Daniel Deutsch


2022

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Re-Examining System-Level Correlations of Automatic Summarization Evaluation Metrics
Daniel Deutsch | Rotem Dror | Dan Roth
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

How reliably an automatic summarization evaluation metric replicates human judgments of summary quality is quantified by system-level correlations. We identify two ways in which the definition of the system-level correlation is inconsistent with how metrics are used to evaluate systems in practice and propose changes to rectify this disconnect. First, we calculate the system score for an automatic metric using the full test set instead of the subset of summaries judged by humans, which is currently standard practice. We demonstrate how this small change leads to more precise estimates of system-level correlations. Second, we propose to calculate correlations only on pairs of systems that are separated by small differences in automatic scores which are commonly observed in practice. This allows us to demonstrate that our best estimate of the correlation of ROUGE to human judgments is near 0 in realistic scenarios. The results from the analyses point to the need to collect more high-quality human judgments and to improve automatic metrics when differences in system scores are small.

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Benchmarking Answer Verification Methods for Question Answering-Based Summarization Evaluation Metrics
Daniel Deutsch | Dan Roth
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Question answering-based summarization evaluation metrics must automatically determine whether the QA model’s prediction is correct or not, a task known as answer verification. In this work, we benchmark the lexical answer verification methods which have been used by current QA-based metrics as well as two more sophisticated text comparison methods, BERTScore and LERC. We find that LERC out-performs the other methods in some settings while remaining statistically indistinguishable from lexical overlap in others. However, our experiments reveal that improved verification performance does not necessarily translate to overall QA-based metric quality: In some scenarios, using a worse verification method — or using none at all — has comparable performance to using the best verification method, a result that we attribute to properties of the datasets.

2021

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Towards Question-Answering as an Automatic Metric for Evaluating the Content Quality of a Summary
Daniel Deutsch | Tania Bedrax-Weiss | Dan Roth
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 9

Abstract A desirable property of a reference-based evaluation metric that measures the content quality of a summary is that it should estimate how much information that summary has in common with a reference. Traditional text overlap based metrics such as ROUGE fail to achieve this because they are limited to matching tokens, either lexically or via embeddings. In this work, we propose a metric to evaluate the content quality of a summary using question-answering (QA). QA-based methods directly measure a summary’s information overlap with a reference, making them fundamentally different than text overlap metrics. We demonstrate the experimental benefits of QA-based metrics through an analysis of our proposed metric, QAEval. QAEval outperforms current state-of-the-art metrics on most evaluations using benchmark datasets, while being competitive on others due to limitations of state-of-the-art models. Through a careful analysis of each component of QAEval, we identify its performance bottlenecks and estimate that its potential upper-bound performance surpasses all other automatic metrics, approaching that of the gold-standard Pyramid Method.1

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A Statistical Analysis of Summarization Evaluation Metrics Using Resampling Methods
Daniel Deutsch | Rotem Dror | Dan Roth
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 9

Abstract The quality of a summarization evaluation metric is quantified by calculating the correlation between its scores and human annotations across a large number of summaries. Currently, it is unclear how precise these correlation estimates are, nor whether differences between two metrics’ correlations reflect a true difference or if it is due to mere chance. In this work, we address these two problems by proposing methods for calculating confidence intervals and running hypothesis tests for correlations using two resampling methods, bootstrapping and permutation. After evaluating which of the proposed methods is most appropriate for summarization through two simulation experiments, we analyze the results of applying these methods to several different automatic evaluation metrics across three sets of human annotations. We find that the confidence intervals are rather wide, demonstrating high uncertainty in the reliability of automatic metrics. Further, although many metrics fail to show statistical improvements over ROUGE, two recent works, QAEval and BERTScore, do so in some evaluation settings.1

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Understanding the Extent to which Content Quality Metrics Measure the Information Quality of Summaries
Daniel Deutsch | Dan Roth
Proceedings of the 25th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

Reference-based metrics such as ROUGE or BERTScore evaluate the content quality of a summary by comparing the summary to a reference. Ideally, this comparison should measure the summary’s information quality by calculating how much information the summaries have in common. In this work, we analyze the token alignments used by ROUGE and BERTScore to compare summaries and argue that their scores largely cannot be interpreted as measuring information overlap. Rather, they are better estimates of the extent to which the summaries discuss the same topics. Further, we provide evidence that this result holds true for many other summarization evaluation metrics. The consequence of this result is that the most frequently used summarization evaluation metrics do not align with the community’s research goal, to generate summaries with high-quality information. However, we conclude by demonstrating that a recently proposed metric, QAEval, which scores summaries using question-answering, appears to better capture information quality than current evaluations, highlighting a direction for future research.

2020

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Is Killed More Significant than Fled? A Contextual Model for Salient Event Detection
Disha Jindal | Daniel Deutsch | Dan Roth
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Identifying the key events in a document is critical to holistically understanding its important information. Although measuring the salience of events is highly contextual, most previous work has used a limited representation of events that omits essential information. In this work, we propose a highly contextual model of event salience that uses a rich representation of events, incorporates document-level information and allows for interactions between latent event encodings. Our experimental results on an event salience dataset demonstrate that our model improves over previous work by an absolute 2-4% on standard metrics, establishing a new state-of-the-art performance for the task. We also propose a new evaluation metric that addresses flaws in previous evaluation methodologies. Finally, we discuss the importance of salient event detection for the downstream task of summarization.

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SacreROUGE: An Open-Source Library for Using and Developing Summarization Evaluation Metrics
Daniel Deutsch | Dan Roth
Proceedings of Second Workshop for NLP Open Source Software (NLP-OSS)

We present SacreROUGE, an open-source library for using and developing summarization evaluation metrics. SacreROUGE removes many obstacles that researchers face when using or developing metrics: (1) The library provides Python wrappers around the official implementations of existing evaluation metrics so they share a common, easy-to-use interface; (2) it provides functionality to evaluate how well any metric implemented in the library correlates to human-annotated judgments, so no additional code needs to be written for a new evaluation metric; and (3) it includes scripts for loading datasets that contain human judgments so they can easily be used for evaluation. This work describes the design of the library, including the core Metric interface, the command-line API for evaluating summarization models and metrics, and the scripts to load and reformat publicly available datasets. The development of SacreROUGE is ongoing and open to contributions from the community.

2019

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Summary Cloze: A New Task for Content Selection in Topic-Focused Summarization
Daniel Deutsch | Dan Roth
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

A key challenge in topic-focused summarization is determining what information should be included in the summary, a problem known as content selection. In this work, we propose a new method for studying content selection in topic-focused summarization called the summary cloze task. The goal of the summary cloze task is to generate the next sentence of a summary conditioned on the beginning of the summary, a topic, and a reference document(s). The main challenge is deciding what information in the references is relevant to the topic and partial summary and should be included in the summary. Although the cloze task does not address all aspects of the traditional summarization problem, the more narrow scope of the task allows us to collect a large-scale datset of nearly 500k summary cloze instances from Wikipedia. We report experimental results on this new dataset using various extractive models and a two-step abstractive model that first extractively selects a small number of sentences and then abstractively summarizes them. Our results show that the topic and partial summary help the models identify relevant content, but the task remains a significant challenge.

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A General-Purpose Algorithm for Constrained Sequential Inference
Daniel Deutsch | Shyam Upadhyay | Dan Roth
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Inference in structured prediction involves finding the best output structure for an input, subject to certain constraints. Many current approaches use sequential inference, which constructs the output in a left-to-right manner. However, there is no general framework to specify constraints in these approaches. We present a principled approach for incorporating constraints into sequential inference algorithms. Our approach expresses constraints using an automaton, which is traversed in lock-step during inference, guiding the search to valid outputs. We show that automata can express commonly used constraints and are easily incorporated into sequential inference. When it is more natural to represent constraints as a set of automata, our algorithm uses an active set method for demonstrably fast and efficient inference. We experimentally show the benefits of our algorithm on constituency parsing and semantic role labeling. For parsing, unlike unconstrained approaches, our algorithm always generates valid output, incurring only a small drop in performance. For semantic role labeling, imposing constraints using our algorithm corrects common errors, improving F1 by 1.5 points. These benefits increase in low-resource settings. Our active set method achieves a 5.2x relative speed-up over a naive approach.

2018

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A Distributional and Orthographic Aggregation Model for English Derivational Morphology
Daniel Deutsch | John Hewitt | Dan Roth
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Modeling derivational morphology to generate words with particular semantics is useful in many text generation tasks, such as machine translation or abstractive question answering. In this work, we tackle the task of derived word generation. That is, we attempt to generate the word “runner” for “someone who runs.” We identify two key problems in generating derived words from root words and transformations. We contribute a novel aggregation model of derived word generation that learns derivational transformations both as orthographic functions using sequence-to-sequence models and as functions in distributional word embedding space. The model then learns to choose between the hypothesis of each system. We also present two ways of incorporating corpus information into derived word generation.