Changlong Sun


2021

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A Role-Selected Sharing Network for Joint Machine-Human Chatting Handoff and Service Satisfaction Analysis
Jiawei Liu | Kaisong Song | Yangyang Kang | Guoxiu He | Zhuoren Jiang | Changlong Sun | Wei Lu | Xiaozhong Liu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Chatbot is increasingly thriving in different domains, however, because of unexpected discourse complexity and training data sparseness, its potential distrust hatches vital apprehension. Recently, Machine-Human Chatting Handoff (MHCH), predicting chatbot failure and enabling human-algorithm collaboration to enhance chatbot quality, has attracted increasing attention from industry and academia. In this study, we propose a novel model, Role-Selected Sharing Network (RSSN), which integrates both dialogue satisfaction estimation and handoff prediction in one multi-task learning framework. Unlike prior efforts in dialog mining, by utilizing local user satisfaction as a bridge, global satisfaction detector and handoff predictor can effectively exchange critical information. Specifically, we decouple the relation and interaction between the two tasks by the role information after the shared encoder. Extensive experiments on two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our model.

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Adjacency List Oriented Relational Fact Extraction via Adaptive Multi-task Learning
Fubang Zhao | Zhuoren Jiang | Yangyang Kang | Changlong Sun | Xiaozhong Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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RepSum: Unsupervised Dialogue Summarization based on Replacement Strategy
Xiyan Fu | Yating Zhang | Tianyi Wang | Xiaozhong Liu | Changlong Sun | Zhenglu Yang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In the field of dialogue summarization, due to the lack of training data, it is often difficult for supervised summary generation methods to learn vital information from dialogue context with limited data. Several attempts on unsupervised summarization for text by leveraging semantic information solely or auto-encoder strategy (i.e., sentence compression), it however cannot be adapted to the dialogue scene due to the limited words in utterances and huge gap between the dialogue and its summary. In this study, we propose a novel unsupervised strategy to address this challenge, which roots from the hypothetical foundation that a superior summary approximates a replacement of the original dialogue, and they are roughly equivalent for auxiliary (self-supervised) tasks, e.g., dialogue generation. The proposed strategy RepSum is applied to generate both extractive and abstractive summary with the guidance of the followed nˆth utterance generation and classification tasks. Extensive experiments on various datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

2020

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Camouflaged Chinese Spam Content Detection with Semi-supervised Generative Active Learning
Zhuoren Jiang | Zhe Gao | Yu Duan | Yangyang Kang | Changlong Sun | Qiong Zhang | Xiaozhong Liu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We propose a Semi-supervIsed GeNerative Active Learning (SIGNAL) model to address the imbalance, efficiency, and text camouflage problems of Chinese text spam detection task. A “self-diversity” criterion is proposed for measuring the “worthiness” of a candidate for annotation. A semi-supervised variational autoencoder with masked attention learning approach and a character variation graph-enhanced augmentation procedure are proposed for data augmentation. The preliminary experiment demonstrates the proposed SIGNAL model is not only sensitive to spam sample selection, but also can improve the performance of a series of conventional active learning models for Chinese spam detection task. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to integrate active learning and semi-supervised generative learning for text spam detection.

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Aspect Sentiment Classification with Document-level Sentiment Preference Modeling
Xiao Chen | Changlong Sun | Jingjing Wang | Shoushan Li | Luo Si | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In the literature, existing studies always consider Aspect Sentiment Classification (ASC) as an independent sentence-level classification problem aspect by aspect, which largely ignore the document-level sentiment preference information, though obviously such information is crucial for alleviating the information deficiency problem in ASC. In this paper, we explore two kinds of sentiment preference information inside a document, i.e., contextual sentiment consistency w.r.t. the same aspect (namely intra-aspect sentiment consistency) and contextual sentiment tendency w.r.t. all the related aspects (namely inter-aspect sentiment tendency). On the basis, we propose a Cooperative Graph Attention Networks (CoGAN) approach for cooperatively learning the aspect-related sentence representation. Specifically, two graph attention networks are leveraged to model above two kinds of document-level sentiment preference information respectively, followed by an interactive mechanism to integrate the two-fold preference. Detailed evaluation demonstrates the great advantage of the proposed approach to ASC over the state-of-the-art baselines. This justifies the importance of the document-level sentiment preference information to ASC and the effectiveness of our approach capturing such information.

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Toward Recognizing More Entity Types in NER: An Efficient Implementation using Only Entity Lexicons
Minlong Peng | Ruotian Ma | Qi Zhang | Lujun Zhao | Mengxi Wei | Changlong Sun | Xuanjing Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

In this work, we explore the way to quickly adjust an existing named entity recognition (NER) system to make it capable of recognizing entity types not defined in the system. As an illustrative example, consider the case that a NER system has been built to recognize person and organization names, and now it requires to additionally recognize job titles. Such a situation is common in the industrial areas, where the entity types required to recognize vary a lot in different products and keep changing. To avoid laborious data labeling and achieve fast adaptation, we propose to adjust the existing NER system using the previously labeled data and entity lexicons of the newly introduced entity types. We formulate such a task as a partially supervised learning problem and accordingly propose an effective algorithm to solve the problem. Comprehensive experimental studies on several public NER datasets validate the effectiveness of our method.

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Multi-Turn Dialogue Generation in E-Commerce Platform with the Context of Historical Dialogue
WeiSheng Zhang | Kaisong Song | Yangyang Kang | Zhongqing Wang | Changlong Sun | Xiaozhong Liu | Shoushan Li | Min Zhang | Luo Si
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

As an important research topic, customer service dialogue generation tends to generate generic seller responses by leveraging current dialogue information. In this study, we propose a novel and extensible dialogue generation method by leveraging sellers’ historical dialogue information, which can be both accessible and informative. By utilizing innovative historical dialogue representation learning and historical dialogue selection mechanism, the proposed model is capable of detecting most related responses from sellers’ historical dialogues, which can further enhance the current dialogue generation quality. Unlike prior dialogue generation efforts, we treat each seller’s historical dialogues as a list of Customer-Seller utterance pairs and allow the model to measure their different importance, and copy words directly from most relevant pairs. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed approach can generate high-quality responses that cater to specific sellers’ characteristics and exhibit consistent superiority over baselines on a real-world multi-turn customer service dialogue dataset.

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De-Biased Court’s View Generation with Causality
Yiquan Wu | Kun Kuang | Yating Zhang | Xiaozhong Liu | Changlong Sun | Jun Xiao | Yueting Zhuang | Luo Si | Fei Wu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Court’s view generation is a novel but essential task for legal AI, aiming at improving the interpretability of judgment prediction results and enabling automatic legal document generation. While prior text-to-text natural language generation (NLG) approaches can be used to address this problem, neglecting the confounding bias from the data generation mechanism can limit the model performance, and the bias may pollute the learning outcomes. In this paper, we propose a novel Attentional and Counterfactual based Natural Language Generation (AC-NLG) method, consisting of an attentional encoder and a pair of innovative counterfactual decoders. The attentional encoder leverages the plaintiff’s claim and fact description as input to learn a claim-aware encoder from which the claim-related information in fact description can be emphasized. The counterfactual decoders are employed to eliminate the confounding bias in data and generate judgment-discriminative court’s views (both supportive and non-supportive views) by incorporating with a synergistic judgment predictive model. Comprehensive experiments show the effectiveness of our method under both quantitative and qualitative evaluation metrics.

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Cross Copy Network for Dialogue Generation
Changzhen Ji | Xin Zhou | Yating Zhang | Xiaozhong Liu | Changlong Sun | Conghui Zhu | Tiejun Zhao
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

In the past few years, audiences from different fields witness the achievements of sequence-to-sequence models (e.g., LSTM+attention, Pointer Generator Networks and Transformer) to enhance dialogue content generation. While content fluency and accuracy often serve as the major indicators for model training, dialogue logics, carrying critical information for some particular domains, are often ignored. Take customer service and court debate dialogue as examples, compatible logics can be observed across different dialogue instances, and this information can provide vital evidence for utterance generation. In this paper, we propose a novel network architecture - Cross Copy Networks (CCN) to explore the current dialog context and similar dialogue instances’ logical structure simultaneously. Experiments with two tasks, court debate and customer service content generation, proved that the proposed algorithm is superior to existing state-of-art content generation models.

2019

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Using Customer Service Dialogues for Satisfaction Analysis with Context-Assisted Multiple Instance Learning
Kaisong Song | Lidong Bing | Wei Gao | Jun Lin | Lujun Zhao | Jiancheng Wang | Changlong Sun | Xiaozhong Liu | Qiong Zhang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Customers ask questions and customer service staffs answer their questions, which is the basic service model via multi-turn customer service (CS) dialogues on E-commerce platforms. Existing studies fail to provide comprehensive service satisfaction analysis, namely satisfaction polarity classification (e.g., well satisfied, met and unsatisfied) and sentimental utterance identification (e.g., positive, neutral and negative). In this paper, we conduct a pilot study on the task of service satisfaction analysis (SSA) based on multi-turn CS dialogues. We propose an extensible Context-Assisted Multiple Instance Learning (CAMIL) model to predict the sentiments of all the customer utterances and then aggregate those sentiments into service satisfaction polarity. After that, we propose a novel Context Clue Matching Mechanism (CCMM) to enhance the representations of all customer utterances with their matched context clues, i.e., sentiment and reasoning clues. We construct two CS dialogue datasets from a top E-commerce platform. Extensive experimental results are presented and contrasted against a few previous models to demonstrate the efficacy of our model.

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Human-Like Decision Making: Document-level Aspect Sentiment Classification via Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning
Jingjing Wang | Changlong Sun | Shoushan Li | Jiancheng Wang | Luo Si | Min Zhang | Xiaozhong Liu | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Recently, neural networks have shown promising results on Document-level Aspect Sentiment Classification (DASC). However, these approaches often offer little transparency w.r.t. their inner working mechanisms and lack interpretability. In this paper, to simulating the steps of analyzing aspect sentiment in a document by human beings, we propose a new Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning (HRL) approach to DASC. This approach incorporates clause selection and word selection strategies to tackle the data noise problem in the task of DASC. First, a high-level policy is proposed to select aspect-relevant clauses and discard noisy clauses. Then, a low-level policy is proposed to select sentiment-relevant words and discard noisy words inside the selected clauses. Finally, a sentiment rating predictor is designed to provide reward signals to guide both clause and word selection. Experimental results demonstrate the impressive effectiveness of the proposed approach to DASC over the state-of-the-art baselines.

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Detect Camouflaged Spam Content via StoneSkipping: Graph and Text Joint Embedding for Chinese Character Variation Representation
Zhuoren Jiang | Zhe Gao | Guoxiu He | Yangyang Kang | Changlong Sun | Qiong Zhang | Luo Si | Xiaozhong Liu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

The task of Chinese text spam detection is very challenging due to both glyph and phonetic variations of Chinese characters. This paper proposes a novel framework to jointly model Chinese variational, semantic, and contextualized representations for Chinese text spam detection task. In particular, a Variation Family-enhanced Graph Embedding (VFGE) algorithm is designed based on a Chinese character variation graph. The VFGE can learn both the graph embeddings of the Chinese characters (local) and the latent variation families (global). Furthermore, an enhanced bidirectional language model, with a combination gate function and an aggregation learning function, is proposed to integrate the graph and text information while capturing the sequential information. Extensive experiments have been conducted on both SMS and review datasets, to show the proposed method outperforms a series of state-of-the-art models for Chinese spam detection.

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Aspect Sentiment Classification Towards Question-Answering with Reinforced Bidirectional Attention Network
Jingjing Wang | Changlong Sun | Shoushan Li | Xiaozhong Liu | Luo Si | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In the literature, existing studies on aspect sentiment classification (ASC) focus on individual non-interactive reviews. This paper extends the research to interactive reviews and proposes a new research task, namely Aspect Sentiment Classification towards Question-Answering (ASC-QA), for real-world applications. This new task aims to predict sentiment polarities for specific aspects from interactive QA style reviews. In particular, a high-quality annotated corpus is constructed for ASC-QA to facilitate corresponding research. On this basis, a Reinforced Bidirectional Attention Network (RBAN) approach is proposed to address two inherent challenges in ASC-QA, i.e., semantic matching between question and answer, and data noise. Experimental results demonstrate the great advantage of the proposed approach to ASC-QA against several state-of-the-art baselines.

2018

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Sentiment Classification towards Question-Answering with Hierarchical Matching Network
Chenlin Shen | Changlong Sun | Jingjing Wang | Yangyang Kang | Shoushan Li | Xiaozhong Liu | Luo Si | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In an e-commerce environment, user-oriented question-answering (QA) text pair could carry rich sentiment information. In this study, we propose a novel task/method to address QA sentiment analysis. In particular, we create a high-quality annotated corpus with specially-designed annotation guidelines for QA-style sentiment classification. On the basis, we propose a three-stage hierarchical matching network to explore deep sentiment information in a QA text pair. First, we segment both the question and answer text into sentences and construct a number of [Q-sentence, A-sentence] units in each QA text pair. Then, by leveraging a QA bidirectional matching layer, the proposed approach can learn the matching vectors of each [Q-sentence, A-sentence] unit. Finally, we characterize the importance of the generated matching vectors via a self-matching attention layer. Experimental results, comparing with a number of state-of-the-art baselines, demonstrate the impressive effectiveness of the proposed approach for QA-style sentiment classification.

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One vs. Many QA Matching with both Word-level and Sentence-level Attention Network
Lu Wang | Shoushan Li | Changlong Sun | Luo Si | Xiaozhong Liu | Min Zhang | Guodong Zhou
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Question-Answer (QA) matching is a fundamental task in the Natural Language Processing community. In this paper, we first build a novel QA matching corpus with informal text which is collected from a product reviewing website. Then, we propose a novel QA matching approach, namely One vs. Many Matching, which aims to address the novel scenario where one question sentence often has an answer with multiple sentences. Furthermore, we improve our matching approach by employing both word-level and sentence-level attentions for solving the noisy problem in the informal text. Empirical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to question-answer matching.

2017

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Alibaba at IJCNLP-2017 Task 2: A Boosted Deep System for Dimensional Sentiment Analysis of Chinese Phrases
Xin Zhou | Jian Wang | Xu Xie | Changlong Sun | Luo Si
Proceedings of the IJCNLP 2017, Shared Tasks

This paper introduces Team Alibaba’s systems participating IJCNLP 2017 shared task No. 2 Dimensional Sentiment Analysis for Chinese Phrases (DSAP). The systems mainly utilize a multi-layer neural networks, with multiple features input such as word embedding, part-of-speech-tagging (POST), word clustering, prefix type, character embedding, cross sentiment input, and AdaBoost method for model training. For word level task our best run achieved MAE 0.545 (ranked 2nd), PCC 0.892 (ranked 2nd) in valence prediction and MAE 0.857 (ranked 1st), PCC 0.678 (ranked 2nd) in arousal prediction. For average performance of word and phrase task we achieved MAE 0.5355 (ranked 3rd), PCC 0.8965 (ranked 3rd) in valence prediction and MAE 0.661 (ranked 3rd), PCC 0.766 (ranked 2nd) in arousal prediction. In the final our submitted system achieved 2nd in mean rank.