Claudio Delli Bovi


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Continuous Model Improvement for Language Understanding with Machine Translation
Abdalghani Abujabal | Claudio Delli Bovi | Sungho Ryu | Turan Gojayev | Fabian Triefenbach | Yannick Versley
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Papers

Scaling conversational personal assistants to a multitude of languages puts high demands on collecting and labelling data, a setting in which cross-lingual learning techniques can help to reconcile the need for well-performing Natural Language Understanding (NLU) with a desideratum to support many languages without incurring unacceptable cost. In this work, we show that automatically annotating unlabeled utterances using Machine Translation in an offline fashion and adding them to the training data can improve performance for existing NLU features for low-resource languages, where a straightforward translate-test approach as considered in existing literature would fail the latency requirements of a live environment. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method with intrinsic and extrinsic evaluation using a real-world commercial dialog system in German. Beyond an intrinsic evaluation, where 56% of the resulting automatically labeled utterances had a perfect match with ground-truth labels, we see significant performance improvements in an extrinsic evaluation settings when manual labeled data is available in small quantities.


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SemEval-2018 Task 9: Hypernym Discovery
Jose Camacho-Collados | Claudio Delli Bovi | Luis Espinosa-Anke | Sergio Oramas | Tommaso Pasini | Enrico Santus | Vered Shwartz | Roberto Navigli | Horacio Saggion
Proceedings of The 12th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes the SemEval 2018 Shared Task on Hypernym Discovery. We put forward this task as a complementary benchmark for modeling hypernymy, a problem which has traditionally been cast as a binary classification task, taking a pair of candidate words as input. Instead, our reformulated task is defined as follows: given an input term, retrieve (or discover) its suitable hypernyms from a target corpus. We proposed five different subtasks covering three languages (English, Spanish, and Italian), and two specific domains of knowledge in English (Medical and Music). Participants were allowed to compete in any or all of the subtasks. Overall, a total of 11 teams participated, with a total of 39 different systems submitted through all subtasks. Data, results and further information about the task can be found at


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Neural Sequence Learning Models for Word Sense Disambiguation
Alessandro Raganato | Claudio Delli Bovi | Roberto Navigli
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Word Sense Disambiguation models exist in many flavors. Even though supervised ones tend to perform best in terms of accuracy, they often lose ground to more flexible knowledge-based solutions, which do not require training by a word expert for every disambiguation target. To bridge this gap we adopt a different perspective and rely on sequence learning to frame the disambiguation problem: we propose and study in depth a series of end-to-end neural architectures directly tailored to the task, from bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory to encoder-decoder models. Our extensive evaluation over standard benchmarks and in multiple languages shows that sequence learning enables more versatile all-words models that consistently lead to state-of-the-art results, even against word experts with engineered features.

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SupWSD: A Flexible Toolkit for Supervised Word Sense Disambiguation
Simone Papandrea | Alessandro Raganato | Claudio Delli Bovi
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

In this demonstration we present SupWSD, a Java API for supervised Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). This toolkit includes the implementation of a state-of-the-art supervised WSD system, together with a Natural Language Processing pipeline for preprocessing and feature extraction. Our aim is to provide an easy-to-use tool for the research community, designed to be modular, fast and scalable for training and testing on large datasets. The source code of SupWSD is available at

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Sew-Embed at SemEval-2017 Task 2: Language-Independent Concept Representations from a Semantically Enriched Wikipedia
Claudio Delli Bovi | Alessandro Raganato
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2017)

This paper describes Sew-Embed, our language-independent approach to multilingual and cross-lingual semantic word similarity as part of the SemEval-2017 Task 2. We leverage the Wikipedia-based concept representations developed by Raganato et al. (2016), and propose an embedded augmentation of their explicit high-dimensional vectors, which we obtain by plugging in an arbitrary word (or sense) embedding representation, and computing a weighted average in the continuous vector space. We evaluate Sew-Embed with two different off-the-shelf embedding representations, and report their performances across all monolingual and cross-lingual benchmarks available for the task. Despite its simplicity, especially compared with supervised or overly tuned approaches, Sew-Embed achieves competitive results in the cross-lingual setting (3rd best result in the global ranking of subtask 2, score 0.56).

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EuroSense: Automatic Harvesting of Multilingual Sense Annotations from Parallel Text
Claudio Delli Bovi | Jose Camacho-Collados | Alessandro Raganato | Roberto Navigli
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Parallel corpora are widely used in a variety of Natural Language Processing tasks, from Machine Translation to cross-lingual Word Sense Disambiguation, where parallel sentences can be exploited to automatically generate high-quality sense annotations on a large scale. In this paper we present EuroSense, a multilingual sense-annotated resource based on the joint disambiguation of the Europarl parallel corpus, with almost 123 million sense annotations for over 155 thousand distinct concepts and entities from a language-independent unified sense inventory. We evaluate the quality of our sense annotations intrinsically and extrinsically, showing their effectiveness as training data for Word Sense Disambiguation.


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Supervised Distributional Hypernym Discovery via Domain Adaptation
Luis Espinosa-Anke | Jose Camacho-Collados | Claudio Delli Bovi | Horacio Saggion
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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A Large-Scale Multilingual Disambiguation of Glosses
José Camacho-Collados | Claudio Delli Bovi | Alessandro Raganato | Roberto Navigli
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Linking concepts and named entities to knowledge bases has become a crucial Natural Language Understanding task. In this respect, recent works have shown the key advantage of exploiting textual definitions in various Natural Language Processing applications. However, to date there are no reliable large-scale corpora of sense-annotated textual definitions available to the research community. In this paper we present a large-scale high-quality corpus of disambiguated glosses in multiple languages, comprising sense annotations of both concepts and named entities from a unified sense inventory. Our approach for the construction and disambiguation of the corpus builds upon the structure of a large multilingual semantic network and a state-of-the-art disambiguation system; first, we gather complementary information of equivalent definitions across different languages to provide context for disambiguation, and then we combine it with a semantic similarity-based refinement. As a result we obtain a multilingual corpus of textual definitions featuring over 38 million definitions in 263 languages, and we make it freely available at Experiments on Open Information Extraction and Sense Clustering show how two state-of-the-art approaches improve their performance by integrating our disambiguated corpus into their pipeline.


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Knowledge Base Unification via Sense Embeddings and Disambiguation
Claudio Delli Bovi | Luis Espinosa-Anke | Roberto Navigli
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Large-Scale Information Extraction from Textual Definitions through Deep Syntactic and Semantic Analysis
Claudio Delli Bovi | Luca Telesca | Roberto Navigli
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 3

We present DefIE, an approach to large-scale Information Extraction (IE) based on a syntactic-semantic analysis of textual definitions. Given a large corpus of definitions we leverage syntactic dependencies to reduce data sparsity, then disambiguate the arguments and content words of the relation strings, and finally exploit the resulting information to organize the acquired relations hierarchically. The output of DefIE is a high-quality knowledge base consisting of several million automatically acquired semantic relations.