Chunyan Miao


2022

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Toward Knowledge-Enriched Conversational Recommendation Systems
Tong Zhang | Yong Liu | Boyang Li | Peixiang Zhong | Chen Zhang | Hao Wang | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on NLP for Conversational AI

Conversational Recommendation Systems recommend items through language based interactions with users.In order to generate naturalistic conversations and effectively utilize knowledge graphs (KGs) containing background information, we propose a novel Bag-of-Entities loss, which encourages the generated utterances to mention concepts related to the item being recommended, such as the genre or director of a movie. We also propose an alignment loss to further integrate KG entities into the response generation network. Experiments on the large-scale REDIAL dataset demonstrate that the proposed system consistently outperforms state-of-the-art baselines.

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GlobalWoZ: Globalizing MultiWoZ to Develop Multilingual Task-Oriented Dialogue Systems
Bosheng Ding | Junjie Hu | Lidong Bing | Mahani Aljunied | Shafiq Joty | Luo Si | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Over the last few years, there has been a move towards data curation for multilingual task-oriented dialogue (ToD) systems that can serve people speaking different languages. However, existing multilingual ToD datasets either have a limited coverage of languages due to the high cost of data curation, or ignore the fact that dialogue entities barely exist in countries speaking these languages. To tackle these limitations, we introduce a novel data curation method that generates GlobalWoZ — a large-scale multilingual ToD dataset globalized from an English ToD dataset for three unexplored use cases of multilingual ToD systems. Our method is based on translating dialogue templates and filling them with local entities in the target-language countries. Besides, we extend the coverage of target languages to 20 languages. We will release our dataset and a set of strong baselines to encourage research on multilingual ToD systems for real use cases.

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MELM: Data Augmentation with Masked Entity Language Modeling for Low-Resource NER
Ran Zhou | Xin Li | Ruidan He | Lidong Bing | Erik Cambria | Luo Si | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Data augmentation is an effective solution to data scarcity in low-resource scenarios. However, when applied to token-level tasks such as NER, data augmentation methods often suffer from token-label misalignment, which leads to unsatsifactory performance. In this work, we propose Masked Entity Language Modeling (MELM) as a novel data augmentation framework for low-resource NER. To alleviate the token-label misalignment issue, we explicitly inject NER labels into sentence context, and thus the fine-tuned MELM is able to predict masked entity tokens by explicitly conditioning on their labels. Thereby, MELM generates high-quality augmented data with novel entities, which provides rich entity regularity knowledge and boosts NER performance. When training data from multiple languages are available, we also integrate MELM with code-mixing for further improvement. We demonstrate the effectiveness of MELM on monolingual, cross-lingual and multilingual NER across various low-resource levels. Experimental results show that our MELM consistently outperforms the baseline methods.

2021

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MulDA: A Multilingual Data Augmentation Framework for Low-Resource Cross-Lingual NER
Linlin Liu | Bosheng Ding | Lidong Bing | Shafiq Joty | Luo Si | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Named Entity Recognition (NER) for low-resource languages is a both practical and challenging research problem. This paper addresses zero-shot transfer for cross-lingual NER, especially when the amount of source-language training data is also limited. The paper first proposes a simple but effective labeled sequence translation method to translate source-language training data to target languages and avoids problems such as word order change and entity span determination. With the source-language data as well as the translated data, a generation-based multilingual data augmentation method is introduced to further increase diversity by generating synthetic labeled data in multiple languages. These augmented data enable the language model based NER models to generalize better with both the language-specific features from the target-language synthetic data and the language-independent features from multilingual synthetic data. An extensive set of experiments were conducted to demonstrate encouraging cross-lingual transfer performance of the new research on a wide variety of target languages.

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Latent-Optimized Adversarial Neural Transfer for Sarcasm Detection
Xu Guo | Boyang Li | Han Yu | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

The existence of multiple datasets for sarcasm detection prompts us to apply transfer learning to exploit their commonality. The adversarial neural transfer (ANT) framework utilizes multiple loss terms that encourage the source-domain and the target-domain feature distributions to be similar while optimizing for domain-specific performance. However, these objectives may be in conflict, which can lead to optimization difficulties and sometimes diminished transfer. We propose a generalized latent optimization strategy that allows different losses to accommodate each other and improves training dynamics. The proposed method outperforms transfer learning and meta-learning baselines. In particular, we achieve 10.02% absolute performance gain over the previous state of the art on the iSarcasm dataset.

2020

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DAGA: Data Augmentation with a Generation Approach for Low-resource Tagging Tasks
Bosheng Ding | Linlin Liu | Lidong Bing | Canasai Kruengkrai | Thien Hai Nguyen | Shafiq Joty | Luo Si | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Data augmentation techniques have been widely used to improve machine learning performance as they facilitate generalization. In this work, we propose a novel augmentation method to generate high quality synthetic data for low-resource tagging tasks with language models trained on the linearized labeled sentences. Our method is applicable to both supervised and semi-supervised settings. For the supervised settings, we conduct extensive experiments on named entity recognition (NER), part of speech (POS) tagging and end-to-end target based sentiment analysis (E2E-TBSA) tasks. For the semi-supervised settings, we evaluate our method on the NER task under the conditions of given unlabeled data only and unlabeled data plus a knowledge base. The results show that our method can consistently outperform the baselines, particularly when the given gold training data are less.

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Towards Persona-Based Empathetic Conversational Models
Peixiang Zhong | Chen Zhang | Hao Wang | Yong Liu | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Empathetic conversational models have been shown to improve user satisfaction and task outcomes in numerous domains. In Psychology, persona has been shown to be highly correlated to personality, which in turn influences empathy. In addition, our empirical analysis also suggests that persona plays an important role in empathetic conversations. To this end, we propose a new task towards persona-based empathetic conversations and present the first empirical study on the impact of persona on empathetic responding. Specifically, we first present a novel large-scale multi-domain dataset for persona-based empathetic conversations. We then propose CoBERT, an efficient BERT-based response selection model that obtains the state-of-the-art performance on our dataset. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments to investigate the impact of persona on empathetic responding. Notably, our results show that persona improves empathetic responding more when CoBERT is trained on empathetic conversations than non-empathetic ones, establishing an empirical link between persona and empathy in human conversations.

2019

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Knowledge-Enriched Transformer for Emotion Detection in Textual Conversations
Peixiang Zhong | Di Wang | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Messages in human conversations inherently convey emotions. The task of detecting emotions in textual conversations leads to a wide range of applications such as opinion mining in social networks. However, enabling machines to analyze emotions in conversations is challenging, partly because humans often rely on the context and commonsense knowledge to express emotions. In this paper, we address these challenges by proposing a Knowledge-Enriched Transformer (KET), where contextual utterances are interpreted using hierarchical self-attention and external commonsense knowledge is dynamically leveraged using a context-aware affective graph attention mechanism. Experiments on multiple textual conversation datasets demonstrate that both context and commonsense knowledge are consistently beneficial to the emotion detection performance. In addition, the experimental results show that our KET model outperforms the state-of-the-art models on most of the tested datasets in F1 score.

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ntuer at SemEval-2019 Task 3: Emotion Classification with Word and Sentence Representations in RCNN
Peixiang Zhong | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

In this paper we present our model on the task of emotion detection in textual conversations in SemEval-2019. Our model extends the Recurrent Convolutional Neural Network (RCNN) by using external fine-tuned word representations and DeepMoji sentence representations. We also explored several other competitive pre-trained word and sentence representations including ELMo, BERT and InferSent but found inferior performance. In addition, we conducted extensive sensitivity analysis, which empirically shows that our model is relatively robust to hyper-parameters. Our model requires no handcrafted features or emotion lexicons but achieved good performance with a micro-F1 score of 0.7463.

2017

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A Novel Cascade Model for Learning Latent Similarity from Heterogeneous Sequential Data of MOOC
Zhuoxuan Jiang | Shanshan Feng | Gao Cong | Chunyan Miao | Xiaoming Li
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent years have witnessed the proliferation of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). With massive learners being offered MOOCs, there is a demand that the forum contents within MOOCs need to be classified in order to facilitate both learners and instructors. Therefore we investigate a significant application, which is to associate forum threads to subtitles of video clips. This task can be regarded as a document ranking problem, and the key is how to learn a distinguishable text representation from word sequences and learners’ behavior sequences. In this paper, we propose a novel cascade model, which can capture both the latent semantics and latent similarity by modeling MOOC data. Experimental results on two real-world datasets demonstrate that our textual representation outperforms state-of-the-art unsupervised counterparts for the application.

2016

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Generative Topic Embedding: a Continuous Representation of Documents
Shaohua Li | Tat-Seng Chua | Jun Zhu | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2015

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A Generative Word Embedding Model and its Low Rank Positive Semidefinite Solution
Shaohua Li | Jun Zhu | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing