Few-shot language learners adapt knowledge from a pre-trained model to recognize novel classes from a few-labeled sentences. In such settings, fine-tuning a pre-trained language model can cause severe over-fitting. In this paper, we propose an Embedding Hallucination (EmbedHalluc) method, which generates auxiliary embedding-label pairs to expand the fine-tuning dataset. The hallucinator is trained by playing an adversarial game with the discriminator, such that the hallucinated embedding is indiscriminative to the real ones in the fine-tuning dataset. By training with the extended dataset, the language learner effectively learns from the diverse hallucinated embeddings to overcome the over-fitting issue. Experiments demonstrate that our proposed method is effective in a wide range of language tasks, outperforming current fine-tuning methods. Further, we show that EmbedHalluc outperforms other methods that address this over-fitting problem, such as common data augmentation, semi-supervised pseudo-labeling, and regularization.
The impressive performance of GPT-3 using natural language prompts and in-context learning has inspired work on better fine-tuning of moderately-sized models under this paradigm. Following this line of work, we present a contrastive learning framework that clusters inputs from the same class for better generality of models trained with only limited examples. Specifically, we propose a supervised contrastive framework that clusters inputs from the same class under different augmented “views” and repel the ones from different classes. We create different “views” of an example by appending it with different language prompts and contextual demonstrations. Combining a contrastive loss with the standard masked language modeling (MLM) loss in prompt-based few-shot learners, the experimental results show that our method can improve over the state-of-the-art methods in a diverse set of 15 language tasks. Our framework makes minimal assumptions on the task or the base model, and can be applied to many recent methods with little modification.
The field of NLP has seen unprecedented achievements in recent years. Most notably, with the advent of large-scale pre-trained Transformer-based language models, such as BERT, there has been a noticeable improvement in text representation. It is, however, unclear whether these improvements translate to noisy user-generated text, such as tweets. In this paper, we present an experimental survey of a wide range of well-known text representation techniques for the task of text clustering on noisy Twitter data. Our results indicate that the more advanced models do not necessarily work best on tweets and that more exploration in this area is needed.