Chao-Wei Huang


pdf bib
Visually-Enhanced Phrase Understanding
Tsu-Yuan Hsu | Chen-An Li | Chao-Wei Huang | Yun-Nung Chen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Large-scale vision-language pre-training has exhibited strong performance in various visual and textual understanding tasks. Recently, the textual encoders of multi-modal pre-trained models have been shown to generate high-quality textual representations, which often outperform models that are purely text-based, such as BERT. In this study, our objective is to utilize both textual and visual encoders of multi-modal pre-trained models to enhance language understanding tasks. We achieve this by generating an image associated with a textual prompt, thus enriching the representation of a phrase for downstream tasks. Results from experiments conducted on four benchmark datasets demonstrate that our proposed method, which leverages visually-enhanced text representations, significantly improves performance in the entity clustering task.

pdf bib
CONVERSER: Few-shot Conversational Dense Retrieval with Synthetic Data Generation
Chao-Wei Huang | Chen-Yu Hsu | Tsu-Yuan Hsu | Chen-An Li | Yun-Nung Chen
Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

Conversational search provides a natural interface for information retrieval (IR). Recent approaches have demonstrated promising results in applying dense retrieval to conversational IR. However, training dense retrievers requires large amounts of in-domain paired data. This hinders the development of conversational dense retrievers, as abundant in-domain conversations are expensive to collect. In this paper, we propose Converser, a framework for training conversational dense retrievers with at most 6 examples of in-domain dialogues. Specifically, we utilize the in-context learning capability of large language models to generate conversational queries given a passage in the retrieval corpus. Experimental results on conversational retrieval benchmarks OR-QuAC and TREC CAsT 19 show that the proposed Converser achieves comparable performance to fully-supervised models, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed framework in few-shot conversational dense retrieval. All source code and generated datasets are available:


pdf bib
Controllable User Dialogue Act Augmentation for Dialogue State Tracking
Chun-Mao Lai | Ming-Hao Hsu | Chao-Wei Huang | Yun-Nung Chen
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

Prior work has demonstrated that data augmentation is useful for improving dialogue state tracking. However, there are many types of user utterances, while the prior method only considered the simplest one for augmentation, raising the concern about poor generalization capability. In order to better cover diverse dialogue acts and control the generation quality, this paper proposes controllable user dialogue act augmentation (CUDA-DST) to augment user utterances with diverse behaviors. With the augmented data, different state trackers gain improvement and show better robustness, achieving the state-of-the-art performance on MultiWOZ 2.1.

pdf bib
PLM-ICD: Automatic ICD Coding with Pretrained Language Models
Chao-Wei Huang | Shang-Chi Tsai | Yun-Nung Chen
Proceedings of the 4th Clinical Natural Language Processing Workshop

Automatically classifying electronic health records (EHRs) into diagnostic codes has been challenging to the NLP community. State-of-the-art methods treated this problem as a multi-label classification problem and proposed various architectures to model this problem. However, these systems did not leverage the superb performance of pretrained language models, which achieved superb performance on natural language understanding tasks. Prior work has shown that pretrained language models underperformed on this task with the regular fine-tuning scheme. Therefore, this paper aims at analyzing the causes of the underperformance and developing a framework for automatic ICD coding with pretrained language models. We spotted three main issues through the experiments: 1) large label space, 2) long input sequences, and 3) domain mismatch between pretraining and fine-tuning. We propose PLM-ICD, a framework that tackles the challenges with various strategies. The experimental results show that our proposed framework can overcome the challenges and achieves state-of-the-art performance in terms of multiple metrics on the benchmark MIMIC data. Our source code is available at


pdf bib
Modeling Diagnostic Label Correlation for Automatic ICD Coding
Shang-Chi Tsai | Chao-Wei Huang | Yun-Nung Chen
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Given the clinical notes written in electronic health records (EHRs), it is challenging to predict the diagnostic codes which is formulated as a multi-label classification task. The large set of labels, the hierarchical dependency, and the imbalanced data make this prediction task extremely hard. Most existing work built a binary prediction for each label independently, ignoring the dependencies between labels. To address this problem, we propose a two-stage framework to improve automatic ICD coding by capturing the label correlation. Specifically, we train a label set distribution estimator to rescore the probability of each label set candidate generated by a base predictor. This paper is the first attempt at learning the label set distribution as a reranking module for ICD coding. In the experiments, our proposed framework is able to improve upon best-performing predictors for medical code prediction on the benchmark MIMIC datasets.


pdf bib
Towards Unsupervised Language Understanding and Generation by Joint Dual Learning
Shang-Yu Su | Chao-Wei Huang | Yun-Nung Chen
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In modular dialogue systems, natural language understanding (NLU) and natural language generation (NLG) are two critical components, where NLU extracts the semantics from the given texts and NLG is to construct corresponding natural language sentences based on the input semantic representations. However, the dual property between understanding and generation has been rarely explored. The prior work is the first attempt that utilized the duality between NLU and NLG to improve the performance via a dual supervised learning framework. However, the prior work still learned both components in a supervised manner; instead, this paper introduces a general learning framework to effectively exploit such duality, providing flexibility of incorporating both supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms to train language understanding and generation models in a joint fashion. The benchmark experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach is capable of boosting the performance of both NLU and NLG. The source code is available at:

pdf bib
Learning Spoken Language Representations with Neural Lattice Language Modeling
Chao-Wei Huang | Yun-Nung Chen
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Pre-trained language models have achieved huge improvement on many NLP tasks. However, these methods are usually designed for written text, so they do not consider the properties of spoken language. Therefore, this paper aims at generalizing the idea of language model pre-training to lattices generated by recognition systems. We propose a framework that trains neural lattice language models to provide contextualized representations for spoken language understanding tasks. The proposed two-stage pre-training approach reduces the demands of speech data and has better efficiency. Experiments on intent detection and dialogue act recognition datasets demonstrate that our proposed method consistently outperforms strong baselines when evaluated on spoken inputs. The code is available at


pdf bib
Dual Supervised Learning for Natural Language Understanding and Generation
Shang-Yu Su | Chao-Wei Huang | Yun-Nung Chen
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Natural language understanding (NLU) and natural language generation (NLG) are both critical research topics in the NLP and dialogue fields. Natural language understanding is to extract the core semantic meaning from the given utterances, while natural language generation is opposite, of which the goal is to construct corresponding sentences based on the given semantics. However, such dual relationship has not been investigated in literature. This paper proposes a novel learning framework for natural language understanding and generation on top of dual supervised learning, providing a way to exploit the duality. The preliminary experiments show that the proposed approach boosts the performance for both tasks, demonstrating the effectiveness of the dual relationship.