Chunliu Wang


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Discourse Representation Structure Parsing for Chinese
Chunliu Wang | Xiao Zhang | Johan Bos
Proceedings of the 4th Natural Logic Meets Machine Learning Workshop

Previous work has predominantly focused on monolingual English semantic parsing. We, instead, explore the feasibility of Chinese semantic parsing in the absence of labeled data for Chinese meaning representations. We describe the pipeline of automatically collecting the linearized Chinese meaning representation data for sequential-to-sequential neural networks. We further propose a test suite designed explicitly for Chinese semantic parsing, which provides fine-grained evaluation for parsing performance, where we aim to study Chinese parsing difficulties. Our experimental results show that the difficulty of Chinese semantic parsing is mainly caused by adverbs. Realizing Chinese parsing through machine translation and an English parser yields slightly lower performance than training a model directly on Chinese data.

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Pre-Trained Language-Meaning Models for Multilingual Parsing and Generation
Chunliu Wang | Huiyuan Lai | Malvina Nissim | Johan Bos
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Pre-trained language models (PLMs) have achieved great success in NLP and have recently been used for tasks in computational semantics. However, these tasks do not fully benefit from PLMs since meaning representations are not explicitly included. We introduce multilingual pre-trained language-meaning models based on Discourse Representation Structures (DRSs), including meaning representations besides natural language texts in the same model, and design a new strategy to reduce the gap between the pre-training and fine-tuning objectives. Since DRSs are language neutral, cross-lingual transfer learning is adopted to further improve the performance of non-English tasks. Automatic evaluation results show that our approach achieves the best performance on both the multilingual DRS parsing and DRS-to-text generation tasks. Correlation analysis between automatic metrics and human judgements on the generation task further validates the effectiveness of our model. Human inspection reveals that out-of-vocabulary tokens are the main cause of erroneous results.


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Evaluating Text Generation from Discourse Representation Structures
Chunliu Wang | Rik van Noord | Arianna Bisazza | Johan Bos
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Natural Language Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics (GEM 2021)

We present an end-to-end neural approach to generate English sentences from formal meaning representations, Discourse Representation Structures (DRSs). We use a rather standard bi-LSTM sequence-to-sequence model, work with a linearized DRS input representation, and evaluate character-level and word-level decoders. We obtain very encouraging results in terms of reference-based automatic metrics such as BLEU. But because such metrics only evaluate the surface level of generated output, we develop a new metric, ROSE, that targets specific semantic phenomena. We do this with five DRS generation challenge sets focusing on tense, grammatical number, polarity, named entities and quantities. The aim of these challenge sets is to assess the neural generator’s systematicity and generalization to unseen inputs.

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Input Representations for Parsing Discourse Representation Structures: Comparing English with Chinese
Chunliu Wang | Rik van Noord | Arianna Bisazza | Johan Bos
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Neural semantic parsers have obtained acceptable results in the context of parsing DRSs (Discourse Representation Structures). In particular models with character sequences as input showed remarkable performance for English. But how does this approach perform on languages with a different writing system, like Chinese, a language with a large vocabulary of characters? Does rule-based tokenisation of the input help, and which granularity is preferred: characters, or words? The results are promising. Even with DRSs based on English, good results for Chinese are obtained. Tokenisation offers a small advantage for English, but not for Chinese. Overall, characters are preferred as input, both for English and Chinese.