Cynthia Gao


pdf bib
HalOmi: A Manually Annotated Benchmark for Multilingual Hallucination and Omission Detection in Machine Translation
David Dale | Elena Voita | Janice Lam | Prangthip Hansanti | Christophe Ropers | Elahe Kalbassi | Cynthia Gao | Loic Barrault | Marta Costa-jussà
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Hallucinations in machine translation are translations that contain information completely unrelated to the input. Omissions are translations that do not include some of the input information. While both cases tend to be catastrophic errors undermining user trust, annotated data with these types of pathologies is extremely scarce and is limited to a few high-resource languages. In this work, we release an annotated dataset for the hallucination and omission phenomena covering 18 translation directions with varying resource levels and scripts. Our annotation covers different levels of partial and full hallucinations as well as omissions both at the sentence and at the word level. Additionally, we revisit previous methods for hallucination and omission detection, show that conclusions made based on a single language pair largely do not hold for a large-scale evaluation, and establish new solid baselines.

pdf bib
Multilingual Holistic Bias: Extending Descriptors and Patterns to Unveil Demographic Biases in Languages at Scale
Marta Costa-jussà | Pierre Andrews | Eric Smith | Prangthip Hansanti | Christophe Ropers | Elahe Kalbassi | Cynthia Gao | Daniel Licht | Carleigh Wood
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We introduce a multilingual extension of the HolisticBias dataset, the largest English template-based taxonomy of textual people references: Multilingual HolisticBias. This extension consists of 20,459 sentences in 50 languages distributed across 13 demographic axes. Source sentences are built from combinations of 118 demographic descriptors and three patterns, excluding nonsensical combinations. Multilingual translations include alternatives for gendered languages that cover gendered translations when there is ambiguity in English. Our dataset is intended to uncover demographic imbalances and be the tool to quantify mitigations towards them. Our initial findings show that translation quality for EN-to-XX translations is an average of almost 8 spBLEU better when evaluating with the masculine human reference compared to feminine. In the opposite direction, XX-to-EN, we compare the robustness of the model when the source input only differs in gender (masculine or feminine) and masculine translations are an average of almost 4 spBLEU better than feminine. When embedding sentences to a joint multilingual sentence representations space, we find that for most languages masculine translations are significantly closer to the English neutral sentences when embedded.

pdf bib
Small Data, Big Impact: Leveraging Minimal Data for Effective Machine Translation
Jean Maillard | Cynthia Gao | Elahe Kalbassi | Kaushik Ram Sadagopan | Vedanuj Goswami | Philipp Koehn | Angela Fan | Francisco Guzman
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

For many languages, machine translation progress is hindered by the lack of reliable training data. Models are trained on whatever pre-existing datasets may be available and then augmented with synthetic data, because it is often not economical to pay for the creation of large-scale datasets. But for the case of low-resource languages, would the creation of a few thousand professionally translated sentence pairs give any benefit? In this paper, we show that it does. We describe a broad data collection effort involving around 6k professionally translated sentence pairs for each of 39 low-resource languages, which we make publicly available. We analyse the gains of models trained on this small but high-quality data, showing that it has significant impact even when larger but lower quality pre-existing corpora are used, or when data is augmented with millions of sentences through backtranslation.


pdf bib
Consistent Human Evaluation of Machine Translation across Language Pairs
Daniel Licht | Cynthia Gao | Janice Lam | Francisco Guzman | Mona Diab | Philipp Koehn
Proceedings of the 15th biennial conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas (Volume 1: Research Track)

Obtaining meaningful quality scores for machine translation systems through human evaluation remains a challenge given the high variability between human evaluators, partly due to subjective expectations for translation quality for different language pairs. We propose a new metric called XSTS that is more focused on semantic equivalence and a cross-lingual calibration method that enables more consistent assessment. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these novel contributions in large scale evaluation studies across up to 14 language pairs, with translation both into and out of English.

pdf bib
The Flores-101 Evaluation Benchmark for Low-Resource and Multilingual Machine Translation
Naman Goyal | Cynthia Gao | Vishrav Chaudhary | Peng-Jen Chen | Guillaume Wenzek | Da Ju | Sanjana Krishnan | Marc’Aurelio Ranzato | Francisco Guzmán | Angela Fan
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 10

One of the biggest challenges hindering progress in low-resource and multilingual machine translation is the lack of good evaluation benchmarks. Current evaluation benchmarks either lack good coverage of low-resource languages, consider only restricted domains, or are low quality because they are constructed using semi-automatic procedures. In this work, we introduce the Flores-101 evaluation benchmark, consisting of 3001 sentences extracted from English Wikipedia and covering a variety of different topics and domains. These sentences have been translated in 101 languages by professional translators through a carefully controlled process. The resulting dataset enables better assessment of model quality on the long tail of low-resource languages, including the evaluation of many-to-many multilingual translation systems, as all translations are fully aligned. By publicly releasing such a high-quality and high-coverage dataset, we hope to foster progress in the machine translation community and beyond.