David Moeljadi


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NusaWrites: Constructing High-Quality Corpora for Underrepresented and Extremely Low-Resource Languages
Samuel Cahyawijaya | Holy Lovenia | Fajri Koto | Dea Adhista | Emmanuel Dave | Sarah Oktavianti | Salsabil Akbar | Jhonson Lee | Nuur Shadieq | Tjeng Wawan Cenggoro | Hanung Linuwih | Bryan Wilie | Galih Muridan | Genta Winata | David Moeljadi | Alham Fikri Aji | Ayu Purwarianti | Pascale Fung
Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing and the 3rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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NusaX: Multilingual Parallel Sentiment Dataset for 10 Indonesian Local Languages
Genta Indra Winata | Alham Fikri Aji | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Rahmad Mahendra | Fajri Koto | Ade Romadhony | Kemal Kurniawan | David Moeljadi | Radityo Eko Prasojo | Pascale Fung | Timothy Baldwin | Jey Han Lau | Rico Sennrich | Sebastian Ruder
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Natural language processing (NLP) has a significant impact on society via technologies such as machine translation and search engines. Despite its success, NLP technology is only widely available for high-resource languages such as English and Chinese, while it remains inaccessible to many languages due to the unavailability of data resources and benchmarks. In this work, we focus on developing resources for languages in Indonesia. Despite being the second most linguistically diverse country, most languages in Indonesia are categorized as endangered and some are even extinct. We develop the first-ever parallel resource for 10 low-resource languages in Indonesia. Our resource includes sentiment and machine translation datasets, and bilingual lexicons. We provide extensive analyses and describe challenges for creating such resources. We hope this work can spark NLP research on Indonesian and other underrepresented languages.

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NusaCrowd: Open Source Initiative for Indonesian NLP Resources
Samuel Cahyawijaya | Holy Lovenia | Alham Fikri Aji | Genta Winata | Bryan Wilie | Fajri Koto | Rahmad Mahendra | Christian Wibisono | Ade Romadhony | Karissa Vincentio | Jennifer Santoso | David Moeljadi | Cahya Wirawan | Frederikus Hudi | Muhammad Satrio Wicaksono | Ivan Parmonangan | Ika Alfina | Ilham Firdausi Putra | Samsul Rahmadani | Yulianti Oenang | Ali Septiandri | James Jaya | Kaustubh Dhole | Arie Suryani | Rifki Afina Putri | Dan Su | Keith Stevens | Made Nindyatama Nityasya | Muhammad Adilazuarda | Ryan Hadiwijaya | Ryandito Diandaru | Tiezheng Yu | Vito Ghifari | Wenliang Dai | Yan Xu | Dyah Damapuspita | Haryo Wibowo | Cuk Tho | Ichwanul Karo Karo | Tirana Fatyanosa | Ziwei Ji | Graham Neubig | Timothy Baldwin | Sebastian Ruder | Pascale Fung | Herry Sujaini | Sakriani Sakti | Ayu Purwarianti
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

We present NusaCrowd, a collaborative initiative to collect and unify existing resources for Indonesian languages, including opening access to previously non-public resources. Through this initiative, we have brought together 137 datasets and 118 standardized data loaders. The quality of the datasets has been assessed manually and automatically, and their value is demonstrated through multiple experiments.NusaCrowd’s data collection enables the creation of the first zero-shot benchmarks for natural language understanding and generation in Indonesian and the local languages of Indonesia. Furthermore, NusaCrowd brings the creation of the first multilingual automatic speech recognition benchmark in Indonesian and the local languages of Indonesia. Our work strives to advance natural language processing (NLP) research for languages that are under-represented despite being widely spoken.


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One Country, 700+ Languages: NLP Challenges for Underrepresented Languages and Dialects in Indonesia
Alham Fikri Aji | Genta Indra Winata | Fajri Koto | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Ade Romadhony | Rahmad Mahendra | Kemal Kurniawan | David Moeljadi | Radityo Eko Prasojo | Timothy Baldwin | Jey Han Lau | Sebastian Ruder
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

NLP research is impeded by a lack of resources and awareness of the challenges presented by underrepresented languages and dialects. Focusing on the languages spoken in Indonesia, the second most linguistically diverse and the fourth most populous nation of the world, we provide an overview of the current state of NLP research for Indonesia’s 700+ languages. We highlight challenges in Indonesian NLP and how these affect the performance of current NLP systems. Finally, we provide general recommendations to help develop NLP technology not only for languages of Indonesia but also other underrepresented languages.


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Building the Old Javanese Wordnet
David Moeljadi | Zakariya Pamuji Aminullah
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This paper discusses the construction and the ongoing development of the Old Javanese Wordnet. The words were extracted from the digitized version of the Old Javanese–English Dictionary (Zoetmulder, 1982). The wordnet is built using the ‘expansion’ approach (Vossen, 1998), leveraging on the Princeton Wordnet’s core synsets and semantic hierarchy, as well as scientific names. The main goal of our project was to produce a high quality, human-curated resource. As of December 2019, the Old Javanese Wordnet contains 2,054 concepts or synsets and 5,911 senses. It is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). We are still developing it and adding more synsets and senses. We believe that the lexical data made available by this wordnet will be useful for a variety of future uses such as the development of Modern Javanese Wordnet and many language processing tasks and linguistic research on Javanese.


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Sentiment Analysis for Low Resource Languages: A Study on Informal Indonesian Tweets
Tuan Anh Le | David Moeljadi | Yasuhide Miura | Tomoko Ohkuma
Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Asian Language Resources (ALR12)

This paper describes our attempt to build a sentiment analysis system for Indonesian tweets. With this system, we can study and identify sentiments and opinions in a text or document computationally. We used four thousand manually labeled tweets collected in February and March 2016 to build the model. Because of the variety of content in tweets, we analyze tweets into eight groups in total, including pos(itive), neg(ative), and neu(tral). Finally, we obtained 73.2% accuracy with Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) without normalizer.

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Identifying and Exploiting Definitions in Wordnet Bahasa
David Moeljadi | Francis Bond
Proceedings of the 8th Global WordNet Conference (GWC)

This paper describes our attempts to add Indonesian definitions to synsets in the Wordnet Bahasa (Nurril Hirfana Mohamed Noor et al., 2011; Bond et al., 2014), to extract semantic relations between lemmas and definitions for nouns and verbs, such as synonym, hyponym, hypernym and instance hypernym, and to generally improve Wordnet. The original, somewhat noisy, definitions for Indonesian came from the Asian Wordnet project (Riza et al., 2010). The basic method of extracting the relations is based on Bond et al. (2004). Before the relations can be extracted, the definitions were cleaned up and tokenized. We found that the definitions cannot be completely cleaned up because of many misspellings and bad translations. However, we could identify four semantic relations in 57.10% of noun and verb definitions. For the remaining 42.90%, we propose to add 149 new Indonesian lemmas and make some improvements to Wordnet Bahasa and Wordnet in general.


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Building an HPSG-based Indonesian Resource Grammar (INDRA)
David Moeljadi | Francis Bond | Sanghoun Song
Proceedings of the Grammar Engineering Across Frameworks (GEAF) 2015 Workshop