Chenze Shao


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Non-Autoregressive Models for Fast Sequence Generation
Yang Feng | Chenze Shao
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Tutorial Abstracts

Autoregressive (AR) models have achieved great success in various sequence generation tasks. However, AR models can only generate target sequence word-by-word due to the AR mechanism and hence suffer from slow inference. Recently, non-autoregressive (NAR) models, which generate all the tokens in parallel by removing the sequential dependencies within the target sequence, have received increasing attention in sequence generation tasks such as neural machine translation (NMT), automatic speech recognition (ASR), and text to speech (TTS). In this tutorial, we will provide a comprehensive introduction to non-autoregressive sequence generation.

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One Reference Is Not Enough: Diverse Distillation with Reference Selection for Non-Autoregressive Translation
Chenze Shao | Xuanfu Wu | Yang Feng
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Non-autoregressive neural machine translation (NAT) suffers from the multi-modality problem: the source sentence may have multiple correct translations, but the loss function is calculated only according to the reference sentence. Sequence-level knowledge distillation makes the target more deterministic by replacing the target with the output from an autoregressive model. However, the multi-modality problem in the distilled dataset is still nonnegligible. Furthermore, learning from a specific teacher limits the upper bound of the model capability, restricting the potential of NAT models. In this paper, we argue that one reference is not enough and propose diverse distillation with reference selection (DDRS) for NAT. Specifically, we first propose a method called SeedDiv for diverse machine translation, which enables us to generate a dataset containing multiple high-quality reference translations for each source sentence. During the training, we compare the NAT output with all references and select the one that best fits the NAT output to train the model. Experiments on widely-used machine translation benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of DDRS, which achieves 29.82 BLEU with only one decoding pass on WMT14 En-De, improving the state-of-the-art performance for NAT by over 1 BLEU.

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Overcoming Catastrophic Forgetting beyond Continual Learning: Balanced Training for Neural Machine Translation
Chenze Shao | Yang Feng
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Neural networks tend to gradually forget the previously learned knowledge when learning multiple tasks sequentially from dynamic data distributions. This problem is called catastrophic forgetting, which is a fundamental challenge in the continual learning of neural networks. In this work, we observe that catastrophic forgetting not only occurs in continual learning but also affects the traditional static training. Neural networks, especially neural machine translation models, suffer from catastrophic forgetting even if they learn from a static training set. To be specific, the final model pays imbalanced attention to training samples, where recently exposed samples attract more attention than earlier samples. The underlying cause is that training samples do not get balanced training in each model update, so we name this problem imbalanced training. To alleviate this problem, we propose Complementary Online Knowledge Distillation (COKD), which uses dynamically updated teacher models trained on specific data orders to iteratively provide complementary knowledge to the student model. Experimental results on multiple machine translation tasks show that our method successfully alleviates the problem of imbalanced training and achieves substantial improvements over strong baseline systems.

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Viterbi Decoding of Directed Acyclic Transformer for Non-Autoregressive Machine Translation
Chenze Shao | Zhengrui Ma | Yang Feng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Non-autoregressive models achieve significant decoding speedup in neural machine translation but lack the ability to capture sequential dependency. Directed Acyclic Transformer (DA-Transformer) was recently proposed to model sequential dependency with a directed acyclic graph. Consequently, it has to apply a sequential decision process at inference time, which harms the global translation accuracy. In this paper, we present a Viterbi decoding framework for DA-Transformer, which guarantees to find the joint optimal solution for the translation and decoding path under any length constraint. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach consistently improves the performance of DA-Transformer while maintaining a similar decoding speedup.


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Sequence-Level Training for Non-Autoregressive Neural Machine Translation
Chenze Shao | Yang Feng | Jinchao Zhang | Fandong Meng | Jie Zhou
Computational Linguistics, Volume 47, Issue 4 - December 2021

In recent years, Neural Machine Translation (NMT) has achieved notable results in various translation tasks. However, the word-by-word generation manner determined by the autoregressive mechanism leads to high translation latency of the NMT and restricts its low-latency applications. Non-Autoregressive Neural Machine Translation (NAT) removes the autoregressive mechanism and achieves significant decoding speedup by generating target words independently and simultaneously. Nevertheless, NAT still takes the word-level cross-entropy loss as the training objective, which is not optimal because the output of NAT cannot be properly evaluated due to the multimodality problem. In this article, we propose using sequence-level training objectives to train NAT models, which evaluate the NAT outputs as a whole and correlates well with the real translation quality. First, we propose training NAT models to optimize sequence-level evaluation metrics (e.g., BLEU) based on several novel reinforcement algorithms customized for NAT, which outperform the conventional method by reducing the variance of gradient estimation. Second, we introduce a novel training objective for NAT models, which aims to minimize the Bag-of-N-grams (BoN) difference between the model output and the reference sentence. The BoN training objective is differentiable and can be calculated efficiently without doing any approximations. Finally, we apply a three-stage training strategy to combine these two methods to train the NAT model. We validate our approach on four translation tasks (WMT14 En↔De, WMT16 En↔Ro), which shows that our approach largely outperforms NAT baselines and achieves remarkable performance on all translation tasks. The source code is available at

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Guiding Teacher Forcing with Seer Forcing for Neural Machine Translation
Yang Feng | Shuhao Gu | Dengji Guo | Zhengxin Yang | Chenze Shao
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Although teacher forcing has become the main training paradigm for neural machine translation, it usually makes predictions only conditioned on past information, and hence lacks global planning for the future. To address this problem, we introduce another decoder, called seer decoder, into the encoder-decoder framework during training, which involves future information in target predictions. Meanwhile, we force the conventional decoder to simulate the behaviors of the seer decoder via knowledge distillation. In this way, at test the conventional decoder can perform like the seer decoder without the attendance of it. Experiment results on the Chinese-English, English-German and English-Romanian translation tasks show our method can outperform competitive baselines significantly and achieves greater improvements on the bigger data sets. Besides, the experiments also prove knowledge distillation the best way to transfer knowledge from the seer decoder to the conventional decoder compared to adversarial learning and L2 regularization.


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Generating Diverse Translation from Model Distribution with Dropout
Xuanfu Wu | Yang Feng | Chenze Shao
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Despite the improvement of translation quality, neural machine translation (NMT) often suffers from the lack of diversity in its generation. In this paper, we propose to generate diverse translations by deriving a large number of possible models with Bayesian modelling and sampling models from them for inference. The possible models are obtained by applying concrete dropout to the NMT model and each of them has specific confidence for its prediction, which corresponds to a posterior model distribution under specific training data in the principle of Bayesian modeling. With variational inference, the posterior model distribution can be approximated with a variational distribution, from which the final models for inference are sampled. We conducted experiments on Chinese-English and English-German translation tasks and the results shows that our method makes a better trade-off between diversity and accuracy.


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Retrieving Sequential Information for Non-Autoregressive Neural Machine Translation
Chenze Shao | Yang Feng | Jinchao Zhang | Fandong Meng | Xilin Chen | Jie Zhou
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Non-Autoregressive Transformer (NAT) aims to accelerate the Transformer model through discarding the autoregressive mechanism and generating target words independently, which fails to exploit the target sequential information. Over-translation and under-translation errors often occur for the above reason, especially in the long sentence translation scenario. In this paper, we propose two approaches to retrieve the target sequential information for NAT to enhance its translation ability while preserving the fast-decoding property. Firstly, we propose a sequence-level training method based on a novel reinforcement algorithm for NAT (Reinforce-NAT) to reduce the variance and stabilize the training procedure. Secondly, we propose an innovative Transformer decoder named FS-decoder to fuse the target sequential information into the top layer of the decoder. Experimental results on three translation tasks show that the Reinforce-NAT surpasses the baseline NAT system by a significant margin on BLEU without decelerating the decoding speed and the FS-decoder achieves comparable translation performance to the autoregressive Transformer with considerable speedup.


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Greedy Search with Probabilistic N-gram Matching for Neural Machine Translation
Chenze Shao | Xilin Chen | Yang Feng
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Neural machine translation (NMT) models are usually trained with the word-level loss using the teacher forcing algorithm, which not only evaluates the translation improperly but also suffers from exposure bias. Sequence-level training under the reinforcement framework can mitigate the problems of the word-level loss, but its performance is unstable due to the high variance of the gradient estimation. On these grounds, we present a method with a differentiable sequence-level training objective based on probabilistic n-gram matching which can avoid the reinforcement framework. In addition, this method performs greedy search in the training which uses the predicted words as context just as at inference to alleviate the problem of exposure bias. Experiment results on the NIST Chinese-to-English translation tasks show that our method significantly outperforms the reinforcement-based algorithms and achieves an improvement of 1.5 BLEU points on average over a strong baseline system.