Entities are the major proportion and build up the topic of text summaries. Although existing text summarization models can produce promising results of automatic metrics, for example, ROUGE, it is difficult to guarantee that an entity is contained in generated summaries. In this paper, we propose a controllable abstractive sentence summarization model which generates summaries with guiding entities. Instead of generating summaries from left to right, we start with a selected entity, generate the left part first, then the right part of a complete summary. Compared to previous entity-based text summarization models, our method can ensure that entities appear in final output summaries rather than generating the complete sentence with implicit entity and article representations. Our model can also generate more novel entities with them incorporated into outputs directly. To evaluate the informativeness of the proposed model, we develop a fine-grained informativeness metrics in the relevance, extraness and omission perspectives. We conduct experiments in two widely-used sentence summarization datasets and experimental results show that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in both automatic evaluation scores and informativeness metrics.
Visual question answering aims to answer the natural language question about a given image. Existing graph-based methods only focus on the relations between objects in an image and neglect the importance of the syntactic dependency relations between words in a question. To simultaneously capture the relations between objects in an image and the syntactic dependency relations between words in a question, we propose a novel dual channel graph convolutional network (DC-GCN) for better combining visual and textual advantages. The DC-GCN model consists of three parts: an I-GCN module to capture the relations between objects in an image, a Q-GCN module to capture the syntactic dependency relations between words in a question, and an attention alignment module to align image representations and question representations. Experimental results show that our model achieves comparable performance with the state-of-the-art approaches.
In natural language processing, it is common that many entities contain other entities inside them. Most existing works on named entity recognition (NER) only deal with flat entities but ignore nested ones. We propose a boundary-aware neural model for nested NER which leverages entity boundaries to predict entity categorical labels. Our model can locate entities precisely by detecting boundaries using sequence labeling models. Based on the detected boundaries, our model utilizes the boundary-relevant regions to predict entity categorical labels, which can decrease computation cost and relieve error propagation problem in layered sequence labeling model. We introduce multitask learning to capture the dependencies of entity boundaries and their categorical labels, which helps to improve the performance of identifying entities. We conduct our experiments on GENIA dataset and the experimental results demonstrate that our model outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.