Craig Stewart


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Agent and User-Generated Content and its Impact on Customer Support MT
Madalena Gonçalves | Marianna Buchicchio | Craig Stewart | Helena Moniz | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

This paper illustrates a new evaluation framework developed at Unbabel for measuring the quality of source language text and its effect on both Machine Translation (MT) and Human Post-Edition (PE) performed by non-professional post-editors. We examine both agent and user-generated content from the Customer Support domain and propose that differentiating the two is crucial to obtaining high quality translation output. Furthermore, we present results of initial experimentation with a new evaluation typology based on the Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM) Framework Lommel et al., 2014), specifically tailored toward the evaluation of source language text. We show how the MQM Framework Lommel et al., 2014) can be adapted to assess errors of monolingual source texts and demonstrate how very specific source errors propagate to the MT and PE targets. Finally, we illustrate how MT systems are not robust enough to handle very specific source noise in the context of Customer Support data.


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Results of the WMT21 Metrics Shared Task: Evaluating Metrics with Expert-based Human Evaluations on TED and News Domain
Markus Freitag | Ricardo Rei | Nitika Mathur | Chi-kiu Lo | Craig Stewart | George Foster | Alon Lavie | Ondřej Bojar
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper presents the results of the WMT21 Metrics Shared Task. Participants were asked to score the outputs of the translation systems competing in the WMT21 News Translation Task with automatic metrics on two different domains: news and TED talks. All metrics were evaluated on how well they correlate at the system- and segment-level with human ratings. Contrary to previous years’ editions, this year we acquired our own human ratings based on expert-based human evaluation via Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM). This setup had several advantages: (i) expert-based evaluation has been shown to be more reliable, (ii) we were able to evaluate all metrics on two different domains using translations of the same MT systems, (iii) we added 5 additional translations coming from the same system during system development. In addition, we designed three challenge sets that evaluate the robustness of all automatic metrics. We present an extensive analysis on how well metrics perform on three language pairs: English to German, English to Russian and Chinese to English. We further show the impact of different reference translations on reference-based metrics and compare our expert-based MQM annotation with the DA scores acquired by WMT.

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Are References Really Needed? Unbabel-IST 2021 Submission for the Metrics Shared Task
Ricardo Rei | Ana C Farinha | Chrysoula Zerva | Daan van Stigt | Craig Stewart | Pedro Ramos | Taisiya Glushkova | André F. T. Martins | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

In this paper, we present the joint contribution of Unbabel and IST to the WMT 2021 Metrics Shared Task. With this year’s focus on Multidimensional Quality Metric (MQM) as the ground-truth human assessment, our aim was to steer COMET towards higher correlations with MQM. We do so by first pre-training on Direct Assessments and then fine-tuning on z-normalized MQM scores. In our experiments we also show that reference-free COMET models are becoming competitive with reference-based models, even outperforming the best COMET model from 2020 on this year’s development data. Additionally, we present COMETinho, a lightweight COMET model that is 19x faster on CPU than the original model, while also achieving state-of-the-art correlations with MQM. Finally, in the “QE as a metric” track, we also participated with a QE model trained using the OpenKiwi framework leveraging MQM scores and word-level annotations.

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MT-Telescope: An interactive platform for contrastive evaluation of MT systems
Ricardo Rei | Ana C Farinha | Craig Stewart | Luisa Coheur | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

We present MT-Telescope, a visualization platform designed to facilitate comparative analysis of the output quality of two Machine Translation (MT) systems. While automated MT evaluation metrics are commonly used to evaluate MT systems at a corpus-level, our platform supports fine-grained segment-level analysis and interactive visualisations that expose the fundamental differences in the performance of the compared systems. MT-Telescope also supports dynamic corpus filtering to enable focused analysis on specific phenomena such as; translation of named entities, handling of terminology, and the impact of input segment length on translation quality. Furthermore, the platform provides a bootstrapped t-test for statistical significance as a means of evaluating the rigor of the resulting system ranking. MT-Telescope is open source, written in Python, and is built around a user friendly and dynamic web interface. Complementing other existing tools, our platform is designed to facilitate and promote the broader adoption of more rigorous analysis practices in the evaluation of MT quality.


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COMET: A Neural Framework for MT Evaluation
Ricardo Rei | Craig Stewart | Ana C Farinha | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

We present COMET, a neural framework for training multilingual machine translation evaluation models which obtains new state-of-the-art levels of correlation with human judgements. Our framework leverages recent breakthroughs in cross-lingual pretrained language modeling resulting in highly multilingual and adaptable MT evaluation models that exploit information from both the source input and a target-language reference translation in order to more accurately predict MT quality. To showcase our framework, we train three models with different types of human judgements: Direct Assessments, Human-mediated Translation Edit Rate and Multidimensional Quality Metric. Our models achieve new state-of-the-art performance on the WMT 2019 Metrics shared task and demonstrate robustness to high-performing systems.

COMET - Deploying a New State-of-the-art MT Evaluation Metric in Production
Craig Stewart | Ricardo Rei | Catarina Farinha | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas (Volume 2: User Track)

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Unbabel’s Participation in the WMT20 Metrics Shared Task
Ricardo Rei | Craig Stewart | Ana C Farinha | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

We present the contribution of the Unbabel team to the WMT 2020 Shared Task on Metrics. We intend to participate on the segmentlevel, document-level and system-level tracks on all language pairs, as well as the “QE as a Metric” track. Accordingly, we illustrate results of our models in these tracks with reference to test sets from the previous year. Our submissions build upon the recently proposed COMET framework: we train several estimator models to regress on different humangenerated quality scores and a novel ranking model trained on relative ranks obtained from Direct Assessments. We also propose a simple technique for converting segment-level predictions into a document-level score. Overall, our systems achieve strong results for all language pairs on previous test sets and in many cases set a new state-of-the-art.


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Lost in Interpretation: Predicting Untranslated Terminology in Simultaneous Interpretation
Nikolai Vogler | Craig Stewart | Graham Neubig
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Simultaneous interpretation, the translation of speech from one language to another in real-time, is an inherently difficult and strenuous task. One of the greatest challenges faced by interpreters is the accurate translation of difficult terminology like proper names, numbers, or other entities. Intelligent computer-assisted interpreting (CAI) tools that could analyze the spoken word and detect terms likely to be untranslated by an interpreter could reduce translation error and improve interpreter performance. In this paper, we propose a task of predicting which terminology simultaneous interpreters will leave untranslated, and examine methods that perform this task using supervised sequence taggers. We describe a number of task-specific features explicitly designed to indicate when an interpreter may struggle with translating a word. Experimental results on a newly-annotated version of the NAIST Simultaneous Translation Corpus (Shimizu et al., 2014) indicate the promise of our proposed method.

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Improving Robustness of Machine Translation with Synthetic Noise
Vaibhav Vaibhav | Sumeet Singh | Craig Stewart | Graham Neubig
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Modern Machine Translation (MT) systems perform remarkably well on clean, in-domain text. However most of the human generated text, particularly in the realm of social media, is full of typos, slang, dialect, idiolect and other noise which can have a disastrous impact on the accuracy of MT. In this paper we propose methods to enhance the robustness of MT systems by emulating naturally occurring noise in otherwise clean data. Synthesizing noise in this manner we are ultimately able to make a vanilla MT system more resilient to naturally occurring noise, partially mitigating loss in accuracy resulting therefrom.


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Automatic Estimation of Simultaneous Interpreter Performance
Craig Stewart | Nikolai Vogler | Junjie Hu | Jordan Boyd-Graber | Graham Neubig
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Simultaneous interpretation, translation of the spoken word in real-time, is both highly challenging and physically demanding. Methods to predict interpreter confidence and the adequacy of the interpreted message have a number of potential applications, such as in computer-assisted interpretation interfaces or pedagogical tools. We propose the task of predicting simultaneous interpreter performance by building on existing methodology for quality estimation (QE) of machine translation output. In experiments over five settings in three language pairs, we extend a QE pipeline to estimate interpreter performance (as approximated by the METEOR evaluation metric) and propose novel features reflecting interpretation strategy and evaluation measures that further improve prediction accuracy.