Daling Wang


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Few-shot Joint Multimodal Aspect-Sentiment Analysis Based on Generative Multimodal Prompt
Xiaocui Yang | Shi Feng | Daling Wang | Qi Sun | Wenfang Wu | Yifei Zhang | Pengfei Hong | Soujanya Poria
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

We have witnessed the rapid proliferation of multimodal data on numerous social media platforms. Conventional studies typically require massive labeled data to train models for Multimodal Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (MABSA). However, collecting and annotating fine-grained multimodal data for MABSA is tough. To alleviate the above issue, we perform three MABSA-related tasks with quite a small number of labeled multimodal samples. We first build diverse and comprehensive multimodal few-shot datasets according to the data distribution. To capture the specific prompt for each aspect term in a few-shot scenario, we propose a novel Generative Multimodal Prompt (GMP) model for MABSA, which includes the Multimodal Encoder module and the N-Stream Decoders module. We further introduce a subtask to predict the number of aspect terms in each instance to construct the multimodal prompt. Extensive experiments on two datasets demonstrate that our approach outperforms strong baselines on two MABSA-related tasks in the few-shot setting.

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Contrastive Learning with Generated Representations for Inductive Knowledge Graph Embedding
Qian Li | Shafiq Joty | Daling Wang | Shi Feng | Yifei Zhang | Chengwei Qin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

With the evolution of Knowledge Graphs (KGs), new entities emerge which are not seen before. Representation learning of KGs in such an inductive setting aims to capture and transfer the structural patterns from existing entities to new entities. However, the performance of existing methods in inductive KGs are limited by sparsity and implicit transfer. In this paper, we propose VMCL, a Contrastive Learning (CL) framework with graph guided Variational autoencoder on Meta-KGs in the inductive setting. We first propose representation generation to capture the encoded and generated representations of entities, where the generated variations can densify representations with complementary features. Then, we design two CL objectives that work across entities and meta-KGs to simulate the transfer mode. With extensive experiments we demonstrate that our proposed VMCL can significantly outperform previous state-of-the-art baselines.

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PVGRU: Generating Diverse and Relevant Dialogue Responses via Pseudo-Variational Mechanism
Yongkang Liu | Shi Feng | Daling Wang | Yifei Zhang | Hinrich Schütze
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We investigate response generation for multi-turn dialogue in generative chatbots. Existing generative modelsbased on RNNs (Recurrent Neural Networks) usually employ the last hidden state to summarize the history, which makesmodels unable to capture the subtle variability observed in different dialogues and cannot distinguish the differencesbetween dialogues that are similar in composition. In this paper, we propose Pseudo-Variational Gated Recurrent Unit (PVGRU). The key novelty of PVGRU is a recurrent summarizing variable thataggregates the accumulated distribution variations of subsequences. We train PVGRU without relying on posterior knowledge, thus avoiding the training-inference inconsistency problem. PVGRU can perceive subtle semantic variability through summarizing variables that are optimized by two objectives we employ for training: distribution consistency and reconstruction. In addition, we build a Pseudo-Variational Hierarchical Dialogue(PVHD) model based on PVGRU. Experimental results demonstrate that PVGRU can broadly improve the diversity andrelevance of responses on two benchmark datasets.


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Learning to Improve Persona Consistency in Multi-party Dialogue Generation via Text Knowledge Enhancement
Dongshi Ju | Shi Feng | Pengcheng Lv | Daling Wang | Yifei Zhang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

In an open-domain dialogue system, the consistent persona is a key factor to generate real and coherent dialogues. Existing methods suffer from the incomprehensive persona tags that have unique and obscure meanings to describe human’s personality. Besides, the addressee information, which is closely related to express personality in multi-party dialogues, has been neglected. In this paper, we construct a multi-party personalized dialogue dataset and propose a graph convolution network model (PersonaTKG) with addressee selecting mechanism that integrates personas, dialogue utterances, and external text knowledge in a unified graph. Extensive experiments have shown that PersonaTKG outperforms the baselines by large margins and effectively improves persona consistency in the generated responses.

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MulZDG: Multilingual Code-Switching Framework for Zero-shot Dialogue Generation
Yongkang Liu | Shi Feng | Daling Wang | Yifei Zhang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Building dialogue generation systems in a zero-shot scenario remains a huge challenge, since the typical zero-shot approaches in dialogue generation rely heavily on large-scale pre-trained language generation models such as GPT-3 and T5. The research on zero-shot dialogue generation without cumbersome language models is limited due to lacking corresponding parallel dialogue corpora. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective Multilingual learning framework for Zero-shot Dialogue Generation (dubbed as MulZDG) that can effectively transfer knowledge from an English corpus with large-scale training samples to a non-English corpus with zero samples. Besides, MulZDG can be viewed as a multilingual data augmentation method to improve the performance of the resource-rich language. First, we construct multilingual code-switching dialogue datasets via translation utterances randomly selected from monolingual English datasets. Then we employ MulZDG to train a unified multilingual dialogue model based on the code-switching datasets. The MulZDG can conduct implicit semantic alignment between different languages. Experiments on DailyDialog and DSTC7 datasets demonstrate that MulZDG not only achieve competitive performance under zero-shot case compared to training with sufficient examples but also greatly improve the performance of the source language.

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KC-ISA: An Implicit Sentiment Analysis Model Combining Knowledge Enhancement and Context Features
Minghao Xu | Daling Wang | Shi Feng | Zhenfei Yang | Yifei Zhang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Sentiment analysis has always been an important research direction in natural language processing. The research can be divided into explicit sentiment analysis and implicit sentiment analysis according to whether there are sentiment words in language expression. There have been many research results in explicit sentiment analysis. However, implicit sentiment analysis is rarely studied. Compared with explicit sentiment expression, implicit sentiment expression usually omits a lot of knowledge and common sense, and context also has an important impact on implicit sentiment expression. In this paper, we use a knowledge graph to supplement implicit sentiment expression and propose a novel Implicit Sentiment Analysis model combining Knowledge enhancement and Context features (dubbed KC-ISA). The KC-ISA model can effectively integrate external knowledge and contextual features by the coattention mechanism. Finally, we conduct experiments on the SMP2019 implicit sentiment analysis dataset. Moreover, to verify the generality of the model, we also conduct experiments on two common sentiment analysis datasets. The results on three datasets show that our proposed KC-ISA model can achieve better results on text sentiment analysis.

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Alleviating Sparsity of Open Knowledge Graphs with Ternary Contrastive Learning
Qian Li | Shafiq Joty | Daling Wang | Shi Feng | Yifei Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Sparsity of formal knowledge and roughness of non-ontological construction make sparsity problem particularly prominent in Open Knowledge Graphs (OpenKGs). Due to sparse links, learning effective representation for few-shot entities becomes difficult. We hypothesize that by introducing negative samples, a contrastive learning (CL) formulation could be beneficial in such scenarios. However, existing CL methods model KG triplets as binary objects of entities ignoring the relation-guided ternary propagation patterns and they are too generic, i.e., they ignore zero-shot, few-shot and synonymity problems that appear in OpenKGs. To address this, we propose TernaryCL, a CL framework based on ternary propagation patterns among head, relation and tail. TernaryCL designs Contrastive Entity and Contrastive Relation to mine ternary discriminative features with both negative entities and relations, introduces Contrastive Self to help zero- and few-shot entities learn discriminative features, Contrastive Synonym to model synonymous entities, and Contrastive Fusion to aggregate graph features from multiple paths. Extensive experiments on benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of TernaryCL over state-of-the-art models.

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DialogConv: A Lightweight Fully Convolutional Network for Multi-view Response Selection
Yongkang Liu | Shi Feng | Wei Gao | Daling Wang | Yifei Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Current end-to-end retrieval-based dialogue systems are mainly based on Recurrent Neural Networks or Transformers with attention mechanisms. Although promising results have been achieved, these models often suffer from slow inference or huge number of parameters. In this paper, we propose a novel lightweight fully convolutional architecture, called DialogConv, for response selection. DialogConv is exclusively built on top of convolution to extract matching features of context and response. Dialogues are modeled in 3D views, where DialogConv performs convolution operations on embedding view, word view and utterance view to capture richer semantic information from multiple contextual views. On the four benchmark datasets, compared with state-of-the-art baselines, DialogConv is on average about 8.5x smaller in size, and 79.39x and 10.64x faster on CPU and GPU devices, respectively. At the same time, DialogConv achieves the competitive effectiveness of response selection.


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Boundary Detection with BERT for Span-level Emotion Cause Analysis
Xiangju Li | Wei Gao | Shi Feng | Yifei Zhang | Daling Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Multimodal Sentiment Detection Based on Multi-channel Graph Neural Networks
Xiaocui Yang | Shi Feng | Yifei Zhang | Daling Wang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

With the popularity of smartphones, we have witnessed the rapid proliferation of multimodal posts on various social media platforms. We observe that the multimodal sentiment expression has specific global characteristics, such as the interdependencies of objects or scenes within the image. However, most previous studies only considered the representation of a single image-text post and failed to capture the global co-occurrence characteristics of the dataset. In this paper, we propose Multi-channel Graph Neural Networks with Sentiment-awareness (MGNNS) for image-text sentiment detection. Specifically, we first encode different modalities to capture hidden representations. Then, we introduce multi-channel graph neural networks to learn multimodal representations based on the global characteristics of the dataset. Finally, we implement multimodal in-depth fusion with the multi-head attention mechanism to predict the sentiment of image-text pairs. Extensive experiments conducted on three publicly available datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for multimodal sentiment detection.


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Answer-guided and Semantic Coherent Question Generation in Open-domain Conversation
Weichao Wang | Shi Feng | Daling Wang | Yifei Zhang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Generating intriguing question is a key step towards building human-like open-domain chatbots. Although some recent works have focused on this task, compared with questions raised by humans, significant gaps remain in maintaining semantic coherence with post, which may result in generating dull or deviated questions. We observe that the answer has strong semantic coherence to its question and post, which can be used to guide question generation. Thus, we devise two methods to further enhance semantic coherence between post and question under the guidance of answer. First, the coherence score between generated question and answer is used as the reward function in a reinforcement learning framework, to encourage the cases that are consistent with the answer in semantic. Second, we incorporate adversarial training to explicitly control question generation in the direction of question-answer coherence. Extensive experiments show that our two methods outperform state-of-the-art baseline algorithms with large margins in raising semantic coherent questions.

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Answer-Supervised Question Reformulation for Enhancing Conversational Machine Comprehension
Qian Li | Hui Su | Cheng Niu | Daling Wang | Zekang Li | Shi Feng | Yifei Zhang
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Machine Reading for Question Answering

In conversational machine comprehension, it has become one of the research hotspots integrating conversational history information through question reformulation for obtaining better answers. However, the existing question reformulation models are trained only using supervised question labels annotated by annotators without considering any feedback information from answers. In this paper, we propose a novel Answer-Supervised Question Reformulation (ASQR) model for enhancing conversational machine comprehension with reinforcement learning technology. ASQR utilizes a pointer-copy-based question reformulation model as an agent, takes an action to predict the next word, and observes a reward for the whole sentence state after generating the end-of-sequence token. The experimental results on QuAC dataset prove that our ASQR model is more effective in conversational machine comprehension. Moreover, pretraining is essential in reinforcement learning models, so we provide a high-quality annotated dataset for question reformulation by sampling a part of QuAC dataset.


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Personalized Microblog Sentiment Classification via Adversarial Cross-lingual Multi-task Learning
Weichao Wang | Shi Feng | Wei Gao | Daling Wang | Yifei Zhang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Sentiment expression in microblog posts can be affected by user’s personal character, opinion bias, political stance and so on. Most of existing personalized microblog sentiment classification methods suffer from the insufficiency of discriminative tweets for personalization learning. We observed that microblog users have consistent individuality and opinion bias in different languages. Based on this observation, in this paper we propose a novel user-attention-based Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model with adversarial cross-lingual learning framework. The user attention mechanism is leveraged in CNN model to capture user’s language-specific individuality from the posts. Then the attention-based CNN model is incorporated into a novel adversarial cross-lingual learning framework, in which with the help of user properties as bridge between languages, we can extract the language-specific features and language-independent features to enrich the user post representation so as to alleviate the data insufficiency problem. Results on English and Chinese microblog datasets confirm that our method outperforms state-of-the-art baseline algorithms with large margins.

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A Co-Attention Neural Network Model for Emotion Cause Analysis with Emotional Context Awareness
Xiangju Li | Kaisong Song | Shi Feng | Daling Wang | Yifei Zhang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Emotion cause analysis has been a key topic in natural language processing. Existing methods ignore the contexts around the emotion word which can provide an emotion cause clue. Meanwhile, the clauses in a document play different roles on stimulating a certain emotion, depending on their content relevance. Therefore, we propose a co-attention neural network model for emotion cause analysis with emotional context awareness. The method encodes the clauses with a co-attention based bi-directional long short-term memory into high-level input representations, which are further fed into a convolutional layer for emotion cause analysis. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art baseline methods.


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NDMSCS: A Topic-Based Chinese Microblog Polarity Classification System
Yang Wang | Yaqi Wang | Shi Feng | Daling Wang | Yifei Zhang
Proceedings of the Eighth SIGHAN Workshop on Chinese Language Processing

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NEUDM: A System for Topic-Based Message Polarity Classification
Yaqi Wang | Shi Feng | Daling Wang | Yifei Zhang
Proceedings of the Eighth SIGHAN Workshop on Chinese Language Processing


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Is Twitter A Better Corpus for Measuring Sentiment Similarity?
Shi Feng | Le Zhang | Binyang Li | Daling Wang | Ge Yu | Kam-Fai Wong
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing