Chen Li


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PRAM: An End-to-end Prototype-based Representation Alignment Model for Zero-resource Cross-lingual Named Entity Recognition
Yucheng Huang | Wenqiang Liu | Xianli Zhang | Jun Lang | Tieliang Gong | Chen Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Zero-resource cross-lingual named entity recognition (ZRCL-NER) aims to leverage rich labeled source language data to address the NER problem in the zero-resource target language. Existing methods are built either based on data transfer or representation transfer. However, the former usually leads to additional computation costs, and the latter lacks explicit optimization specific to the NER task. To overcome the above limitations, we propose a novel prototype-based representation alignment model (PRAM) for the challenging ZRCL-NER task. PRAM models the cross-lingual (CL) NER task and transfers knowledge from source languages to target languages in a unified neural network, and performs end-to-end training, avoiding additional computation costs. Moreover, PRAM borrows the CL inference ability of multilingual language models and enhances it with a novel training objective—attribution-prediction consistency (APC)—for explicitly enforcing the entity-level alignment between entity representations and predictions, as well as that across languages using prototypes as bridges. The experimental results show that PRAM significantly outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods, especially in some challenging scenarios.

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Structure-Discourse Hierarchical Graph for Conditional Question Answering on Long Documents
Haowei Du | Yansong Feng | Chen Li | Yang Li | Yunshi Lan | Dongyan Zhao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Conditional question answering on long documents aims to find probable answers and identify conditions that need to be satisfied to make the answers correct over long documents. Existing approaches solve this task by segmenting long documents into multiple sections, and attending information at global and local tokens to predict the answers and corresponding conditions. However, the natural structure of the document and discourse relations between sentences in each document section are ignored, which are crucial for condition retrieving across sections, as well as logical interaction over the question and conditions. To address this issue, this paper constructs a Structure-Discourse Hierarchical Graph (SDHG) and conducts bottom-up information propagation. Firstly we build the sentence-level discourse graphs for each section and encode the discourse relations by graph attention. Secondly, we construct a section-level structure graph based on natural structures, and conduct interactions over the question and contexts. Finally different levels of representations are integrated into jointly answer and condition decoding. The experiments on the benchmark ConditionalQA shows our approach gains over the prior state-of-the-art, by 3.0 EM score and 2.4 F1 score on answer measuring, as well as 2.2 EM score and 1.9 F1 score on jointly answer and condition measuring.

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NaSGEC: a Multi-Domain Chinese Grammatical Error Correction Dataset from Native Speaker Texts
Yue Zhang | Bo Zhang | Haochen Jiang | Zhenghua Li | Chen Li | Fei Huang | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

We introduce NaSGEC, a new dataset to facilitate research on Chinese grammatical error correction (CGEC) for native speaker texts from multiple domains. Previous CGEC research primarily focuses on correcting texts from a single domain, especially learner essays. To broaden the target domain, we annotate multiple references for 12,500 sentences from three native domains, i.e., social media, scientific writing, and examination. We provide solid benchmark results for NaSGEC by employing cutting-edge CGEC models and different training data. We further perform detailed analyses of the connections and gaps between our domains from both empirical and statistical views. We hope this work can inspire future studies on an important but under-explored direction–cross-domain GEC.

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Multi-Granularity Information Interaction Framework for Incomplete Utterance Rewriting
Haowei Du | Dinghao Zhang | Chen Li | Yang Li | Dongyan Zhao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Recent approaches in Incomplete Utterance Rewriting (IUR) fail to capture the source of important words, which is crucial to edit the incomplete utterance, and introduce words from irrelevant utterances. We propose a novel and effective multi-task information interaction framework including context selection, edit matrix construction, and relevance merging to capture the multi-granularity of semantic information. Benefiting from fetching the relevant utterance and figuring out the important words, our approach outperforms existing state-of-the-art models on two benchmark datasets Restoration-200K and CANAND in this field.

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How to Determine the Most Powerful Pre-trained Language Model without Brute Force Fine-tuning? An Empirical Survey
Jun Bai | Xiaofeng Zhang | Chen Li | Hanhua Hong | Xi Xu | Chenghua Lin | Wenge Rong
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Transferability estimation has been attached to great attention in the computer vision fields. Researchers try to estimate with low computational cost the performance of a model when transferred from a source task to a given target task. Considering the effectiveness of such estimations, the communities of natural language processing also began to study similar problems for the selection of pre-trained language models. However, there is a lack of a comprehensive comparison between these estimation methods yet. Also, the differences between vision and language scenarios make it doubtful whether previous conclusions can be established across fields. In this paper, we first conduct a thorough survey of existing transferability estimation methods being able to find the most suitable model, then we conduct a detailed empirical study for the surveyed methods based on the GLUE benchmark. From qualitative and quantitative analyses, we demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of existing methods and show that H-Score generally performs well with superiorities in effectiveness and efficiency. We also outline the difficulties of consideration of training details, applicability to text generation, and consistency to certain metrics which shed light on future directions.

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Improving Seq2Seq Grammatical Error Correction via Decoding Interventions
Houquan Zhou | Yumeng Liu | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang | Bo Zhang | Chen Li | Ji Zhang | Fei Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

The sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) approach has recently been widely used in grammatical error correction (GEC) and shows promising performance. However, the Seq2Seq GEC approach still suffers from two issues. First, a Seq2Seq GEC model can only be trained on parallel data, which, in GEC task, is often noisy and limited in quantity. Second, the decoder of a Seq2Seq GEC model lacks an explicit awareness of the correctness of the token being generated. In this paper, we propose a unified decoding intervention framework that employs an external critic to assess the appropriateness of the token to be generated incrementally, and then dynamically influence the choice of the next token. We discover and investigate two types of critics: a pre-trained left-to-right language model critic and an incremental target-side grammatical error detector critic. Through extensive experiments on English and Chinese datasets, our framework consistently outperforms strong baselines and achieves results competitive with state-of-the-art methods.

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Relation-Aware Question Answering for Heterogeneous Knowledge Graphs
Haowei Du | Quzhe Huang | Chen Li | Chen Zhang | Yang Li | Dongyan Zhao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Multi-hop Knowledge Base Question Answering(KBQA) aims to find the answer entity in a knowledge graph (KG), which requires multiple steps of reasoning. Existing retrieval-based approaches solve this task by concentrating on the specific relation at different hops and predicting the intermediate entity within the reasoning path. However, these models fail to utilize information from head-tail entities and the semantic connection between relations to enhance the current relation representation, which undermines the information capturing of relations in KGs. To address this issue, we construct a dual relation graph where each node denotes a relation in the original KG (primal entity graph) and edges are constructed between relations sharing same head or tail entities. Then we iteratively do primal entity graph reasoning, dual relation graph information propagation, and interaction between these two graphs. In this way, the interaction between entity and relation is enhanced, and we derive better entity and relation representations. Experiments on two public datasets, WebQSP and CWQ, show that our approach achieves a significant performance gain over the prior state-of-the-art.

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CCL23-Eval任务7赛道一系统报告:Suda &Alibaba 文本纠错系统(CCL23-Eval Task 7 Track 1 System Report: Suda &Alibaba Team Text Error Correction System)
Haochen Jiang (蒋浩辰) | Yumeng Liu (刘雨萌) | Houquan Zhou (周厚全) | Ziheng Qiao (乔子恒) | Bo Zhang (波章,) | Chen Li (李辰) | Zhenghua Li (李正华) | Min Zhang (张民)
Proceedings of the 22nd Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics (Volume 3: Evaluations)

“本报告描述 Suda &Alibaba 纠错团队在 CCL2023 汉语学习者文本纠错评测任务的赛道一:多维度汉语学习者文本纠错(Multidimensional Chinese Learner Text Correc-tion)中提交的参赛系统。在模型方面,本队伍使用了序列到序列和序列到编辑两种纠错模型。在数据方面,本队伍分别使用基于混淆集构造的伪数据、Lang-8 真实数据以及 YACLC 开发集进行三阶段训练;在开放任务上还额外使用HSK、CGED等数据进行训练。本队伍还使用了一系列有效的性能提升技术,包括了基于规则的数据增强,数据清洗,后处理以及模型集成等 .除此之外,本队伍还在如何使用GPT3.5、GPT4等大模型来辅助中文文本纠错上进行了一些探索,提出了一种可以有效避免大模型过纠问题的方法,并尝试了多种 Prompt。在封闭和开放两个任务上,本队伍在最小改动、流利提升和平均 F0.5 得分上均位列第一。”


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COPNER: Contrastive Learning with Prompt Guiding for Few-shot Named Entity Recognition
Yucheng Huang | Kai He | Yige Wang | Xianli Zhang | Tieliang Gong | Rui Mao | Chen Li
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Distance metric learning has become a popular solution for few-shot Named Entity Recognition (NER). The typical setup aims to learn a similarity metric for measuring the semantic similarity between test samples and referents, where each referent represents an entity class. The effect of this setup may, however, be compromised for two reasons. First, there is typically a limited optimization exerted on the representations of entity tokens after initing by pre-trained language models. Second, the referents may be far from representing corresponding entity classes due to the label scarcity in the few-shot setting. To address these challenges, we propose a novel approach named COntrastive learning with Prompt guiding for few-shot NER (COPNER). We introduce a novel prompt composed of class-specific words to COPNER to serve as 1) supervision signals for conducting contrastive learning to optimize token representations; 2) metric referents for distance-metric inference on test samples. Experimental results demonstrate that COPNER outperforms state-of-the-art models with a significant margin in most cases. Moreover, COPNER shows great potential in the zero-shot setting.

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Towards Abstractive Grounded Summarization of Podcast Transcripts
Kaiqiang Song | Chen Li | Xiaoyang Wang | Dong Yu | Fei Liu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Podcasts have shown a recent rise in popularity. Summarization of podcasts is of practical benefit to both content providers and consumers. It helps people quickly decide whether they will listen to a podcast and/or reduces the cognitive load of content providers to write summaries. Nevertheless, podcast summarization faces significant challenges including factual inconsistencies of summaries with respect to the inputs. The problem is exacerbated by speech disfluencies and recognition errors in transcripts of spoken language. In this paper, we explore a novel abstractive summarization method to alleviate these issues. Our approach learns to produce an abstractive summary while grounding summary segments in specific regions of the transcript to allow for full inspection of summary details. We conduct a series of analyses of the proposed approach on a large podcast dataset and show that the approach can achieve promising results. Grounded summaries bring clear benefits in locating the summary and transcript segments that contain inconsistent information, and hence improve summarization quality in terms of automatic and human evaluation.

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MuCGEC: a Multi-Reference Multi-Source Evaluation Dataset for Chinese Grammatical Error Correction
Yue Zhang | Zhenghua Li | Zuyi Bao | Jiacheng Li | Bo Zhang | Chen Li | Fei Huang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

This paper presents MuCGEC, a multi-reference multi-source evaluation dataset for Chinese Grammatical Error Correction (CGEC), consisting of 7,063 sentences collected from three Chinese-as-a-Second-Language (CSL) learner sources. Each sentence is corrected by three annotators, and their corrections are carefully reviewed by a senior annotator, resulting in 2.3 references per sentence. We conduct experiments with two mainstream CGEC models, i.e., the sequence-to-sequence model and the sequence-to-edit model, both enhanced with large pretrained language models, achieving competitive benchmark performance on previous and our datasets. We also discuss CGEC evaluation methodologies, including the effect of multiple references and using a char-based metric. Our annotation guidelines, data, and code are available at

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SynGEC: Syntax-Enhanced Grammatical Error Correction with a Tailored GEC-Oriented Parser
Yue Zhang | Bo Zhang | Zhenghua Li | Zuyi Bao | Chen Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

This work proposes a syntax-enhanced grammatical error correction (GEC) approach named SynGEC that effectively incorporates dependency syntactic information into the encoder part of GEC models. The key challenge for this idea is that off-the-shelf parsers are unreliable when processing ungrammatical sentences. To confront this challenge, we propose to build a tailored GEC-oriented parser (GOPar) using parallel GEC training data as a pivot. First, we design an extended syntax representation scheme that allows us to represent both grammatical errors and syntax in a unified tree structure. Then, we obtain parse trees of the source incorrect sentences by projecting trees of the target correct sentences. Finally, we train GOPar with such projected trees. For GEC, we employ the graph convolution network to encode source-side syntactic information produced by GOPar, and fuse them with the outputs of the Transformer encoder. Experiments on mainstream English and Chinese GEC datasets show that our proposed SynGEC approach consistently and substantially outperforms strong baselines and achieves competitive performance. Our code and data are all publicly available at


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Entity Relation Extraction as Dependency Parsing in Visually Rich Documents
Yue Zhang | Zhang Bo | Rui Wang | Junjie Cao | Chen Li | Zuyi Bao
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Previous works on key information extraction from visually rich documents (VRDs) mainly focus on labeling the text within each bounding box (i.e.,semantic entity), while the relations in-between are largely unexplored. In this paper, we adapt the popular dependency parsing model, the biaffine parser, to this entity relation extraction task. Being different from the original dependency parsing model which recognizes dependency relations between words, we identify relations between groups of words with layout information instead. We have compared different representations of the semantic entity, different VRD encoders, and different relation decoders. For the model training, we explore multi-task learning to combine entity labeling and relation extraction tasks; and for the evaluation, we conduct experiments on different datasets with filtering and augmentation. The results demonstrate that our proposed model achieves 65.96% F1 score on the FUNSD dataset. As for the real-world application, our model has been applied to the in-house customs data, achieving reliable performance in the production setting.


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Better Highlighting: Creating Sub-Sentence Summary Highlights
Sangwoo Cho | Kaiqiang Song | Chen Li | Dong Yu | Hassan Foroosh | Fei Liu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Amongst the best means to summarize is highlighting. In this paper, we aim to generate summary highlights to be overlaid on the original documents to make it easier for readers to sift through a large amount of text. The method allows summaries to be understood in context to prevent a summarizer from distorting the original meaning, of which abstractive summarizers usually fall short. In particular, we present a new method to produce self-contained highlights that are understandable on their own to avoid confusion. Our method combines determinantal point processes and deep contextualized representations to identify an optimal set of sub-sentence segments that are both important and non-redundant to form summary highlights. To demonstrate the flexibility and modeling power of our method, we conduct extensive experiments on summarization datasets. Our analysis provides evidence that highlighting is a promising avenue of research towards future summarization.

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Graph Neural News Recommendation with Unsupervised Preference Disentanglement
Linmei Hu | Siyong Xu | Chen Li | Cheng Yang | Chuan Shi | Nan Duan | Xing Xie | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

With the explosion of news information, personalized news recommendation has become very important for users to quickly find their interested contents. Most existing methods usually learn the representations of users and news from news contents for recommendation. However, they seldom consider high-order connectivity underlying the user-news interactions. Moreover, existing methods failed to disentangle a user’s latent preference factors which cause her clicks on different news. In this paper, we model the user-news interactions as a bipartite graph and propose a novel Graph Neural News Recommendation model with Unsupervised Preference Disentanglement, named GNUD. Our model can encode high-order relationships into user and news representations by information propagation along the graph. Furthermore, the learned representations are disentangled with latent preference factors by a neighborhood routing algorithm, which can enhance expressiveness and interpretability. A preference regularizer is also designed to force each disentangled subspace to independently reflect an isolated preference, improving the quality of the disentangled representations. Experimental results on real-world news datasets demonstrate that our proposed model can effectively improve the performance of news recommendation and outperform state-of-the-art news recommendation methods.

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Chunk-based Chinese Spelling Check with Global Optimization
Zuyi Bao | Chen Li | Rui Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Chinese spelling check is a challenging task due to the characteristics of the Chinese language, such as the large character set, no word boundary, and short word length. On the one hand, most of the previous works only consider corrections with similar character pronunciation or shape, failing to correct visually and phonologically irrelevant typos. On the other hand, pipeline-style architectures are widely adopted to deal with different types of spelling errors in individual modules, which is difficult to optimize. In order to handle these issues, in this work, 1) we extend the traditional confusion sets with semantical candidates to cover different types of errors; 2) we propose a chunk-based framework to correct single-character and multi-character word errors uniformly; and 3) we adopt a global optimization strategy to enable a sentence-level correction selection. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves a new state-of-the-art performance on three benchmark datasets, as well as an optical character recognition dataset.

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Understanding User Resistance Strategies in Persuasive Conversations
Youzhi Tian | Weiyan Shi | Chen Li | Zhou Yu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Persuasive dialog systems have various usages, such as donation persuasion and physical exercise persuasion. Previous persuasive dialog systems research mostly focused on analyzing the persuader’s strategies and paid little attention to the persuadee (user). However, understanding and addressing users’ resistance strategies is an essential job of a persuasive dialog system. So, we adopt a preliminary framework on persuasion resistance in psychology and design a fine-grained resistance strategy annotation scheme. We annotate the PersuasionForGood dataset with the scheme. With the enriched annotations, we build a classifier to predict the resistance strategies. Furthermore, we analyze the relationships between persuasion strategies and persuasion resistance strategies. Our work lays the ground for developing a persuasive dialogue system that can understand and address user resistance strategy appropriately. The code and data will be released.

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Generating Sports News from Live Commentary: A Chinese Dataset for Sports Game Summarization
Kuan-Hao Huang | Chen Li | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

Sports game summarization focuses on generating news articles from live commentaries. Unlike traditional summarization tasks, the source documents and the target summaries for sports game summarization tasks are written in quite different writing styles. In addition, live commentaries usually contain many named entities, which makes summarizing sports games precisely very challenging. To deeply study this task, we present SportsSum, a Chinese sports game summarization dataset which contains 5,428 soccer games of live commentaries and the corresponding news articles. Additionally, we propose a two-step summarization model consisting of a selector and a rewriter for SportsSum. To evaluate the correctness of generated sports summaries, we design two novel score metrics: name matching score and event matching score. Experimental results show that our model performs better than other summarization baselines on ROUGE scores as well as the two designed scores.

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Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis with Graph Convolution Network and Multi-task Learning
Yikang Luo | Zuyi Bao | Chen Li | Rui Wang
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Natural Language Processing Techniques for Educational Applications

This paper describes our participating system on the Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis (CGED) 2020 shared task. For the detection subtask, we propose two BERT-based approaches 1) with syntactic dependency trees enhancing the model performance and 2) under the multi-task learning framework to combine the sequence labeling and the sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models. For the correction subtask, we utilize the masked language model, the seq2seq model and the spelling check model to generate corrections based on the detection results. Finally, our system achieves the highest recall rate on the top-3 correction and the second best F1 score on identification level and position level.


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Low-Resource Sequence Labeling via Unsupervised Multilingual Contextualized Representations
Zuyi Bao | Rui Huang | Chen Li | Kenny Zhu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Previous work on cross-lingual sequence labeling tasks either requires parallel data or bridges the two languages through word-by-word matching. Such requirements and assumptions are infeasible for most languages, especially for languages with large linguistic distances, e.g., English and Chinese. In this work, we propose a Multilingual Language Model with deep semantic Alignment (MLMA) to generate language-independent representations for cross-lingual sequence labeling. Our methods require only monolingual corpora with no bilingual resources at all and take advantage of deep contextualized representations. Experimental results show that our approach achieves new state-of-the-art NER and POS performance across European languages, and is also effective on distant language pairs such as English and Chinese.

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Multi-Document Summarization with Determinantal Point Processes and Contextualized Representations
Sangwoo Cho | Chen Li | Dong Yu | Hassan Foroosh | Fei Liu
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on New Frontiers in Summarization

Emerged as one of the best performing techniques for extractive summarization, determinantal point processes select a most probable set of summary sentences according to a probabilistic measure defined by respectively modeling sentence prominence and pairwise repulsion. Traditionally, both aspects are modelled using shallow and linguistically informed features, but the rise of deep contextualized representations raises an interesting question. Whether, and to what extent, could contextualized sentence representations be used to improve the DPP framework? Our findings suggest that, despite the success of deep semantic representations, it remains necessary to combine them with surface indicators for effective identification of summary-worthy sentences.

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Extracting Kinship from Obituary to Enhance Electronic Health Records for Genetic Research
Kai He | Jialun Wu | Xiaoyong Ma | Chong Zhang | Ming Huang | Chen Li | Lixia Yao
Proceedings of the Fourth Social Media Mining for Health Applications (#SMM4H) Workshop & Shared Task

Claims database and electronic health records database do not usually capture kinship or family relationship information, which is imperative for genetic research. We identify online obituaries as a new data source and propose a special named entity recognition and relation extraction solution to extract names and kinships from online obituaries. Built on 1,809 annotated obituaries and a novel tagging scheme, our joint neural model achieved macro-averaged precision, recall and F measure of 72.69%, 78.54% and 74.93%, and micro-averaged precision, recall and F measure of 95.74%, 98.25% and 96.98% using 57 kinships with 10 or more examples in a 10-fold cross-validation experiment. The model performance improved dramatically when trained with 34 kinships with 50 or more examples. Leveraging additional information such as age, death date, birth date and residence mentioned by obituaries, we foresee a promising future of supplementing EHR databases with comprehensive and accurate kinship information for genetic research.

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BIGPATENT: A Large-Scale Dataset for Abstractive and Coherent Summarization
Eva Sharma | Chen Li | Lu Wang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Most existing text summarization datasets are compiled from the news domain, where summaries have a flattened discourse structure. In such datasets, summary-worthy content often appears in the beginning of input articles. Moreover, large segments from input articles are present verbatim in their respective summaries. These issues impede the learning and evaluation of systems that can understand an article’s global content structure as well as produce abstractive summaries with high compression ratio. In this work, we present a novel dataset, BIGPATENT, consisting of 1.3 million records of U.S. patent documents along with human written abstractive summaries. Compared to existing summarization datasets, BIGPATENT has the following properties: i) summaries contain a richer discourse structure with more recurring entities, ii) salient content is evenly distributed in the input, and iii) lesser and shorter extractive fragments are present in the summaries. Finally, we train and evaluate baselines and popular learning models on BIGPATENT to shed light on new challenges and motivate future directions for summarization research.


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A Hybrid System for Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis and Correction
Chen Li | Junpei Zhou | Zuyi Bao | Hengyou Liu | Guangwei Xu | Linlin Li
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Natural Language Processing Techniques for Educational Applications

This paper introduces the DM_NLP team’s system for NLPTEA 2018 shared task of Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis (CGED), which can be used to detect and correct grammatical errors in texts written by Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) learners. This task aims at not only detecting four types of grammatical errors including redundant words (R), missing words (M), bad word selection (S) and disordered words (W), but also recommending corrections for errors of M and S types. We proposed a hybrid system including four models for this task with two stages: the detection stage and the correction stage. In the detection stage, we first used a BiLSTM-CRF model to tag potential errors by sequence labeling, along with some handcraft features. Then we designed three Grammatical Error Correction (GEC) models to generate corrections, which could help to tune the detection result. In the correction stage, candidates were generated by the three GEC models and then merged to output the final corrections for M and S types. Our system reached the highest precision in the correction subtask, which was the most challenging part of this shared task, and got top 3 on F1 scores for position detection of errors.

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DM_NLP at SemEval-2018 Task 8: neural sequence labeling with linguistic features
Chunping Ma | Huafei Zheng | Pengjun Xie | Chen Li | Linlin Li | Luo Si
Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes our submissions for SemEval-2018 Task 8: Semantic Extraction from CybersecUrity REports using NLP. The DM_NLP participated in two subtasks: SubTask 1 classifies if a sentence is useful for inferring malware actions and capabilities, and SubTask 2 predicts token labels (“Action”, “Entity”, “Modifier” and “Others”) for a given malware-related sentence. Since we leverage results of Subtask 2 directly to infer the result of Subtask 1, the paper focus on the system solving Subtask 2. By taking Subtask 2 as a sequence labeling task, our system relies on a recurrent neural network named BiLSTM-CNN-CRF with rich linguistic features, such as POS tags, dependency parsing labels, chunking labels, NER labels, Brown clustering. Our system achieved the highest F1 score in both token level and phrase level.


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XJSA at SemEval-2017 Task 4: A Deep System for Sentiment Classification in Twitter
Yazhou Hao | YangYang Lan | Yufei Li | Chen Li
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2017)

This paper describes the XJSA System submission from XJTU. Our system was created for SemEval2017 Task 4 – subtask A which is very popular and fundamental. The system is based on convolutional neural network and word embedding. We used two pre-trained word vectors and adopt a dynamic strategy for k-max pooling.

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XJNLP at SemEval-2017 Task 12: Clinical temporal information ex-traction with a Hybrid Model
Yu Long | Zhijing Li | Xuan Wang | Chen Li
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2017)

Temporality is crucial in understanding the course of clinical events from a patient’s electronic health recordsand temporal processing is becoming more and more important for improving access to content. SemEval 2017 Task 12 (Clinical TempEval) addressed this challenge using the THYME corpus, a corpus of clinical narratives annotated with a schema based on TimeML2 guidelines. We developed and evaluated approaches for: extraction of temporal expressions (TIMEX3) and EVENTs; EVENT attributes; document-time relations. Our approach is a hybrid model which is based on rule based methods, semi-supervised learning, and semantic features with addition of manually crafted rules.


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A Preliminary Study of Disputation Behavior in Online Debating Forum
Zhongyu Wei | Yandi Xia | Chen Li | Yang Liu | Zachary Stallbohm | Yi Li | Yang Jin
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Argument Mining (ArgMining2016)

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LitWay, Discriminative Extraction for Different Bio-Events
Chen Li | Zhiqiang Rao | Xiangrong Zhang
Proceedings of the 4th BioNLP Shared Task Workshop

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Using Relevant Public Posts to Enhance News Article Summarization
Chen Li | Zhongyu Wei | Yang Liu | Yang Jin | Fei Huang
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

A news article summary usually consists of 2-3 key sentences that reflect the gist of that news article. In this paper we explore using public posts following a new article to improve automatic summary generation for the news article. We propose different approaches to incorporate information from public posts, including using frequency information from the posts to re-estimate bigram weights in the ILP-based summarization model and to re-weight a dependency tree edge’s importance for sentence compression, directly selecting sentences from posts as the final summary, and finally a strategy to combine the summarization results generated from news articles and posts. Our experiments on data collected from Facebook show that relevant public posts provide useful information and can be effectively leveraged to improve news article summarization results.


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Using External Resources and Joint Learning for Bigram Weighting in ILP-Based Multi-Document Summarization
Chen Li | Yang Liu | Lin Zhao
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Improving Update Summarization via Supervised ILP and Sentence Reranking
Chen Li | Yang Liu | Lin Zhao
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Detecting Causally Embedded Structures Using an Evolutionary Algorithm
Chen Li | Roxana Girju
Proceedings of the The 3rd Workshop on EVENTS: Definition, Detection, Coreference, and Representation

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Using word embedding for bio-event extraction
Chen Li | Runqing Song | Maria Liakata | Andreas Vlachos | Stephanie Seneff | Xiangrong Zhang
Proceedings of BioNLP 15

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Improving Named Entity Recognition in Tweets via Detecting Non-Standard Words
Chen Li | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Using Tweets to Help Sentence Compression for News Highlights Generation
Zhongyu Wei | Yang Liu | Chen Li | Wei Gao
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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Sharing annotations better: RESTful Open Annotation
Sampo Pyysalo | Jorge Campos | Juan Miguel Cejuela | Filip Ginter | Kai Hakala | Chen Li | Pontus Stenetorp | Lars Juhl Jensen
Proceedings of ACL-IJCNLP 2015 System Demonstrations


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Improving Text Normalization via Unsupervised Model and Discriminative Reranking
Chen Li | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the ACL 2014 Student Research Workshop

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Improving Multi-documents Summarization by Sentence Compression based on Expanded Constituent Parse Trees
Chen Li | Yang Liu | Fei Liu | Lin Zhao | Fuliang Weng
Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)


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Using Supervised Bigram-based ILP for Extractive Summarization
Chen Li | Xian Qian | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Document Summarization via Guided Sentence Compression
Chen Li | Fei Liu | Fuliang Weng | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing


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Improving Text Normalization using Character-Blocks Based Models and System Combination
Chen Li | Yang Liu
Proceedings of COLING 2012


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Mining the Web for Reciprocal Relationships
Michael Paul | Roxana Girju | Chen Li
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL-2009)


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Statistical Analysis on Large Scale Chinese Short Message Corpus and Automatic Short Message Error Correction
Rile Hu | Yuezhong Tang | Chen Li | Xia Wang
Proceedings of the 22nd Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation