Chen Jia


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Memory-Based Invariance Learning for Out-of-Domain Text Classification
Chen Jia | Yue Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We investigate the task of out-of-domain (OOD) text classification with the aim of extending a classification model, trained on multiple source domains, to an unseen target domain. Recent studies have shown that learning invariant representations can enhance the performance of OOD generalization. However, the inherent disparity in data distribution across different domains poses challenges for achieving effective invariance learning. This study addresses this issue by employing memory augmentations. Specifically, we augment the original feature space using key-value memory and employ a meta-learning-based approach to enhance the quality of the invariant representations. Experimental results on sentiment analysis and natural language inference tasks show the effectiveness of memory-based method for invariance learning, leading to state-of-the-art performance on six datasets.


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Prompt-based Distribution Alignment for Domain Generalization in Text Classification
Chen Jia | Yue Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Prompt-based learning (a.k.a. prompting) achieves high performance by bridging the gap between the objectives of language modeling and downstream tasks. Domain generalization ability can be improved by prompting since classification across different domains can be unified into the prediction of the same set of label words. The remaining challenge for domain generalization by prompting comes from discrepancies between the data distribution of different domains. To improve domain generalization with prompting, we learn distributional invariance across source domains via two alignment regularization loss functions. The first is vocabulary distribution alignment, which uses a Kullback-Leibler divergence regularization on source-domain vocabulary distributions. The second is feature distribution alignment, which uses a novel adversarial training strategy to learn domain invariant representation across source domains. Experiments on sentiment analysis and natural language inference show the effectiveness of our method and achieve state-of-the-art results on six datasets.


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Multi-Cell Compositional LSTM for NER Domain Adaptation
Chen Jia | Yue Zhang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Cross-domain NER is a challenging yet practical problem. Entity mentions can be highly different across domains. However, the correlations between entity types can be relatively more stable across domains. We investigate a multi-cell compositional LSTM structure for multi-task learning, modeling each entity type using a separate cell state. With the help of entity typed units, cross-domain knowledge transfer can be made in an entity type level. Theoretically, the resulting distinct feature distributions for each entity type make it more powerful for cross-domain transfer. Empirically, experiments on four few-shot and zero-shot datasets show our method significantly outperforms a series of multi-task learning methods and achieves the best results.

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Entity Enhanced BERT Pre-training for Chinese NER
Chen Jia | Yuefeng Shi | Qinrong Yang | Yue Zhang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Character-level BERT pre-trained in Chinese suffers a limitation of lacking lexicon information, which shows effectiveness for Chinese NER. To integrate the lexicon into pre-trained LMs for Chinese NER, we investigate a semi-supervised entity enhanced BERT pre-training method. In particular, we first extract an entity lexicon from the relevant raw text using a new-word discovery method. We then integrate the entity information into BERT using Char-Entity-Transformer, which augments the self-attention using a combination of character and entity representations. In addition, an entity classification task helps inject the entity information into model parameters in pre-training. The pre-trained models are used for NER fine-tuning. Experiments on a news dataset and two datasets annotated by ourselves for NER in long-text show that our method is highly effective and achieves the best results.


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Cross-Domain NER using Cross-Domain Language Modeling
Chen Jia | Xiaobo Liang | Yue Zhang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Due to limitation of labeled resources, cross-domain named entity recognition (NER) has been a challenging task. Most existing work considers a supervised setting, making use of labeled data for both the source and target domains. A disadvantage of such methods is that they cannot train for domains without NER data. To address this issue, we consider using cross-domain LM as a bridge cross-domains for NER domain adaptation, performing cross-domain and cross-task knowledge transfer by designing a novel parameter generation network. Results show that our method can effectively extract domain differences from cross-domain LM contrast, allowing unsupervised domain adaptation while also giving state-of-the-art results among supervised domain adaptation methods.