerce product descriptions demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
Ellipsis and co-reference are common and ubiquitous especially in multi-turn dialogues. In this paper, we treat the resolution of ellipsis and co-reference in dialogue as a problem of generating omitted or referred expressions from the dialogue context. We therefore propose a unified end-to-end Generative Ellipsis and CO-reference Resolution model (GECOR) in the context of dialogue. The model can generate a new pragmatically complete user utterance by alternating the generation and copy mode for each user utterance. A multi-task learning framework is further proposed to integrate the GECOR into an end-to-end task-oriented dialogue. In order to train both the GECOR and the multi-task learning framework, we manually construct a new dataset on the basis of the public dataset CamRest676 with both ellipsis and co-reference annotation. On this dataset, intrinsic evaluations on the resolution of ellipsis and co-reference show that the GECOR model significantly outperforms the sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) baseline model in terms of EM, BLEU and F1 while extrinsic evaluations on the downstream dialogue task demonstrate that our multi-task learning framework with GECOR achieves a higher success rate of task completion than TSCP, a state-of-the-art end-to-end task-oriented dialogue model.
Representation learning is a key issue for most Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. Most existing representation models either learn little structure information or just rely on pre-defined structures, leading to degradation of performance and generalization capability. This paper focuses on learning both local semantic and global structure representations for text classification. In detail, we propose a novel Sandwich Neural Network (SNN) to learn semantic and structure representations automatically without relying on parsers. More importantly, semantic and structure information contribute unequally to the text representation at corpus and instance level. To solve the fusion problem, we propose two strategies: Adaptive Learning Sandwich Neural Network (AL-SNN) and Self-Attention Sandwich Neural Network (SA-SNN). The former learns the weights at corpus level, and the latter further combines attention mechanism to assign the weights at instance level. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves competitive performance on several text classification tasks, including sentiment analysis, question type classification and subjectivity classification. Specifically, the accuracies are MR (82.1%), SST-5 (50.4%), TREC (96%) and SUBJ (93.9%).