Dakuo Wang


2024

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More Samples or More Prompts? Exploring Effective Few-Shot In-Context Learning for LLMs with In-Context Sampling
Bingsheng Yao | Guiming Chen | Ruishi Zou | Yuxuan Lu | Jiachen Li | Shao Zhang | Yisi Sang | Sijia Liu | James Hendler | Dakuo Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2024

While most existing works on LLM prompting techniques focus only on how to select a better set of data samples inside one single prompt input (In-Context Learning or ICL), why can not we design and leverage multiple prompts together to further improve the LLM’s performance? In this work, we propose In-Context Sampling (ICS), a low-resource LLM prompting technique to produce confident predictions by optimizing the construction of multiple ICL prompt inputs. Extensive experiments with three open-source LLMs (FlanT5-XL, Mistral-7B, and Mixtral-8x7B) on four NLI datasets (e-SNLI, Multi-NLI, ANLI, and Contract-NLI) and one QA dataset (CommonsenseQA) illustrate that ICS can consistently enhance LLMs’ performance. An in-depth evaluation with three data similarity-based ICS strategies suggests that these strategies can further elevate LLM’s performance, which sheds light on a new yet promising future research direction.

2023

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Beyond Labels: Empowering Human Annotators with Natural Language Explanations through a Novel Active-Learning Architecture
Bingsheng Yao | Ishan Jindal | Lucian Popa | Yannis Katsis | Sayan Ghosh | Lihong He | Yuxuan Lu | Shashank Srivastava | Yunyao Li | James Hendler | Dakuo Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Real-world domain experts (e.g., doctors) rarely annotate only a decision label in their day-to-day workflow without providing explanations. Yet, existing low-resource learning techniques, such as Active Learning (AL), that aim to support human annotators mostly focus on the label while neglecting the natural language explanation of a data point. This work proposes a novel AL architecture to support experts’ real-world need for label and explanation annotations in low-resource scenarios. Our AL architecture leverages an explanation-generation model to produce explanations guided by human explanations, a prediction model that utilizes generated explanations toward prediction faithfully, and a novel data diversity-based AL sampling strategy that benefits from the explanation annotations. Automated and human evaluations demonstrate the effectiveness of incorporating explanations into AL sampling and the improved human annotation efficiency and trustworthiness with our AL architecture. Additional ablation studies illustrate the potential of our AL architecture for transfer learning, generalizability, and integration with large language models (LLMs). While LLMs exhibit exceptional explanation-generation capabilities for relatively simple tasks, their effectiveness in complex real-world tasks warrants further in-depth study.

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PaniniQA: Enhancing Patient Education Through Interactive Question Answering
Pengshan Cai | Zonghai Yao | Fei Liu | Dakuo Wang | Meghan Reilly | Huixue Zhou | Lingxi Li | Yi Cao | Alok Kapoor | Adarsha Bajracharya | Dan Berlowitz | Hong Yu
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 11

A patient portal allows discharged patients to access their personalized discharge instructions in electronic health records (EHRs). However, many patients have difficulty understanding or memorizing their discharge instructions (Zhao et al., 2017). In this paper, we present PaniniQA, a patient-centric interactive question answering system designed to help patients understand their discharge instructions. PaniniQA first identifies important clinical content from patients’ discharge instructions and then formulates patient-specific educational questions. In addition, PaniniQA is also equipped with answer verification functionality to provide timely feedback to correct patients’ misunderstandings. Our comprehensive automatic & human evaluation results demonstrate our PaniniQA is capable of improving patients’ mastery of their medical instructions through effective interactions.1

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‘Don’t Get Too Technical with Me’: A Discourse Structure-Based Framework for Automatic Science Journalism
Ronald Cardenas | Bingsheng Yao | Dakuo Wang | Yufang Hou
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Science journalism refers to the task of reporting technical findings of a scientific paper as a less technical news article to the general public audience. We aim to design an automated system to support this real-world task (i.e., automatic science journalism ) by 1) introducing a newly-constructed and real-world dataset (SciTechNews), with tuples of a publicly-available scientific paper, its corresponding news article, and an expert-written short summary snippet; 2) proposing a novel technical framework that integrates a paper’s discourse structure with its metadata to guide generation; and, 3) demonstrating with extensive automatic and human experiments that our model outperforms other baseline methods (e.g. Alpaca and ChatGPT) in elaborating a content plan meaningful for the target audience, simplify the information selected, and produce a coherent final report in a layman’s style.

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Are Fairy Tales Fair? Analyzing Gender Bias in Temporal Narrative Event Chains of Children’s Fairy Tales
Paulina Toro Isaza | Guangxuan Xu | Toye Oloko | Yufang Hou | Nanyun Peng | Dakuo Wang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Social biases and stereotypes are embedded in our culture in part through their presence in our stories, as evidenced by the rich history of humanities and social science literature analyzing such biases in children stories. Because these analyses are often conducted manually and at a small scale, such investigations can benefit from the use of more recent natural language processing (NLP) methods that examine social bias in models and data corpora. Our work joins this interdisciplinary effort and makes a unique contribution by taking into account the event narrative structures when analyzing the social bias of stories. We propose a computational pipeline that automatically extracts a story’s temporal narrative verb-based event chain for each of its characters as well as character attributes such as gender. We also present a verb-based event annotation scheme that can facilitate bias analysis by including categories such as those that align with traditional stereotypes. Through a case study analyzing gender bias in fairy tales, we demonstrate that our framework can reveal bias in not only the unigram verb-based events in which female and male characters participate but also in the temporal narrative order of such event participation.

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Are Human Explanations Always Helpful? Towards Objective Evaluation of Human Natural Language Explanations
Bingsheng Yao | Prithviraj Sen | Lucian Popa | James Hendler | Dakuo Wang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Human-annotated labels and explanations are critical for training explainable NLP models. However, unlike human-annotated labels whose quality is easier to calibrate (e.g., with a majority vote), human-crafted free-form explanations can be quite subjective. Before blindly using them as ground truth to train ML models, a vital question needs to be asked: How do we evaluate a human-annotated explanation’s quality? In this paper, we build on the view that the quality of a human-annotated explanation can be measured based on its helpfulness (or impairment) to the ML models’ performance for the desired NLP tasks for which the annotations were collected. In comparison to the commonly used Simulatability score, we define a new metric that can take into consideration the helpfulness of an explanation for model performance at both fine-tuning and inference. With the help of a unified dataset format, we evaluated the proposed metric on five datasets (e.g., e-SNLI) against two model architectures (T5 and BART), and the results show that our proposed metric can objectively evaluate the quality of human-annotated explanations, while Simulatability falls short.

2022

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Label Sleuth: From Unlabeled Text to a Classifier in a Few Hours
Eyal Shnarch | Alon Halfon | Ariel Gera | Marina Danilevsky | Yannis Katsis | Leshem Choshen | Martin Santillan Cooper | Dina Epelboim | Zheng Zhang | Dakuo Wang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Label Sleuth is an open source platform for building text classifiers which does not require coding skills nor machine learning knowledge.- Project website: [https://www.label-sleuth.org/](https://www.label-sleuth.org/)- Link to screencast video: [https://vimeo.com/735675461](https://vimeo.com/735675461)### AbstractText classification can be useful in many real-world scenarios, saving a lot of time for end users. However, building a classifier generally requires coding skills and ML knowledge, which poses a significant barrier for many potential users. To lift this barrier we introduce *Label Sleuth*, a free open source system for labeling and creating text classifiers. This system is unique for: - being a no-code system, making NLP accessible for non-experts. - guiding its users throughout the entire labeling process until they obtain their desired classifier, making the process efficient - from cold start to a classifier in a few hours. - being open for configuration and extension by developers. By open sourcing Label Sleuth we hope to build a community of users and developers that will widen the utilization of NLP models.

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GEMv2: Multilingual NLG Benchmarking in a Single Line of Code
Sebastian Gehrmann | Abhik Bhattacharjee | Abinaya Mahendiran | Alex Wang | Alexandros Papangelis | Aman Madaan | Angelina Mcmillan-major | Anna Shvets | Ashish Upadhyay | Bernd Bohnet | Bingsheng Yao | Bryan Wilie | Chandra Bhagavatula | Chaobin You | Craig Thomson | Cristina Garbacea | Dakuo Wang | Daniel Deutsch | Deyi Xiong | Di Jin | Dimitra Gkatzia | Dragomir Radev | Elizabeth Clark | Esin Durmus | Faisal Ladhak | Filip Ginter | Genta Indra Winata | Hendrik Strobelt | Hiroaki Hayashi | Jekaterina Novikova | Jenna Kanerva | Jenny Chim | Jiawei Zhou | Jordan Clive | Joshua Maynez | João Sedoc | Juraj Juraska | Kaustubh Dhole | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Laura Perez Beltrachini | Leonardo F . R. Ribeiro | Lewis Tunstall | Li Zhang | Mahim Pushkarna | Mathias Creutz | Michael White | Mihir Sanjay Kale | Moussa Kamal Eddine | Nico Daheim | Nishant Subramani | Ondrej Dusek | Paul Pu Liang | Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi | Qi Zhu | Ratish Puduppully | Reno Kriz | Rifat Shahriyar | Ronald Cardenas | Saad Mahamood | Salomey Osei | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Sanja Štajner | Sebastien Montella | Shailza Jolly | Simon Mille | Tahmid Hasan | Tianhao Shen | Tosin Adewumi | Vikas Raunak | Vipul Raheja | Vitaly Nikolaev | Vivian Tsai | Yacine Jernite | Ying Xu | Yisi Sang | Yixin Liu | Yufang Hou
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Evaluations in machine learning rarely use the latest metrics, datasets, or human evaluation in favor of remaining compatible with prior work. The compatibility, often facilitated through leaderboards, thus leads to outdated but standardized evaluation practices. We pose that the standardization is taking place in the wrong spot. Evaluation infrastructure should enable researchers to use the latest methods and what should be standardized instead is how to incorporate these new evaluation advances. We introduce GEMv2, the new version of the Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics Benchmark which uses a modular infrastructure for dataset, model, and metric developers to benefit from each other’s work. GEMv2 supports 40 documented datasets in 51 languages, ongoing online evaluation for all datasets, and our interactive tools make it easier to add new datasets to the living benchmark.

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MBTI Personality Prediction for Fictional Characters Using Movie Scripts
Yisi Sang | Xiangyang Mou | Mo Yu | Dakuo Wang | Jing Li | Jeffrey Stanton
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

An NLP model that understands stories should be able to understand the characters in them. To support the development of neural models for this purpose, we construct a benchmark, Story2Personality. The task is to predict a movie character’s MBTI or Big 5 personality types based on the narratives of the character. Experiments show that our task is challenging for the existing text classification models, as none is able to largely outperform random guesses. We further proposed a multi-view model for personality prediction using both verbal and non-verbal descriptions, which gives improvement compared to using only verbal descriptions. The uniqueness and challenges in our dataset call for the development of narrative comprehension techniques from the perspective of understanding characters.

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Fantastic Questions and Where to Find Them: FairytaleQA – An Authentic Dataset for Narrative Comprehension
Ying Xu | Dakuo Wang | Mo Yu | Daniel Ritchie | Bingsheng Yao | Tongshuang Wu | Zheng Zhang | Toby Li | Nora Bradford | Branda Sun | Tran Hoang | Yisi Sang | Yufang Hou | Xiaojuan Ma | Diyi Yang | Nanyun Peng | Zhou Yu | Mark Warschauer
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Question answering (QA) is a fundamental means to facilitate assessment and training of narrative comprehension skills for both machines and young children, yet there is scarcity of high-quality QA datasets carefully designed to serve this purpose. In particular, existing datasets rarely distinguish fine-grained reading skills, such as the understanding of varying narrative elements. Drawing on the reading education research, we introduce FairytaleQA, a dataset focusing on narrative comprehension of kindergarten to eighth-grade students. Generated by educational experts based on an evidence-based theoretical framework, FairytaleQA consists of 10,580 explicit and implicit questions derived from 278 children-friendly stories, covering seven types of narrative elements or relations. Our dataset is valuable in two folds: First, we ran existing QA models on our dataset and confirmed that this annotation helps assess models’ fine-grained learning skills. Second, the dataset supports question generation (QG) task in the education domain. Through benchmarking with QG models, we show that the QG model trained on FairytaleQA is capable of asking high-quality and more diverse questions.

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It is AI’s Turn to Ask Humans a Question: Question-Answer Pair Generation for Children’s Story Books
Bingsheng Yao | Dakuo Wang | Tongshuang Wu | Zheng Zhang | Toby Li | Mo Yu | Ying Xu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Existing question answering (QA) techniques are created mainly to answer questions asked by humans. But in educational applications, teachers often need to decide what questions they should ask, in order to help students to improve their narrative understanding capabilities. We design an automated question-answer generation (QAG) system for this education scenario: given a story book at the kindergarten to eighth-grade level as input, our system can automatically generate QA pairs that are capable of testing a variety of dimensions of a student’s comprehension skills. Our proposed QAG model architecture is demonstrated using a new expert-annotated FairytaleQA dataset, which has 278 child-friendly storybooks with 10,580 QA pairs. Automatic and human evaluations show that our model outperforms state-of-the-art QAG baseline systems. On top of our QAG system, we also start to build an interactive story-telling application for the future real-world deployment in this educational scenario.

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Educational Question Generation of Children Storybooks via Question Type Distribution Learning and Event-centric Summarization
Zhenjie Zhao | Yufang Hou | Dakuo Wang | Mo Yu | Chengzhong Liu | Xiaojuan Ma
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Generating educational questions of fairytales or storybooks is vital for improving children’s literacy ability. However, it is challenging to generate questions that capture the interesting aspects of a fairytale story with educational meaningfulness. In this paper, we propose a novel question generation method that first learns the question type distribution of an input story paragraph, and then summarizes salient events which can be used to generate high-cognitive-demand questions. To train the event-centric summarizer, we finetune a pre-trained transformer-based sequence-to-sequence model using silver samples composed by educational question-answer pairs. On a newly proposed educational question-answering dataset FairytaleQA, we show good performance of our method on both automatic and human evaluation metrics. Our work indicates the necessity of decomposing question type distribution learning and event-centric summary generation for educational question generation.

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A Word is Worth A Thousand Dollars: Adversarial Attack on Tweets Fools Stock Prediction
Yong Xie | Dakuo Wang | Pin-Yu Chen | Jinjun Xiong | Sijia Liu | Oluwasanmi Koyejo
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

More and more investors and machine learning models rely on social media (e.g., Twitter and Reddit) to gather information and predict movements stock prices. Although text-based models are known to be vulnerable to adversarial attacks, whether stock prediction models have similar vulnerability given necessary constraints is underexplored. In this paper, we experiment with a variety of adversarial attack configurations to fool three stock prediction victim models. We address the task of adversarial generation by solving combinatorial optimization problems with semantics and budget constraints. Our results show that the proposed attack method can achieve consistent success rates and cause significant monetary loss in trading simulation by simply concatenating a perturbed but semantically similar tweet.

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Towards a Progression-Aware Autonomous Dialogue Agent
Abraham Sanders | Tomek Strzalkowski | Mei Si | Albert Chang | Deepanshu Dey | Jonas Braasch | Dakuo Wang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Recent advances in large-scale language modeling and generation have enabled the creation of dialogue agents that exhibit human-like responses in a wide range of conversational scenarios spanning a diverse set of tasks, from general chit-chat to focused goal-oriented discourse. While these agents excel at generating high-quality responses that are relevant to prior context, they suffer from a lack of awareness of the overall direction in which the conversation is headed, and the likelihood of task success inherent therein. Thus, we propose a framework in which dialogue agents can evaluate the progression of a conversation toward or away from desired outcomes, and use this signal to inform planning for subsequent responses. Our framework is composed of three key elements: (1) the notion of a “global” dialogue state (GDS) space, (2) a task-specific progression function (PF) computed in terms of a conversation’s trajectory through this space, and (3) a planning mechanism based on dialogue rollouts by which an agent may use progression signals to select its next response.

2021

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HAConvGNN: Hierarchical Attention Based Convolutional Graph Neural Network for Code Documentation Generation in Jupyter Notebooks
Xuye Liu | Dakuo Wang | April Wang | Yufang Hou | Lingfei Wu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Jupyter notebook allows data scientists to write machine learning code together with its documentation in cells. In this paper, we propose a new task of code documentation generation (CDG) for computational notebooks. In contrast to the previous CDG tasks which focus on generating documentation for single code snippets, in a computational notebook, one documentation in a markdown cell often corresponds to multiple code cells, and these code cells have an inherent structure. We proposed a new model (HAConvGNN) that uses a hierarchical attention mechanism to consider the relevant code cells and the relevant code tokens information when generating the documentation. Tested on a new corpus constructed from well-documented Kaggle notebooks, we show that our model outperforms other baseline models.

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D2S: Document-to-Slide Generation Via Query-Based Text Summarization
Edward Sun | Yufang Hou | Dakuo Wang | Yunfeng Zhang | Nancy X. R. Wang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Presentations are critical for communication in all areas of our lives, yet the creation of slide decks is often tedious and time-consuming. There has been limited research aiming to automate the document-to-slides generation process and all face a critical challenge: no publicly available dataset for training and benchmarking. In this work, we first contribute a new dataset, SciDuet, consisting of pairs of papers and their corresponding slides decks from recent years’ NLP and ML conferences (e.g., ACL). Secondly, we present D2S, a novel system that tackles the document-to-slides task with a two-step approach: 1) Use slide titles to retrieve relevant and engaging text, figures, and tables; 2) Summarize the retrieved context into bullet points with long-form question answering. Our evaluation suggests that long-form QA outperforms state-of-the-art summarization baselines on both automated ROUGE metrics and qualitative human evaluation.

2019

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Out-of-Domain Detection for Low-Resource Text Classification Tasks
Ming Tan | Yang Yu | Haoyu Wang | Dakuo Wang | Saloni Potdar | Shiyu Chang | Mo Yu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Out-of-domain (OOD) detection for low-resource text classification is a realistic but understudied task. The goal is to detect the OOD cases with limited in-domain (ID) training data, since in machine learning applications we observe that training data is often insufficient. In this work, we propose an OOD-resistant Prototypical Network to tackle this zero-shot OOD detection and few-shot ID classification task. Evaluations on real-world datasets show that the proposed solution outperforms state-of-the-art methods in zero-shot OOD detection task, while maintaining a competitive performance on ID classification task.

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Context-Aware Conversation Thread Detection in Multi-Party Chat
Ming Tan | Dakuo Wang | Yupeng Gao | Haoyu Wang | Saloni Potdar | Xiaoxiao Guo | Shiyu Chang | Mo Yu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

In multi-party chat, it is common for multiple conversations to occur concurrently, leading to intermingled conversation threads in chat logs. In this work, we propose a novel Context-Aware Thread Detection (CATD) model that automatically disentangles these conversation threads. We evaluate our model on four real-world datasets and demonstrate an overall im-provement in thread detection accuracy over state-of-the-art benchmarks.

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Extracting Multiple-Relations in One-Pass with Pre-Trained Transformers
Haoyu Wang | Ming Tan | Mo Yu | Shiyu Chang | Dakuo Wang | Kun Xu | Xiaoxiao Guo | Saloni Potdar
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Many approaches to extract multiple relations from a paragraph require multiple passes over the paragraph. In practice, multiple passes are computationally expensive and this makes difficult to scale to longer paragraphs and larger text corpora. In this work, we focus on the task of multiple relation extractions by encoding the paragraph only once. We build our solution upon the pre-trained self-attentive models (Transformer), where we first add a structured prediction layer to handle extraction between multiple entity pairs, then enhance the paragraph embedding to capture multiple relational information associated with each entity with entity-aware attention. We show that our approach is not only scalable but can also perform state-of-the-art on the standard benchmark ACE 2005.
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