Chuanqi Tan


pdf bib
HyPe: Better Pre-trained Language Model Fine-tuning with Hidden Representation Perturbation
Hongyi Yuan | Zheng Yuan | Chuanqi Tan | Fei Huang | Songfang Huang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Language models with the Transformers structure have shown great performance in natural language processing. However, there still poses problems when fine-tuning pre-trained language models on downstream tasks, such as over-fitting or representation collapse. In this work, we propose HyPe, a simple yet effective fine-tuning technique to alleviate such problems by perturbing hidden representations of Transformers layers. Unlike previous works that only add noise to inputs or parameters, we argue that the hidden representations of Transformers layers convey more diverse and meaningful language information. Therefore, making the Transformers layers more robust to hidden representation perturbations can further benefit the fine-tuning of PLMs en bloc. We conduct extensive experiments and analyses on GLUE and other natural language inference datasets. Results demonstrate that HyPe outperforms vanilla fine-tuning and enhances generalization of hidden representations from different layers. In addition, HyPe acquires negligible computational overheads, and is better than and compatible with previous state-of-the-art fine-tuning techniques.

pdf bib
Reasoning with Language Model Prompting: A Survey
Shuofei Qiao | Yixin Ou | Ningyu Zhang | Xiang Chen | Yunzhi Yao | Shumin Deng | Chuanqi Tan | Fei Huang | Huajun Chen
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Reasoning, as an essential ability for complex problem-solving, can provide back-end support for various real-world applications, such as medical diagnosis, negotiation, etc. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of cutting-edge research on reasoning with language model prompting. We introduce research works with comparisons and summaries and provide systematic resources to help beginners. We also discuss the potential reasons for emerging such reasoning abilities and highlight future research directions. Resources are available at (updated periodically).

pdf bib
Towards Adaptive Prefix Tuning for Parameter-Efficient Language Model Fine-tuning
Zhen-Ru Zhang | Chuanqi Tan | Haiyang Xu | Chengyu Wang | Jun Huang | Songfang Huang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Fine-tuning large pre-trained language models on various downstream tasks with whole parameters is prohibitively expensive. Hence, Parameter-efficient fine-tuning has attracted attention that only optimizes a few task-specific parameters with the frozen pre-trained model. In this work, we focus on prefix tuning, which only optimizes continuous prefix vectors (i.e. pseudo tokens) inserted into Transformer layers. Based on the observation that the learned syntax and semantics representation varies a lot at different layers, we argue that the adaptive prefix will be further tailored to each layer than the fixed one, enabling the fine-tuning more effective and efficient. Thus, we propose Adaptive Prefix Tuning (APT) to adjust the prefix in terms of both fine-grained token level and coarse-grained layer level with a gate mechanism. Experiments on the SuperGLUE and NER datasets show the effectiveness of APT. In addition, taking the gate as a probing, we validate the efficiency and effectiveness of the variable prefix.

pdf bib
XtremeCLIP: Extremely Parameter-efficient Tuning for Low-resource Vision Language Understanding
Moming Tang | Chengyu Wang | Jianing Wang | Chuanqi Tan | Songfang Huang | Cen Chen | Weining Qian
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Recently, Contrastive Visual-Language Pre-training (CLIP) has demonstrated remarkable capability in various Visual Language Understanding (VLU) tasks. Yet, most CLIP-based methods require tasks-specific designs and sufficient training data. In this paper, we introduce a simple yet efficient paradigm for low-resource VLU named XtremeCLIP, which involves very few trainable parameters to improve the generalization ability of the trained models. In our XtremeCLIP framework, we reformulate a series of VLU tasks as a unified open-book affinity-matching problem. Furthermore, to handle the insufficient supervised signals in small datasets, we adopt contrastive learning to utilize the implicit sorting information of ground-truth labels to provide more supervised cues. Extensive experiments over multiple datasets on visual entailment, visual question answering, and image classification show that XtremeCLIP consistently outperforms existing baselines in low-resource settings.

pdf bib
Sharing, Teaching and Aligning: Knowledgeable Transfer Learning for Cross-Lingual Machine Reading Comprehension
Tingfeng Cao | Chengyu Wang | Chuanqi Tan | Jun Huang | Jinhui Zhu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

In cross-lingual language understanding, machine translation is often utilized to enhance the transferability of models across languages, either by translating the training data from the source language to the target, or from the target to the source to aid inference. However, in cross-lingual machine reading comprehension (MRC), it is difficult to perform a deep level of assistance to enhance cross-lingual transfer because of the variation of answer span positions in different languages. In this paper, we propose X-STA, a new approach for cross-lingual MRC. Specifically, we leverage an attentive teacher to subtly transfer the answer spans of the source language to the answer output space of the target. A Gradient-Disentangled Knowledge Sharing technique is proposed as an improved cross-attention block. In addition, we force the model to learn semantic alignments from multiple granularities and calibrate the model outputs with teacher guidance to enhance cross-lingual transferability. Experiments on three multi-lingual MRC datasets show the effectiveness of our method, outperforming state-of-the-art approaches.

pdf bib
Knowledge Rumination for Pre-trained Language Models
Yunzhi Yao | Peng Wang | Shengyu Mao | Chuanqi Tan | Fei Huang | Huajun Chen | Ningyu Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Previous studies have revealed that vanilla pre-trained language models (PLMs) lack the capacity to handle knowledge-intensive NLP tasks alone; thus, several works have attempted to integrate external knowledge into PLMs. However, despite the promising outcome, we empirically observe that PLMs may have already encoded rich knowledge in their pre-trained parameters but fails to fully utilize them when applying to knowledge-intensive tasks. In this paper, we propose a new paradigm dubbed Knowledge Rumination to help the pre-trained language model utilize that related latent knowledge without retrieving them from the external corpus. By simply adding a prompt like “As far as I know” to the PLMs, we try to review related latent knowledge and inject them back into the model for knowledge consolidation. We apply the proposed knowledge rumination to various language models, including RoBERTa, DeBERTa, and GPT-3. Experimental results on six commonsense reasoning tasks and GLUE benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach, which proves that the knowledge stored in PLMs can be better exploited to enhance performance.


pdf bib
LightNER: A Lightweight Tuning Paradigm for Low-resource NER via Pluggable Prompting
Xiang Chen | Lei Li | Shumin Deng | Chuanqi Tan | Changliang Xu | Fei Huang | Luo Si | Huajun Chen | Ningyu Zhang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Most NER methods rely on extensive labeled data for model training, which struggles in the low-resource scenarios with limited training data. Existing dominant approaches usually suffer from the challenge that the target domain has different label sets compared with a resource-rich source domain, which can be concluded as class transfer and domain transfer. In this paper, we propose a lightweight tuning paradigm for low-resource NER via pluggable prompting (LightNER). Specifically, we construct the unified learnable verbalizer of entity categories to generate the entity span sequence and entity categories without any label-specific classifiers, thus addressing the class transfer issue. We further propose a pluggable guidance module by incorporating learnable parameters into the self-attention layer as guidance, which can re-modulate the attention and adapt pre-trained weights. Note that we only tune those inserted module with the whole parameter of the pre-trained language model fixed, thus, making our approach lightweight and flexible for low-resource scenarios and can better transfer knowledge across domains. Experimental results show that LightNER can obtain comparable performance in the standard supervised setting and outperform strong baselines in low-resource settings.

pdf bib
CBLUE: A Chinese Biomedical Language Understanding Evaluation Benchmark
Ningyu Zhang | Mosha Chen | Zhen Bi | Xiaozhuan Liang | Lei Li | Xin Shang | Kangping Yin | Chuanqi Tan | Jian Xu | Fei Huang | Luo Si | Yuan Ni | Guotong Xie | Zhifang Sui | Baobao Chang | Hui Zong | Zheng Yuan | Linfeng Li | Jun Yan | Hongying Zan | Kunli Zhang | Buzhou Tang | Qingcai Chen
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Artificial Intelligence (AI), along with the recent progress in biomedical language understanding, is gradually offering great promise for medical practice. With the development of biomedical language understanding benchmarks, AI applications are widely used in the medical field. However, most benchmarks are limited to English, which makes it challenging to replicate many of the successes in English for other languages. To facilitate research in this direction, we collect real-world biomedical data and present the first Chinese Biomedical Language Understanding Evaluation (CBLUE) benchmark: a collection of natural language understanding tasks including named entity recognition, information extraction, clinical diagnosis normalization, single-sentence/sentence-pair classification, and an associated online platform for model evaluation, comparison, and analysis. To establish evaluation on these tasks, we report empirical results with the current 11 pre-trained Chinese models, and experimental results show that state-of-the-art neural models perform by far worse than the human ceiling.

pdf bib
Code Synonyms Do Matter: Multiple Synonyms Matching Network for Automatic ICD Coding
Zheng Yuan | Chuanqi Tan | Songfang Huang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Automatic ICD coding is defined as assigning disease codes to electronic medical records (EMRs).Existing methods usually apply label attention with code representations to match related text snippets. Unlike these works that model the label with the code hierarchy or description, we argue that the code synonyms can provide more comprehensive knowledge based on the observation that the code expressions in EMRs vary from their descriptions in ICD. By aligning codes to concepts in UMLS, we collect synonyms of every code. Then, we propose a multiple synonyms matching network to leverage synonyms for better code representation learning, and finally help the code classification. Experiments on the MIMIC-III dataset show that our proposed method outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods.

pdf bib
SpanProto: A Two-stage Span-based Prototypical Network for Few-shot Named Entity Recognition
Jianing Wang | Chengyu Wang | Chuanqi Tan | Minghui Qiu | Songfang Huang | Jun Huang | Ming Gao
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Few-shot Named Entity Recognition (NER) aims to identify named entities with very little annotated data. Previous methods solve this problem based on token-wise classification, which ignores the information of entity boundaries, and inevitably the performance is affected by the massive non-entity tokens. To this end, we propose a seminal span-based prototypical network (SpanProto) that tackles few-shot NER via a two-stage approach, including span extraction and mention classification. In the span extraction stage, we transform the sequential tags into a global boundary matrix, enabling the model to focus on the explicit boundary information. For mention classification, we leverage prototypical learning to capture the semantic representations for each labeled span and make the model better adapt to novel-class entities. To further improve the model performance, we split out the false positives generated by the span extractor but not labeled in the current episode set, and then present a margin-based loss to separate them from each prototype region. Experiments over multiple benchmarks demonstrate that our model outperforms strong baselines by a large margin.

pdf bib
Fusing Heterogeneous Factors with Triaffine Mechanism for Nested Named Entity Recognition
Zheng Yuan | Chuanqi Tan | Songfang Huang | Fei Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Nested entities are observed in many domains due to their compositionality, which cannot be easily recognized by the widely-used sequence labeling framework.A natural solution is to treat the task as a span classification problem. To learn better span representation and increase classification performance, it is crucial to effectively integrate heterogeneous factors including inside tokens, boundaries, labels, and related spans which could be contributing to nested entities recognition. To fuse these heterogeneous factors, we propose a novel triaffine mechanism including triaffine attention and scoring.Triaffine attention uses boundaries and labels as queries and uses inside tokens and related spans as keys and values for span representations.Triaffine scoring interacts with boundaries and span representations for classification. Experiments show that our proposed method outperforms previous span-based methods, achieves the state-of-the-art F1 scores on nested NER datasets GENIA and KBP2017, and shows comparable results on ACE2004 and ACE2005.

pdf bib
Good Visual Guidance Make A Better Extractor: Hierarchical Visual Prefix for Multimodal Entity and Relation Extraction
Xiang Chen | Ningyu Zhang | Lei Li | Yunzhi Yao | Shumin Deng | Chuanqi Tan | Fei Huang | Luo Si | Huajun Chen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Multimodal named entity recognition and relation extraction (MNER and MRE) is a fundamental and crucial branch in information extraction. However, existing approaches for MNER and MRE usually suffer from error sensitivity when irrelevant object images incorporated in texts. To deal with these issues, we propose a novel Hierarchical Visual Prefix fusion NeTwork (HVPNeT) for visual-enhanced entity and relation extraction, aiming to achieve more effective and robust performance. Specifically, we regard visual representation as pluggable visual prefix to guide the textual representation for error insensitive forecasting decision. We further propose a dynamic gated aggregation strategy to achieve hierarchical multi-scaled visual features as visual prefix for fusion. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, and achieve state-of-the-art performance.

pdf bib
Towards Unified Prompt Tuning for Few-shot Text Classification
Jianing Wang | Chengyu Wang | Fuli Luo | Chuanqi Tan | Minghui Qiu | Fei Yang | Qiuhui Shi | Songfang Huang | Ming Gao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Prompt-based fine-tuning has boosted the performance of Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) on few-shot text classification by employing task-specific prompts. Yet, PLMs are unfamiliar with prompt-style expressions during pre-training, which limits the few-shot learning performance on downstream tasks. It would be desirable if the models can acquire some prompting knowledge before adapting to specific NLP tasks. We present the Unified Prompt Tuning (UPT) framework, leading to better few-shot text classification for BERT-style models by explicitly capturing prompting semantics from non-target NLP datasets. In UPT, a novel paradigm Prompt-Options-Verbalizer is proposed for joint prompt learning across different NLP tasks, forcing PLMs to capture task-invariant prompting knowledge. We further design a self-supervised task named Knowledge-enhanced Selective Masked Language Modeling to improve the PLM’s generalization abilities for accurate adaptation to previously unseen tasks. After multi-task learning across multiple tasks, the PLM can be better prompt-tuned towards any dissimilar target tasks in low-resourced settings. Experiments over a variety of NLP tasks show that UPT consistently outperforms state-of-the-arts for prompt-based fine-tuning.

pdf bib
Contrastive Demonstration Tuning for Pre-trained Language Models
Xiaozhuan Liang | Ningyu Zhang | Siyuan Cheng | Zhenru Zhang | Chuanqi Tan | Huajun Chen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Pretrained language models can be effectively stimulated by textual prompts or demonstrations, especially in low-data scenarios. Recent works have focused on automatically searching discrete or continuous prompts or optimized verbalizers, yet studies for the demonstration are still limited. Concretely, the demonstration examples are crucial for an excellent final performance of prompt-tuning. In this paper, we propose a novel pluggable, extensible, and efficient approach named contrastive demonstration tuning, which is free of demonstration sampling. Furthermore, the proposed approach can be: (i) Plugged into any previous prompt-tuning approaches; (ii) Extended to widespread classification tasks with a large number of categories. Experimental results on 16 datasets illustrate that our method integrated with previous approaches LM-BFF and P-tuning can yield better performance. Code is available in


pdf bib
Noisy-Labeled NER with Confidence Estimation
Kun Liu | Yao Fu | Chuanqi Tan | Mosha Chen | Ningyu Zhang | Songfang Huang | Sheng Gao
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Recent studies in deep learning have shown significant progress in named entity recognition (NER). However, most existing works assume clean data annotation, while real-world scenarios typically involve a large amount of noises from a variety of sources (e.g., pseudo, weak, or distant annotations). This work studies NER under a noisy labeled setting with calibrated confidence estimation. Based on empirical observations of different training dynamics of noisy and clean labels, we propose strategies for estimating confidence scores based on local and global independence assumptions. We partially marginalize out labels of low confidence with a CRF model. We further propose a calibration method for confidence scores based on the structure of entity labels. We integrate our approach into a self-training framework for boosting performance. Experiments in general noisy settings with four languages and distantly labeled settings demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

pdf bib
Raise a Child in Large Language Model: Towards Effective and Generalizable Fine-tuning
Runxin Xu | Fuli Luo | Zhiyuan Zhang | Chuanqi Tan | Baobao Chang | Songfang Huang | Fei Huang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent pretrained language models extend from millions to billions of parameters. Thus the need to fine-tune an extremely large pretrained model with a limited training corpus arises in various downstream tasks. In this paper, we propose a straightforward yet effective fine-tuning technique, Child-Tuning, which updates a subset of parameters (called child network) of large pretrained models via strategically masking out the gradients of the non-child network during the backward process. Experiments on various downstream tasks in GLUE benchmark show that Child-Tuning consistently outperforms the vanilla fine-tuning by 1.5 8.6 average score among four different pretrained models, and surpasses the prior fine-tuning techniques by 0.6 1.3 points. Furthermore, empirical results on domain transfer and task transfer show that Child-Tuning can obtain better generalization performance by large margins.

pdf bib
Improving Biomedical Pretrained Language Models with Knowledge
Zheng Yuan | Yijia Liu | Chuanqi Tan | Songfang Huang | Fei Huang
Proceedings of the 20th Workshop on Biomedical Language Processing

Pretrained language models have shown success in many natural language processing tasks. Many works explore to incorporate the knowledge into the language models. In the biomedical domain, experts have taken decades of effort on building large-scale knowledge bases. For example, UMLS contains millions of entities with their synonyms and defines hundreds of relations among entities. Leveraging this knowledge can benefit a variety of downstream tasks such as named entity recognition and relation extraction. To this end, we propose KeBioLM, a biomedical pretrained language model that explicitly leverages knowledge from the UMLS knowledge bases. Specifically, we extract entities from PubMed abstracts and link them to UMLS. We then train a knowledge-aware language model that firstly applies a text-only encoding layer to learn entity representation and then applies a text-entity fusion encoding to aggregate entity representation. In addition, we add two training objectives as entity detection and entity linking. Experiments on the named entity recognition and relation extraction tasks from the BLURB benchmark demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. Further analysis on a collected probing dataset shows that our model has better ability to model medical knowledge.


pdf bib
Predicting Clinical Trial Results by Implicit Evidence Integration
Qiao Jin | Chuanqi Tan | Mosha Chen | Xiaozhong Liu | Songfang Huang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Clinical trials provide essential guidance for practicing Evidence-Based Medicine, though often accompanying with unendurable costs and risks. To optimize the design of clinical trials, we introduce a novel Clinical Trial Result Prediction (CTRP) task. In the CTRP framework, a model takes a PICO-formatted clinical trial proposal with its background as input and predicts the result, i.e. how the Intervention group compares with the Comparison group in terms of the measured Outcome in the studied Population. While structured clinical evidence is prohibitively expensive for manual collection, we exploit large-scale unstructured sentences from medical literature that implicitly contain PICOs and results as evidence. Specifically, we pre-train a model to predict the disentangled results from such implicit evidence and fine-tune the model with limited data on the downstream datasets. Experiments on the benchmark Evidence Integration dataset show that the proposed model outperforms the baselines by large margins, e.g., with a 10.7% relative gain over BioBERT in macro-F1. Moreover, the performance improvement is also validated on another dataset composed of clinical trials related to COVID-19.


pdf bib
SuperAgent: A Customer Service Chatbot for E-commerce Websites
Lei Cui | Shaohan Huang | Furu Wei | Chuanqi Tan | Chaoqun Duan | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of ACL 2017, System Demonstrations

pdf bib
Entity Linking for Queries by Searching Wikipedia Sentences
Chuanqi Tan | Furu Wei | Pengjie Ren | Weifeng Lv | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We present a simple yet effective approach for linking entities in queries. The key idea is to search sentences similar to a query from Wikipedia articles and directly use the human-annotated entities in the similar sentences as candidate entities for the query. Then, we employ a rich set of features, such as link-probability, context-matching, word embeddings, and relatedness among candidate entities as well as their related entities, to rank the candidates under a regression based framework. The advantages of our approach lie in two aspects, which contribute to the ranking process and final linking result. First, it can greatly reduce the number of candidate entities by filtering out irrelevant entities with the words in the query. Second, we can obtain the query sensitive prior probability in addition to the static link-probability derived from all Wikipedia articles. We conduct experiments on two benchmark datasets on entity linking for queries, namely the ERD14 dataset and the GERDAQ dataset. Experimental results show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art systems and yields 75.0% in F1 on the ERD14 dataset and 56.9% on the GERDAQ dataset.


pdf bib
Solving and Generating Chinese Character Riddles
Chuanqi Tan | Furu Wei | Li Dong | Weifeng Lv | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing


pdf bib
Adaptive Recursive Neural Network for Target-dependent Twitter Sentiment Classification
Li Dong | Furu Wei | Chuanqi Tan | Duyu Tang | Ming Zhou | Ke Xu
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)