Cristina Sánchez-Marco

Also published as: Cristina Marco, Cristina Sánchez Marco


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EPIC: Multi-Perspective Annotation of a Corpus of Irony
Simona Frenda | Alessandro Pedrani | Valerio Basile | Soda Marem Lo | Alessandra Teresa Cignarella | Raffaella Panizzon | Cristina Marco | Bianca Scarlini | Viviana Patti | Cristina Bosco | Davide Bernardi
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We present EPIC (English Perspectivist Irony Corpus), the first annotated corpus for irony analysis based on the principles of data perspectivism. The corpus contains short conversations from social media in five regional varieties of English, and it is annotated by contributors from five countries corresponding to those varieties. We analyse the resource along the perspectives induced by the diversity of the annotators, in terms of origin, age, and gender, and the relationship between these dimensions, irony, and the topics of conversation. We validate EPIC by creating perspective-aware models that encode the perspectives of annotators grouped according to their demographic characteristics. Firstly, the performance of perspectivist models confirms that different annotators induce very different models. Secondly, in the classification of ironic and non-ironic texts, perspectivist models prove to be generally more confident than the non-perspectivist ones. Furthermore, comparing the performance on a perspective-based test set with those achieved on a gold standard test set, we can observe how perspectivist models tend to detect more precisely the positive class, showing their ability to capture the different perceptions of irony. Thanks to these models, we are moreover able to show interesting insights about the variation in the perception of irony by the different groups of annotators, such as among different generations and nationalities.


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Building Sentiment Lexicons for Mainland Scandinavian Languages Using Machine Translation and Sentence Embeddings
Peng Liu | Cristina Marco | Jon Atle Gulla
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This paper presents a simple but effective method to build sentiment lexicons for the three Mainland Scandinavian languages: Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. This method benefits from the English Sentiwordnet and a thesaurus in one of the target languages. Sentiment information from the English resource is mapped to the target languages by using machine translation and similarity measures based on sentence embeddings. A number of experiments with Scandinavian languages are performed in order to determine the best working sentence embedding algorithm for this task. A careful extrinsic evaluation on several datasets yields state-of-the-art results using a simple rule-based sentiment analysis algorithm. The resources are made freely available under an MIT License.


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Semantic Diversity for Natural Language Understanding Evaluation in Dialog Systems
Enrico Palumbo | Andrea Mezzalira | Cristina Marco | Alessandro Manzotti | Daniele Amberti
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Industry Track

The quality of Natural Language Understanding (NLU) models is typically evaluated using aggregated metrics on a large number of utterances. In a dialog system, though, the manual analysis of failures on specific utterances is a time-consuming and yet critical endeavor to guarantee a high-quality customer experience. A crucial question for this analysis is how to create a test set of utterances that covers a diversity of possible customer requests. In this paper, we introduce the task of generating a test set with high semantic diversity for NLU evaluation in dialog systems and we describe an approach to address it. The approach starts by extracting high-traffic utterance patterns. Then, for each pattern, it achieves high diversity selecting utterances from different regions of the utterance embedding space. We compare three selection strategies based on clustering of utterances in the embedding space, on solving the maximum distance optimization problem and on simple heuristics such as random uniform sampling and popularity. The evaluation shows that the highest semantic and lexicon diversity is obtained by a greedy maximum sum of distance solver in a comparable runtime with the clustering and the heuristics approaches.


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NTNU-1@ScienceIE at SemEval-2017 Task 10: Identifying and Labelling Keyphrases with Conditional Random Fields
Erwin Marsi | Utpal Kumar Sikdar | Cristina Marco | Biswanath Barik | Rune Sætre
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2017)

We present NTNU’s systems for Task A (prediction of keyphrases) and Task B (labelling as Material, Process or Task) at SemEval 2017 Task 10: Extracting Keyphrases and Relations from Scientific Publications (Augenstein et al., 2017). Our approach relies on supervised machine learning using Conditional Random Fields. Our system yields a micro F-score of 0.34 for Tasks A and B combined on the test data. For Task C (relation extraction), we relied on an independently developed system described in (Barik and Marsi, 2017). For the full Scenario 1 (including relations), our approach reaches a micro F-score of 0.33 (5th place). Here we describe our systems, report results and discuss errors.


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Political News Sentiment Analysis for Under-resourced Languages
Patrik F. Bakken | Terje A. Bratlie | Cristina Marco | Jon Atle Gulla
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

This paper presents classification results for the analysis of sentiment in political news articles. The domain of political news is particularly challenging, as journalists are presumably objective, whilst at the same time opinions can be subtly expressed. To deal with this challenge, in this work we conduct a two-step classification model, distinguishing first subjective and second positive and negative sentiment texts. More specifically, we propose a shallow machine learning approach where only minimal features are needed to train the classifier, including sentiment-bearing Co-Occurring Terms (COTs) and negation words. This approach yields close to state-of-the-art results. Contrary to results in other domains, the use of negations as features does not have a positive impact in the evaluation results. This method is particularly suited for languages that suffer from a lack of resources, such as sentiment lexicons or parsers, and for those systems that need to function in real-time.


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An open source part-of-speech tagger for Norwegian: Building on existing language resources
Cristina Sánchez Marco
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

This paper presents an open source part-of-speech tagger for the Norwegian language. It describes how an existing language processing library (FreeLing) was used to build a new part-of-speech tagger for this language. This part-of-speech tagger has been built on already available resources, in particular a Norwegian dictionary and gold standard corpus, which were partly customized for the purposes of this paper. The results of a careful evaluation show that this tagger yields an accuracy close to state-of-the-art taggers for other languages.


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Extending the tool, or how to annotate historical language varieties
Cristina Sánchez-Marco | Gemma Boleda | Lluís Padró
Proceedings of the 5th ACL-HLT Workshop on Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, and Humanities


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Annotation and Representation of a Diachronic Corpus of Spanish
Cristina Sánchez-Marco | Gemma Boleda | Josep Maria Fontana | Judith Domingo
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

In this article we describe two different strategies for the automatic tagging of a Spanish diachronic corpus involving the adaptation of existing NLP tools developed for modern Spanish. In the initial approach we follow a state-of-the-art strategy, which consists on standardizing the spelling and the lexicon. This approach boosts POS-tagging accuracy to 90, which represents a raw improvement of over 20% with respect to the results obtained without any pre-processing. In order to enable non-expert users in NLP to use this new resource, the corpus has been integrated into IAC (Corpora Interface Access). We discuss the shortcomings of the initial approach and propose a new one, which does not consist in adapting the source texts to the tagger, but rather in modifying the tagger for the direct treatment of the old variants. This second strategy addresses some important shortcomings in the previous approach and is likely to be useful not only in the creation of diachronic linguistic resources but also for the treatment of dialectal or non-standard variants of synchronic languages as well.