Daria Pylypenko


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Measuring Spurious Correlation in Classification: “Clever Hans” in Translationese
Angana Borah | Daria Pylypenko | Cristina España-Bonet | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing

Recent work has shown evidence of “Clever Hans” behavior in high-performance neural translationese classifiers, where BERT-based classifiers capitalize on spurious correlations, in particular topic information, between data and target classification labels, rather than genuine translationese signals. Translationese signals are subtle (especially for professional translation) and compete with many other signals in the data such as genre, style, author, and, in particular, topic. This raises the general question of how much of the performance of a classifier is really due to spurious correlations in the data versus the signals actually targeted for by the classifier, especially for subtle target signals and in challenging (low resource) data settings. We focus on topic-based spurious correlation and approach the question from two directions: (i) where we have no knowledge about spurious topic information and its distribution in the data, (ii) where we have some indication about the nature of spurious topic correlations. For (i) we develop a measure from first principles capturing alignment of unsupervised topics with target classification labels as an indication of spurious topic information in the data. We show that our measure is the same as purity in clustering and propose a “topic floor” (as in a “noise floor”) for classification. For (ii) we investigate masking of known spurious topic carriers in classification. Both (i) and (ii) contribute to quantifying and (ii) to mitigating spurious correlations.


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Explaining Translationese: why are Neural Classifiers Better and what do they Learn?
Kwabena Amponsah-Kaakyire | Daria Pylypenko | Josef Genabith | Cristina España-Bonet
Proceedings of the Fifth BlackboxNLP Workshop on Analyzing and Interpreting Neural Networks for NLP

Recent work has shown that neural feature- and representation-learning, e.g. BERT, achieves superior performance over traditional manual feature engineering based approaches, with e.g. SVMs, in translationese classification tasks. Previous research did not show (i) whether the difference is because of the features, the classifiers or both, and (ii) what the neural classifiers actually learn. To address (i), we carefully design experiments that swap features between BERT- and SVM-based classifiers. We show that an SVM fed with BERT representations performs at the level of the best BERT classifiers, while BERT learning and using handcrafted features performs at the level of an SVM using handcrafted features. This shows that the performance differences are due to the features. To address (ii) we use integrated gradients and find that (a) there is indication that information captured by hand-crafted features is only a subset of what BERT learns, and (b) part of BERT’s top performance results are due to BERT learning topic differences and spurious correlations with translationese.


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Do not Rely on Relay Translations: Multilingual Parallel Direct Europarl
Kwabena Amponsah-Kaakyire | Daria Pylypenko | Cristina España-Bonet | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings for the First Workshop on Modelling Translation: Translatology in the Digital Age

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Comparing Feature-Engineering and Feature-Learning Approaches for Multilingual Translationese Classification
Daria Pylypenko | Kwabena Amponsah-Kaakyire | Koel Dutta Chowdhury | Josef van Genabith | Cristina España-Bonet
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Traditional hand-crafted linguistically-informed features have often been used for distinguishing between translated and original non-translated texts. By contrast, to date, neural architectures without manual feature engineering have been less explored for this task. In this work, we (i) compare the traditional feature-engineering-based approach to the feature-learning-based one and (ii) analyse the neural architectures in order to investigate how well the hand-crafted features explain the variance in the neural models’ predictions. We use pre-trained neural word embeddings, as well as several end-to-end neural architectures in both monolingual and multilingual settings and compare them to feature-engineering-based SVM classifiers. We show that (i) neural architectures outperform other approaches by more than 20 accuracy points, with the BERT-based model performing the best in both the monolingual and multilingual settings; (ii) while many individual hand-crafted translationese features correlate with neural model predictions, feature importance analysis shows that the most important features for neural and classical architectures differ; and (iii) our multilingual experiments provide empirical evidence for translationese universals across languages.


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DFKI-MLT System Description for the WMT18 Automatic Post-editing Task
Daria Pylypenko | Raphael Rubino
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers

This paper presents the Automatic Post-editing (APE) systems submitted by the DFKI-MLT group to the WMT’18 APE shared task. Three monolingual neural sequence-to-sequence APE systems were trained using target-language data only: one using an attentional recurrent neural network architecture and two using the attention-only (transformer) architecture. The training data was composed of machine translated (MT) output used as source to the APE model aligned with their manually post-edited version or reference translation as target. We made use of the provided training sets only and trained APE models applicable to phrase-based and neural MT outputs. Results show better performances reached by the attention-only model over the recurrent one, significant improvement over the baseline when post-editing phrase-based MT output but degradation when applied to neural MT output.