Dana Ruiter


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Placing M-Phasis on the Plurality of Hate: A Feature-Based Corpus of Hate Online
Dana Ruiter | Liane Reiners | Ashwin Geet D’Sa | Thomas Kleinbauer | Dominique Fohr | Irina Illina | Dietrich Klakow | Christian Schemer | Angeliki Monnier
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Even though hate speech (HS) online has been an important object of research in the last decade, most HS-related corpora over-simplify the phenomenon of hate by attempting to label user comments as “hate” or “neutral”. This ignores the complex and subjective nature of HS, which limits the real-life applicability of classifiers trained on these corpora. In this study, we present the M-Phasis corpus, a corpus of ~9k German and French user comments collected from migration-related news articles. It goes beyond the “hate”-“neutral” dichotomy and is instead annotated with 23 features, which in combination become descriptors of various types of speech, ranging from critical comments to implicit and explicit expressions of hate. The annotations are performed by 4 native speakers per language and achieve high (0.77 <= k <= 1) inter-annotator agreements. Besides describing the corpus creation and presenting insights from a content, error and domain analysis, we explore its data characteristics by training several classification baselines.

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StereoKG: Data-Driven Knowledge Graph Construction For Cultural Knowledge and Stereotypes
Awantee Deshpande | Dana Ruiter | Marius Mosbach | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Online Abuse and Harms (WOAH)

Analyzing ethnic or religious bias is important for improving fairness, accountability, and transparency of natural language processing models. However, many techniques rely on human-compiled lists of bias terms, which are expensive to create and are limited in coverage. In this study, we present a fully data-driven pipeline for generating a knowledge graph (KG) of cultural knowledge and stereotypes. Our resulting KG covers 5 religious groups and 5 nationalities and can easily be extended to more entities. Our human evaluation shows that the majority (59.2%) of non-singleton entries are coherent and complete stereotypes. We further show that performing intermediate masked language model training on the verbalized KG leads to a higher level of cultural awareness in the model and has the potential to increase classification performance on knowledge-crucial samples on a related task, i.e., hate speech detection.

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Exploiting Social Media Content for Self-Supervised Style Transfer
Dana Ruiter | Thomas Kleinbauer | Cristina España-Bonet | Josef van Genabith | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the Tenth International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media

Recent research on style transfer takes inspiration from unsupervised neural machine translation (UNMT), learning from large amounts of non-parallel data by exploiting cycle consistency loss, back-translation, and denoising autoencoders. By contrast, the use of selfsupervised NMT (SSNMT), which leverages (near) parallel instances hidden in non-parallel data more efficiently than UNMT, has not yet been explored for style transfer. In this paper we present a novel Self-Supervised Style Transfer (3ST) model, which augments SSNMT with UNMT methods in order to identify and efficiently exploit supervisory signals in non-parallel social media posts. We compare 3ST with state-of-the-art (SOTA) style transfer models across civil rephrasing, formality and polarity tasks. We show that 3ST is able to balance the three major objectives (fluency, content preservation, attribute transfer accuracy) the best, outperforming SOTA models on averaged performance across their tested tasks in automatic and human evaluation.

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A Few Thousand Translations Go a Long Way! Leveraging Pre-trained Models for African News Translation
David Adelani | Jesujoba Alabi | Angela Fan | Julia Kreutzer | Xiaoyu Shen | Machel Reid | Dana Ruiter | Dietrich Klakow | Peter Nabende | Ernie Chang | Tajuddeen Gwadabe | Freshia Sackey | Bonaventure F. P. Dossou | Chris Emezue | Colin Leong | Michael Beukman | Shamsuddeen Muhammad | Guyo Jarso | Oreen Yousuf | Andre Niyongabo Rubungo | Gilles Hacheme | Eric Peter Wairagala | Muhammad Umair Nasir | Benjamin Ajibade | Tunde Ajayi | Yvonne Gitau | Jade Abbott | Mohamed Ahmed | Millicent Ochieng | Anuoluwapo Aremu | Perez Ogayo | Jonathan Mukiibi | Fatoumata Ouoba Kabore | Godson Kalipe | Derguene Mbaye | Allahsera Auguste Tapo | Victoire Memdjokam Koagne | Edwin Munkoh-Buabeng | Valencia Wagner | Idris Abdulmumin | Ayodele Awokoya | Happy Buzaaba | Blessing Sibanda | Andiswa Bukula | Sam Manthalu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Recent advances in the pre-training for language models leverage large-scale datasets to create multilingual models. However, low-resource languages are mostly left out in these datasets. This is primarily because many widely spoken languages that are not well represented on the web and therefore excluded from the large-scale crawls for datasets. Furthermore, downstream users of these models are restricted to the selection of languages originally chosen for pre-training. This work investigates how to optimally leverage existing pre-trained models to create low-resource translation systems for 16 African languages. We focus on two questions: 1) How can pre-trained models be used for languages not included in the initial pretraining? and 2) How can the resulting translation models effectively transfer to new domains? To answer these questions, we create a novel African news corpus covering 16 languages, of which eight languages are not part of any existing evaluation dataset. We demonstrate that the most effective strategy for transferring both additional languages and additional domains is to leverage small quantities of high-quality translation data to fine-tune large pre-trained models.


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EdinSaar@WMT21: North-Germanic Low-Resource Multilingual NMT
Svetlana Tchistiakova | Jesujoba Alabi | Koel Dutta Chowdhury | Sourav Dutta | Dana Ruiter
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

We describe the EdinSaar submission to the shared task of Multilingual Low-Resource Translation for North Germanic Languages at the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation (WMT2021). We submit multilingual translation models for translations to/from Icelandic (is), Norwegian-Bokmal (nb), and Swedish (sv). We employ various experimental approaches, including multilingual pre-training, back-translation, fine-tuning, and ensembling. In most translation directions, our models outperform other submitted systems.

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Modeling Profanity and Hate Speech in Social Media with Semantic Subspaces
Vanessa Hahn | Dana Ruiter | Thomas Kleinbauer | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Online Abuse and Harms (WOAH 2021)

Hate speech and profanity detection suffer from data sparsity, especially for languages other than English, due to the subjective nature of the tasks and the resulting annotation incompatibility of existing corpora. In this study, we identify profane subspaces in word and sentence representations and explore their generalization capability on a variety of similar and distant target tasks in a zero-shot setting. This is done monolingually (German) and cross-lingually to closely-related (English), distantly-related (French) and non-related (Arabic) tasks. We observe that, on both similar and distant target tasks and across all languages, the subspace-based representations transfer more effectively than standard BERT representations in the zero-shot setting, with improvements between F1 +10.9 and F1 +42.9 over the baselines across all tested monolingual and cross-lingual scenarios.

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Emoji-Based Transfer Learning for Sentiment Tasks
Susann Boy | Dana Ruiter | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Sentiment tasks such as hate speech detection and sentiment analysis, especially when performed on languages other than English, are often low-resource. In this study, we exploit the emotional information encoded in emojis to enhance the performance on a variety of sentiment tasks. This is done using a transfer learning approach, where the parameters learned by an emoji-based source task are transferred to a sentiment target task. We analyse the efficacy of the transfer under three conditions, i.e. i) the emoji content and ii) label distribution of the target task as well as iii) the difference between monolingually and multilingually learned source tasks. We find i.a. that the transfer is most beneficial if the target task is balanced with high emoji content. Monolingually learned source tasks have the benefit of taking into account the culturally specific use of emojis and gain up to F1 +0.280 over the baseline.

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The Effect of Domain and Diacritics in Yoruba–English Neural Machine Translation
David Adelani | Dana Ruiter | Jesujoba Alabi | Damilola Adebonojo | Adesina Ayeni | Mofe Adeyemi | Ayodele Esther Awokoya | Cristina España-Bonet
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XVIII: Research Track

Massively multilingual machine translation (MT) has shown impressive capabilities and including zero and few-shot translation between low-resource language pairs. However and these models are often evaluated on high-resource languages with the assumption that they generalize to low-resource ones. The difficulty of evaluating MT models on low-resource pairs is often due to lack of standardized evaluation datasets. In this paper and we present MENYO-20k and the first multi-domain parallel corpus with a especially curated orthography for Yoruba–English with standardized train-test splits for benchmarking. We provide several neural MT benchmarks and compare them to the performance of popular pre-trained (massively multilingual) MT models both for the heterogeneous test set and its subdomains. Since these pre-trained models use huge amounts of data with uncertain quality and we also analyze the effect of diacritics and a major characteristic of Yoruba and in the training data. We investigate how and when this training condition affects the final quality of a translation and its understandability.Our models outperform massively multilingual models such as Google (+8.7 BLEU) and Facebook M2M (+9.1) when translating to Yoruba and setting a high quality benchmark for future research.

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Integrating Unsupervised Data Generation into Self-Supervised Neural Machine Translation for Low-Resource Languages
Dana Ruiter | Dietrich Klakow | Josef van Genabith | Cristina España-Bonet
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XVIII: Research Track

For most language combinations and parallel data is either scarce or simply unavailable. To address this and unsupervised machine translation (UMT) exploits large amounts of monolingual data by using synthetic data generation techniques such as back-translation and noising and while self-supervised NMT (SSNMT) identifies parallel sentences in smaller comparable data and trains on them. To this date and the inclusion of UMT data generation techniques in SSNMT has not been investigated. We show that including UMT techniques into SSNMT significantly outperforms SSNMT (up to +4.3 BLEU and af2en) as well as statistical (+50.8 BLEU) and hybrid UMT (+51.5 BLEU) baselines on related and distantly-related and unrelated language pairs.


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Label Propagation-Based Semi-Supervised Learning for Hate Speech Classification
Ashwin Geet D’Sa | Irina Illina | Dominique Fohr | Dietrich Klakow | Dana Ruiter
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Insights from Negative Results in NLP

Research on hate speech classification has received increased attention. In real-life scenarios, a small amount of labeled hate speech data is available to train a reliable classifier. Semi-supervised learning takes advantage of a small amount of labeled data and a large amount of unlabeled data. In this paper, label propagation-based semi-supervised learning is explored for the task of hate speech classification. The quality of labeling the unlabeled set depends on the input representations. In this work, we show that pre-trained representations are label agnostic, and when used with label propagation yield poor results. Neural network-based fine-tuning can be adopted to learn task-specific representations using a small amount of labeled data. We show that fully fine-tuned representations may not always be the best representations for the label propagation and intermediate representations may perform better in a semi-supervised setup.

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Self-Induced Curriculum Learning in Self-Supervised Neural Machine Translation
Dana Ruiter | Josef van Genabith | Cristina España-Bonet
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Self-supervised neural machine translation (SSNMT) jointly learns to identify and select suitable training data from comparable (rather than parallel) corpora and to translate, in a way that the two tasks support each other in a virtuous circle. In this study, we provide an in-depth analysis of the sampling choices the SSNMT model makes during training. We show how, without it having been told to do so, the model self-selects samples of increasing (i) complexity and (ii) task-relevance in combination with (iii) performing a denoising curriculum. We observe that the dynamics of the mutual-supervision signals of both system internal representation types are vital for the extraction and translation performance. We show that in terms of the Gunning-Fog Readability index, SSNMT starts extracting and learning from Wikipedia data suitable for high school students and quickly moves towards content suitable for first year undergraduate students.

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HUMAN: Hierarchical Universal Modular ANnotator
Moritz Wolf | Dana Ruiter | Ashwin Geet D’Sa | Liane Reiners | Jan Alexandersson | Dietrich Klakow
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

A lot of real-world phenomena are complex and cannot be captured by single task annotations. This causes a need for subsequent annotations, with interdependent questions and answers describing the nature of the subject at hand. Even in the case a phenomenon is easily captured by a single task, the high specialisation of most annotation tools can result in having to switch to another tool if the task only slightly changes. We introduce HUMAN, a novel web-based annotation tool that addresses the above problems by a) covering a variety of annotation tasks on both textual and image data, and b) the usage of an internal deterministic state machine, allowing the researcher to chain different annotation tasks in an interdependent manner. Further, the modular nature of the tool makes it easy to define new annotation tasks and integrate machine learning algorithms e.g., for active learning. HUMAN comes with an easy-to-use graphical user interface that simplifies the annotation task and management.

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UdS-DFKI@WMT20: Unsupervised MT and Very Low Resource Supervised MT for German-Upper Sorbian
Sourav Dutta | Jesujoba Alabi | Saptarashmi Bandyopadhyay | Dana Ruiter | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper describes the UdS-DFKI submission to the shared task for unsupervised machine translation (MT) and very low-resource supervised MT between German (de) and Upper Sorbian (hsb) at the Fifth Conference of Machine Translation (WMT20). We submit systems for both the supervised and unsupervised tracks. Apart from various experimental approaches like bitext mining, model pre-training, and iterative back-translation, we employ a factored machine translation approach on a small BPE vocabulary.


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UdS-DFKI Participation at WMT 2019: Low-Resource (en-gu) and Coreference-Aware (en-de) Systems
Cristina España-Bonet | Dana Ruiter
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)

This paper describes the UdS-DFKI submission to the WMT2019 news translation task for Gujarati–English (low-resourced pair) and German–English (document-level evaluation). Our systems rely on the on-line extraction of parallel sentences from comparable corpora for the first scenario and on the inclusion of coreference-related information in the training data in the second one.

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Self-Supervised Neural Machine Translation
Dana Ruiter | Cristina España-Bonet | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We present a simple new method where an emergent NMT system is used for simultaneously selecting training data and learning internal NMT representations. This is done in a self-supervised way without parallel data, in such a way that both tasks enhance each other during training. The method is language independent, introduces no additional hyper-parameters, and achieves BLEU scores of 29.21 (en2fr) and 27.36 (fr2en) on newstest2014 using English and French Wikipedia data for training.