Chuchu Fan


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NL2TL: Transforming Natural Languages to Temporal Logics using Large Language Models
Yongchao Chen | Rujul Gandhi | Yang Zhang | Chuchu Fan
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Temporal Logic (TL) can be used to rigorously specify complex high-level specification for systems in many engineering applications. The translation between natural language (NL) and TL has been under-explored due to the lack of dataset and generalizable model across different application domains. In this paper, we propose an accurate and generalizable transformation framework of English instructions from NL to TL, exploring the use of Large Language Models (LLMs) at multiple stages. Our contributions are twofold. First, we develop a framework to create a dataset of NL-TL pairs combining LLMs and human annotation. We publish a dataset with 23K NL-TL pairs. Then, we finetune T5 models on the lifted versions (i.e., the specific Atomic Propositions (AP) are hidden) of the NL and TL. The enhanced generalizability originates from two aspects: 1) Usage of lifted NL-TL characterizes common logical structures, without constraints of specific domains. 2) Application of LLMs in dataset creation largely enhances corpus richness. We test the generalization of trained models on five varied domains. To achieve full NL-TL transformation, we either combine the lifted model with AP recognition task or do the further finetuning on each specific domain. During the further finetuning, our model achieves higher accuracy (> 95%) using only <10% training data, compared with the baseline sequence to sequence (Seq2Seq) model.


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A Meta-framework for Spatiotemporal Quantity Extraction from Text
Qiang Ning | Ben Zhou | Hao Wu | Haoruo Peng | Chuchu Fan | Matt Gardner
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

News events are often associated with quantities (e.g., the number of COVID-19 patients or the number of arrests in a protest), and it is often important to extract their type, time, and location from unstructured text in order to analyze these quantity events. This paper thus formulates the NLP problem of spatiotemporal quantity extraction, and proposes the first meta-framework for solving it. This meta-framework contains a formalism that decomposes the problem into several information extraction tasks, a shareable crowdsourcing pipeline, and transformer-based baseline models. We demonstrate the meta-framework in three domains—the COVID-19 pandemic, Black Lives Matter protests, and 2020 California wildfires—to show that the formalism is general and extensible, the crowdsourcing pipeline facilitates fast and high-quality data annotation, and the baseline system can handle spatiotemporal quantity extraction well enough to be practically useful. We release all resources for future research on this topic at


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Partial Or Complete, That’s The Question
Qiang Ning | Hangfeng He | Chuchu Fan | Dan Roth
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

For many structured learning tasks, the data annotation process is complex and costly. Existing annotation schemes usually aim at acquiring completely annotated structures, under the common perception that partial structures are of low quality and could hurt the learning process. This paper questions this common perception, motivated by the fact that structures consist of interdependent sets of variables. Thus, given a fixed budget, partly annotating each structure may provide the same level of supervision, while allowing for more structures to be annotated. We provide an information theoretic formulation for this perspective and use it, in the context of three diverse structured learning tasks, to show that learning from partial structures can sometimes outperform learning from complete ones. Our findings may provide important insights into structured data annotation schemes and could support progress in learning protocols for structured tasks.


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Exploiting Partially Annotated Data in Temporal Relation Extraction
Qiang Ning | Zhongzhi Yu | Chuchu Fan | Dan Roth
Proceedings of the Seventh Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics

Annotating temporal relations (TempRel) between events described in natural language is known to be labor intensive, partly because the total number of TempRels is quadratic in the number of events. As a result, only a small number of documents are typically annotated, limiting the coverage of various lexical/semantic phenomena. In order to improve existing approaches, one possibility is to make use of the readily available, partially annotated data (P as in partial) that cover more documents. However, missing annotations in P are known to hurt, rather than help, existing systems. This work is a case study in exploring various usages of P for TempRel extraction. Results show that despite missing annotations, P is still a useful supervision signal for this task within a constrained bootstrapping learning framework. The system described in this system is publicly available.