Coreference resolution – which is a crucial task for understanding discourse and language at large – has yet to witness widespread benefits from large language models (LLMs). Moreover, coreference resolution systems largely rely on supervised labels, which are highly expensive and difficult to annotate, thus making it ripe for prompt engineering. In this paper, we introduce a QA-based prompt-engineering method and discern generative, pre-trained LLMs’ abilities and limitations toward the task of coreference resolution. Our experiments show that GPT-2 and GPT-Neo can return valid answers, but that their capabilities to identify coreferent mentions are limited and prompt-sensitive, leading to inconsistent results.
Labeled data for the task of Coreference Resolution is a scarce resource, requiring significant human effort. While state-of-the-art coreference models rely on such data, we propose an approach that leverages an end-to-end neural model in settings where labeled data is unavailable. Specifically, using weak supervision, we transfer the linguistic knowledge encoded by Stanford?s rule-based coreference system to the end-to-end model, which jointly learns rich, contextualized span representations and coreference chains. Our experiments on the English OntoNotes corpus demonstrate that our approach effectively benefits from the noisy coreference supervision, producing an improvement over Stanford?s rule-based system (+3.7 F1) and outperforming the previous best unsupervised model (+0.9 F1). Additionally, we validate the efficacy of our method on two other datasets: PreCo and Litbank (+2.5 and +5 F1 on Stanford’s system, respectively).
Automatic fake news detection models are ostensibly based on logic, where the truth of a claim made in a headline can be determined by supporting or refuting evidence found in a resulting web query. These models are believed to be reasoning in some way; however, it has been shown that these same results, or better, can be achieved without considering the claim at all – only the evidence. This implies that other signals are contained within the examined evidence, and could be based on manipulable factors such as emotion, sentiment, or part-of-speech (POS) frequencies, which are vulnerable to adversarial inputs. We neutralize some of these signals through multiple forms of both neural and non-neural pre-processing and style transfer, and find that this flattening of extraneous indicators can induce the models to actually require both claims and evidence to perform well. We conclude with the construction of a model using emotion vectors built off a lexicon and passed through an “emotional attention” mechanism to appropriately weight certain emotions. We provide quantifiable results that prove our hypothesis that manipulable features are being used for fact-checking.