In this paper we explore the improvement of intent recognition in conversational systems by the use of meta-knowledge embedded in intent identifiers. Developers often include such knowledge, structure as taxonomies, in the documentation of chatbots. By using neuro-symbolic algorithms to incorporate those taxonomies into embeddings of the output space, we were able to improve accuracy in intent recognition. In datasets with intents and example utterances from 200 professional chatbots, we saw decreases in the equal error rate (EER) in more than 40% of the chatbots in comparison to the baseline of the same algorithm without the meta-knowledge. The meta-knowledge proved also to be effective in detecting out-of-scope utterances, improving the false acceptance rate (FAR) in two thirds of the chatbots, with decreases of 0.05 or more in FAR in almost 40% of the chatbots. When considering only the well-developed workspaces with a high level use of taxonomies, FAR decreased more than 0.05 in 77% of them, and more than 0.1 in 39% of the chatbots.
We present a method for creating parallel data to train Seq2Seq neural networks for sentiment transfer. Most systems for this task, which can be viewed as monolingual machine translation (MT), have relied on unsupervised methods, such as Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)-inspired approaches, for coping with the lack of parallel corpora. Given that the literature shows that Seq2Seq methods have been consistently outperforming unsupervised methods in MT-related tasks, in this work we exploit the use of semantic similarity computation for converting non-parallel data onto a parallel corpus. That allows us to train a transformer neural network for the sentiment transfer task, and compare its performance against unsupervised approaches. With experiments conducted on two well-known public datasets, i.e. Yelp and Amazon, we demonstrate that the proposed methodology outperforms existing unsupervised methods very consistently in fluency, and presents competitive results in terms of sentiment conversion and content preservation. We believe that this works opens up an opportunity for seq2seq neural networks to be better exploited in problems for which they have not been applied owing to the lack of parallel training data.
This paper explores how intent classification can be improved by representing the class labels not as a discrete set of symbols but as a space where the word graphs associated to each class are mapped using typical graph embedding techniques. The approach, inspired by a previous algorithm used for an inverse dictionary task, allows the classification algorithm to take in account inter-class similarities provided by the repeated occurrence of some words in the training examples of the different classes. The classification is carried out by mapping text embeddings to the word graph embeddings of the classes. Focusing solely on improving the representation of the class label set, we show in experiments conducted in both private and public intent classification datasets, that better detection of out-of-scope examples (OOS) is achieved and, as a consequence, that the overall accuracy of intent classification is also improved. In particular, using the recently-released Larson dataset, an error of about 9.9% has been achieved for OOS detection, beating the previous state-of-the-art result by more than 31 percentage points.