Daxin Jiang


2023

pdf bib
FAA: Fine-grained Attention Alignment for Cascade Document Ranking
Zhen Li | Chongyang Tao | Jiazhan Feng | Tao Shen | Dongyan Zhao | Xiubo Geng | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Document ranking aims at sorting a collection of documents with their relevance to a query. Contemporary methods explore more efficient transformers or divide long documents into passages to handle the long input. However, intensive query-irrelevant content may lead to harmful distraction and high query latency. Some recent works further propose cascade document ranking models that extract relevant passages with an efficient selector before ranking, however, their selection and ranking modules are almost independently optimized and deployed, leading to selecting error reinforcement and sub-optimal performance. In fact, the document ranker can provide fine-grained supervision to make the selector more generalizable and compatible, and the selector built upon a different structure can offer a distinct perspective to assist in document ranking. Inspired by this, we propose a fine-grained attention alignment approach to jointly optimize a cascade document ranking model. Specifically, we utilize the attention activations over the passages from the ranker as fine-grained attention feedback to optimize the selector. Meanwhile, we fuse the relevance scores from the passage selector into the ranker to assist in calculating the cooperative matching representation. Experiments on MS MARCO and TREC DL demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

pdf bib
SimLM: Pre-training with Representation Bottleneck for Dense Passage Retrieval
Liang Wang | Nan Yang | Xiaolong Huang | Binxing Jiao | Linjun Yang | Daxin Jiang | Rangan Majumder | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In this paper, we propose SimLM (Similarity matching with Language Model pre-training), a simple yet effective pre-training method for dense passage retrieval. It employs a simple bottleneck architecture that learns to compress the passage information into a dense vector through self-supervised pre-training. We use a replaced language modeling objective, which is inspired by ELECTRA (Clark et al., 2020), to improve the sample efficiency and reduce the mismatch of the input distribution between pre-training and fine-tuning. SimLM only requires access to an unlabeled corpus and is more broadly applicable when there are no labeled data or queries. We conduct experiments on several large-scale passage retrieval datasets and show substantial improvements over strong baselines under various settings. Remarkably, SimLM even outperforms multi-vector approaches such as ColBERTv2 (Santhanam et al., 2021) which incurs significantly more storage cost. Our code and model checkpoints are available at https://github.com/microsoft/unilm/tree/master/simlm .

pdf bib
CORE: Cooperative Training of Retriever-Reranker for Effective Dialogue Response Selection
Chongyang Tao | Jiazhan Feng | Tao Shen | Chang Liu | Juntao Li | Xiubo Geng | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Establishing retrieval-based dialogue systems that can select appropriate responses from the pre-built index has gained increasing attention. Recent common practice is to construct a two-stage pipeline with a fast retriever (e.g., bi-encoder) for first-stage recall followed by a smart response reranker (e.g., cross-encoder) for precise ranking. However, existing studies either optimize the retriever and reranker in independent ways, or distill the knowledge from a pre-trained reranker into the retriever in an asynchronous way, leading to sub-optimal performance of both modules. Thus, an open question remains about how to train them for a better combination of the best of both worlds. To this end, we present a cooperative training of the response retriever and the reranker whose parameters are dynamically optimized by the ground-truth labels as well as list-wise supervision signals from each other. As a result, the two modules can learn from each other and evolve together throughout the training. Experimental results on two benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of our method.

pdf bib
Alleviating Over-smoothing for Unsupervised Sentence Representation
Nuo Chen | Linjun Shou | Jian Pei | Ming Gong | Bowen Cao | Jianhui Chang | Jia Li | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Currently, learning better unsupervised sentence representations is the pursuit of many natural language processing communities. Lots of approaches based on pre-trained language models (PLMs) and contrastive learning have achieved promising results on this task. Experimentally, we observe that the over-smoothing problem reduces the capacity of these powerful PLMs, leading to sub-optimal sentence representations. In this paper, we present a Simple method named Self-Contrastive Learning (SSCL) to alleviate this issue, which samples negatives from PLMs intermediate layers, improving the quality of the sentence representation. Our proposed method is quite simple and can be easily extended to various state-of-the-art models for performance boosting, which can be seen as a plug-and-play contrastive framework for learning unsupervised sentence representation. Extensive results prove that SSCL brings the superior performance improvements of different strong baselines (e.g., BERT and SimCSE) on Semantic Textual Similarity and Transfer datasets

pdf bib
Structural Contrastive Pretraining for Cross-Lingual Comprehension
Nuo Chen | Linjun Shou | Tengtao Song | Ming Gong | Jian Pei | Jianhui Chang | Daxin Jiang | Jia Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

To present, multilingual language models trained using various pre-training tasks like mask language modeling (MLM) have yielded encouraging results on a wide range of downstream tasks. Despite the promising performances, structural knowledge in cross-lingual corpus is less explored in current works, leading to the semantic misalignment. In this paper, we propose a new pre-training task named Structural Contrast Pretraining (SCP) to align the structural words in a parallel sentence, enhancing the models’ ability to comprehend cross-lingual representations. Concretely, each structural word in source and target languages is regarded as a positive pair in SCP. Since contrastive learning compares positive and negative pairs, an increase in the frequency of negative pairings could enhance the performance of the resulting model. Therefore, we further propose Cross-lingual Momentum Contrast (CL-MoCo) to increase the number of negative pairs by maintaining a large size of the queue. CL-MoCo extends the original Moco approach into cross-lingual training and jointly optimizes the source-to-target language and target-to-source language representations, resulting in a more suitable encoder for cross-lingual transfer. We conduct extensive experiments to validate the proposed approach on three cross-lingual tasks across five datasets such as MLQA, WikiAnn, etc, and results prove the effectiveness of our method.

pdf bib
Code Execution with Pre-trained Language Models
Chenxiao Liu | Shuai Lu | Weizhu Chen | Daxin Jiang | Alexey Svyatkovskiy | Shengyu Fu | Neel Sundaresan | Nan Duan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Code execution is a fundamental aspect of programming language semantics that reflects the exact behavior of the code. However, most pre-trained models for code intelligence ignore the execution trace and only rely on source code and syntactic structures. In this paper, we investigate how well pre-trained models can understand and perform code execution. We develop a mutation-based data augmentation technique to create a large-scale and realistic Python dataset and task for code execution, which challenges existing models such as Codex. We then present CodeExecutor, a Transformer model that leverages code execution pre-training and curriculum learning to enhance its semantic comprehension. We evaluate CodeExecutor on code execution and show its promising performance and limitations. We also demonstrate its potential benefits for code intelligence tasks such as zero-shot code-to-code search and text-to-code generation. Our analysis provides insights into the learning and generalization abilities of pre-trained models for code execution.

pdf bib
Towards Robust Ranker for Text Retrieval
Yucheng Zhou | Tao Shen | Xiubo Geng | Chongyang Tao | Can Xu | Guodong Long | Binxing Jiao | Daxin Jiang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

A neural ranker plays an indispensable role in the de facto ‘retrieval & rerank’ pipeline, but its training still lags behind due to the weak negative mining during contrastive learning. Compared to retrievers boosted by self-adversarial (i.e., in-distribution) negative mining, the ranker’s heavy structure suffers from query-document combinatorial explosions, so it can only resort to the negative sampled by the fast yet out-of-distribution retriever. Thereby, the moderate negatives compose ineffective contrastive learning samples, becoming the main barrier to learning a robust ranker. To alleviate this, we propose a multi-adversarial training strategy that leverages multiple retrievers as generators to challenge a ranker, where i) diverse hard negatives from a joint distribution are prone to fool the ranker for more effective adversarial learning and ii) involving extensive out-of-distribution label noises renders the ranker against each noise distribution, leading to more challenging and robust contrastive learning. To evaluate our robust ranker (dubbed R2anker), we conduct experiments in various settings on the passage retrieval benchmarks, including BM25-reranking, full-ranking, retriever distillation, etc. The empirical results verify the new state-of-the-art effectiveness of our model.

pdf bib
Allies: Prompting Large Language Model with Beam Search
Hao Sun | Xiao Liu | Yeyun Gong | Yan Zhang | Daxin Jiang | Linjun Yang | Nan Duan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

With the advance of large language models (LLMs), the research field of LLM applications becomes more and more popular and the idea of constructing pipelines to accomplish complex tasks by stacking LLM API calls come true. However, this kind of methods face two limitations: narrow information coverage and low fault tolerance. In this work, we propose a novel method called ALLIES. Given an input query, ALLIES leverages LLMs to iteratively generate new queries related to the original query, enabling an iterative reasoning process. By iteratively refining and expanding the scope of the original query, ALLIES captures and utilizes hidden knowledge that may not be directly obtainable through retrieval. We take zero-shot open-domain question answering (ODQA) as an application scene and evaluate ALLIES on the widely-used benchmarks, such as NQ, WebQ and TriviaQA. The experimental results demonstrate that ALLIES significantly outperforms other zero-shot baselines, indicating its effectiveness in tackling those challenges. Our code is available in https://github.com/microsoft/SimXNS/tree/main/ALLIES.

pdf bib
Coherent Entity Disambiguation via Modeling Topic and Categorical Dependency
Zilin Xiao | Linjun Shou | Xingyao Zhang | Jie Wu | Ming Gong | Daxin Jiang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Previous entity disambiguation (ED) methods adopt a discriminative paradigm, where prediction is made based on matching scores between mention context and candidate entities using length-limited encoders. However, these methods often struggle to capture explicit discourse-level dependencies, resulting in incoherent predictions at the abstract level (e.g. topic or category). We propose CoherentED, an ED system equipped with novel designs aimed at enhancing the coherence of entity predictions. Our method first introduces an unsupervised variational autoencoder (VAE) to extract latent topic vectors of context sentences. This approach not only allows the encoder to handle longer documents more effectively, conserves valuable input space, but also keeps a topic-level coherence. Additionally, we incorporate an external category memory, enabling the system to retrieve relevant categories for undecided mentions. By employing step-by-step entity decisions, this design facilitates the modeling of entity-entity interactions, thereby maintaining maximum coherence at the category level. We achieve new state-of-the-art results on popular ED benchmarks, with an average improvement of 1.3 F1 points. Our model demonstrates particularly outstanding performance on challenging long-text scenarios.

pdf bib
Instructed Language Models with Retrievers Are Powerful Entity Linkers
Zilin Xiao | Ming Gong | Jie Wu | Xingyao Zhang | Linjun Shou | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Generative approaches powered by large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated emergent abilities in tasks that require complex reasoning abilities. Yet the generative nature still makes the generated content suffer from hallucinations, thus unsuitable for entity-centric tasks like entity linking (EL) requiring precise entity predictions over a large knowledge base. We present Instructed Generative Entity Linker (INSGENEL), the first approach that enables casual language models to perform entity linking over knowledge bases. Several methods of equipping language models with EL ability were proposed in this work, including (i) a sequence-to-sequence training EL objective with instruction-tuning, (ii) a novel generative EL framework based on a light-weight potential mention retriever that frees the model from heavy and non-parallelizable decoding, achieving 4× speedup without compromise on linking metrics. INSGENEL outperforms previous generative alternatives with +6.8 F1 points gain on average, also with a huge advantage in training data efficiency and training compute consumption. In addition, our skillfully-engineered in-context learning (ICL) framework for EL still lags behind INSGENEL significantly, reaffirming that the EL task remains a persistent hurdle for general LLMs.

2022

pdf bib
RecInDial: A Unified Framework for Conversational Recommendation with Pretrained Language Models
Lingzhi Wang | Huang Hu | Lei Sha | Can Xu | Daxin Jiang | Kam-Fai Wong
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Conversational Recommender System (CRS), which aims to recommend high-quality items to users through interactive conversations, has gained great research interest recently. A CRS is usually composed of a recommendation module and a generation module. In the previous work, these two modules are loosely connected in the model training and are shallowly integrated during inference, where a simple switching or copy mechanism is adopted to incorporate recommended items into generated responses. Moreover, the current end-to-end neural models trained on small crowd-sourcing datasets (e.g., 10K dialogs in the ReDial dataset) tend to overfit and have poor chit-chat ability. In this work, we propose a novel unified framework that integrates recommendation into the dialog (RecInDial) generation by introducing a vocabulary pointer. To tackle the low-resource issue in CRS, we finetune the large-scale pretrained language models to generate fluent and diverse responses, and introduce a knowledge-aware bias learned from an entity-oriented knowledge graph to enhance the recommendation performance. Furthermore, we propose to evaluate the CRS models in an end-to-end manner, which can reflect the overall performance of the entire system rather than the performance of individual modules, compared to the separate evaluations of the two modules used in previous work. Experiments on the benchmark dataset ReDial show our RecInDial model significantly surpasses the state-of-the-art methods. More extensive analyses show the effectiveness of our model.

pdf bib
Social Norms-Grounded Machine Ethics in Complex Narrative Situation
Tao Shen | Xiubo Geng | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Ethical judgment aims to determine if a person in a narrative situation acts under people’s social norms under a culture, so it is crucial to understand actions in narratives and achieve machine ethics. Recent works depend on data-driven methods to directly judge the ethics of complex real-world narratives but face two major challenges. First, they cannot well handle dilemma situations due to a lack of basic knowledge about social norms. Second, they focus merely on sparse situation-level judgment regardless of the social norms involved during the judgment, leading to a black box. In this work, inspired by previous knowledge-grounded and -augmented paradigms, we propose to complement a complex situation with grounded social norms. Besides a norm-grounding knowledge model, we present a novel norm-supported ethical judgment model in line with neural module networks to alleviate dilemma situations and improve norm-level explainability. Empirically, our model improves state-of-the-art performance on two narrative judgment benchmarks.

pdf bib
ClarET: Pre-training a Correlation-Aware Context-To-Event Transformer for Event-Centric Generation and Classification
Yucheng Zhou | Tao Shen | Xiubo Geng | Guodong Long | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Generating new events given context with correlated ones plays a crucial role in many event-centric reasoning tasks. Existing works either limit their scope to specific scenarios or overlook event-level correlations. In this paper, we propose to pre-train a general Correlation-aware context-to-Event Transformer (ClarET) for event-centric reasoning. To achieve this, we propose three novel event-centric objectives, i.e., whole event recovering, contrastive event-correlation encoding and prompt-based event locating, which highlight event-level correlations with effective training. The proposed ClarET is applicable to a wide range of event-centric reasoning scenarios, considering its versatility of (i) event-correlation types (e.g., causal, temporal, contrast), (ii) application formulations (i.e., generation and classification), and (iii) reasoning types (e.g., abductive, counterfactual and ending reasoning). Empirical fine-tuning results, as well as zero- and few-shot learning, on 9 benchmarks (5 generation and 4 classification tasks covering 4 reasoning types with diverse event correlations), verify its effectiveness and generalization ability.

pdf bib
Multimodal Dialogue Response Generation
Qingfeng Sun | Yujing Wang | Can Xu | Kai Zheng | Yaming Yang | Huang Hu | Fei Xu | Jessica Zhang | Xiubo Geng | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Responsing with image has been recognized as an important capability for an intelligent conversational agent. Yet existing works only focus on exploring the multimodal dialogue models which depend on retrieval-based methods, but neglecting generation methods. To fill in the gaps, we first present a new task: multimodal dialogue response generation (MDRG) - given the dialogue history, one model needs to generate a text sequence or an image as response. Learning such a MDRG model often requires multimodal dialogues containing both texts and images which are difficult to obtain. Motivated by the challenge in practice, we consider MDRG under a natural assumption that only limited training examples are available. In such a low-resource setting, we devise a novel conversational agent, Divter, in order to isolate parameters that depend on multimodal dialogues from the entire generation model. By this means, the major part of the model can be learned from a large number of text-only dialogues and text-image pairs respectively, then the whole parameters can be well fitted using the limited training examples. Extensive experiments demonstrate our method achieves state-of-the-art results in both automatic and human evaluation, and can generate informative text and high-resolution image responses.

pdf bib
PromDA: Prompt-based Data Augmentation for Low-Resource NLU Tasks
Yufei Wang | Can Xu | Qingfeng Sun | Huang Hu | Chongyang Tao | Xiubo Geng | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

This paper focuses on the Data Augmentation for low-resource Natural Language Understanding (NLU) tasks. We propose Prompt-based Data Augmentation model (PromDA) which only trains small-scale Soft Prompt (i.e., a set of trainable vectors) in the frozen Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs). This avoids human effort in collecting unlabeled in-domain data and maintains the quality of generated synthetic data. In addition, PromDA generates synthetic data via two different views and filters out the low-quality data using NLU models. Experiments on four benchmarks show that synthetic data produced by PromDA successfully boost up the performance of NLU models which consistently outperform several competitive baseline models, including a state-of-the-art semi-supervised model using unlabeled in-domain data. The synthetic data from PromDA are also complementary with unlabeled in-domain data. The NLU models can be further improved when they are combined for training.

pdf bib
Contextual Fine-to-Coarse Distillation for Coarse-grained Response Selection in Open-Domain Conversations
Wei Chen | Yeyun Gong | Can Xu | Huang Hu | Bolun Yao | Zhongyu Wei | Zhihao Fan | Xiaowu Hu | Bartuer Zhou | Biao Cheng | Daxin Jiang | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We study the problem of coarse-grained response selection in retrieval-based dialogue systems. The problem is equally important with fine-grained response selection, but is less explored in existing literature. In this paper, we propose a Contextual Fine-to-Coarse (CFC) distilled model for coarse-grained response selection in open-domain conversations. In our CFC model, dense representations of query, candidate contexts and responses is learned based on the multi-tower architecture using contextual matching, and richer knowledge learned from the one-tower architecture (fine-grained) is distilled into the multi-tower architecture (coarse-grained) to enhance the performance of the retriever. To evaluate the performance of the proposed model, we construct two new datasets based on the Reddit comments dump and Twitter corpus. Extensive experimental results on the two datasets show that the proposed method achieves huge improvement over all evaluation metrics compared with traditional baseline methods.

pdf bib
HeterMPC: A Heterogeneous Graph Neural Network for Response Generation in Multi-Party Conversations
Jia-Chen Gu | Chao-Hong Tan | Chongyang Tao | Zhen-Hua Ling | Huang Hu | Xiubo Geng | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recently, various response generation models for two-party conversations have achieved impressive improvements, but less effort has been paid to multi-party conversations (MPCs) which are more practical and complicated. Compared with a two-party conversation where a dialogue context is a sequence of utterances, building a response generation model for MPCs is more challenging, since there exist complicated context structures and the generated responses heavily rely on both interlocutors (i.e., speaker and addressee) and history utterances. To address these challenges, we present HeterMPC, a heterogeneous graph-based neural network for response generation in MPCs which models the semantics of utterances and interlocutors simultaneously with two types of nodes in a graph. Besides, we also design six types of meta relations with node-edge-type-dependent parameters to characterize the heterogeneous interactions within the graph. Through multi-hop updating, HeterMPC can adequately utilize the structural knowledge of conversations for response generation. Experimental results on the Ubuntu Internet Relay Chat (IRC) channel benchmark show that HeterMPC outperforms various baseline models for response generation in MPCs.

pdf bib
Multi-View Document Representation Learning for Open-Domain Dense Retrieval
Shunyu Zhang | Yaobo Liang | Ming Gong | Daxin Jiang | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Dense retrieval has achieved impressive advances in first-stage retrieval from a large-scale document collection, which is built on bi-encoder architecture to produce single vector representation of query and document. However, a document can usually answer multiple potential queries from different views. So the single vector representation of a document is hard to match with multi-view queries, and faces a semantic mismatch problem. This paper proposes a multi-view document representation learning framework, aiming to produce multi-view embeddings to represent documents and enforce them to align with different queries. First, we propose a simple yet effective method of generating multiple embeddings through viewers. Second, to prevent multi-view embeddings from collapsing to the same one, we further propose a global-local loss with annealed temperature to encourage the multiple viewers to better align with different potential queries. Experiments show our method outperforms recent works and achieves state-of-the-art results.

pdf bib
CodeRetriever: A Large Scale Contrastive Pre-Training Method for Code Search
Xiaonan Li | Yeyun Gong | Yelong Shen | Xipeng Qiu | Hang Zhang | Bolun Yao | Weizhen Qi | Daxin Jiang | Weizhu Chen | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we propose the CodeRetriever model, which learns the function-level code semantic representations through large-scale code-text contrastive pre-training. We adopt two contrastive learning schemes in CodeRetriever: unimodal contrastive learning and bimodal contrastive learning. For unimodal contrastive learning, we design an unsupervised learning approach to build semantic-related code pairs based on the documentation and function name. For bimodal contrastive learning, we leverage the documentation and in-line comments of code to build code-text pairs. Both contrastive objectives can fully leverage large-scale code corpus for pre-training. Extensive experimental results show that CodeRetriever achieves new state-of-the-art with significant improvement over existing code pre-trained models, on eleven domain/language-specific code search tasks with six programming languages in different code granularity (function-level, snippet-level and statement-level).These results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of CodeRetriever.The codes and resources are available at https://github.com/microsoft/AR2/tree/main/CodeRetriever.

pdf bib
Empowering Dual-Encoder with Query Generator for Cross-Lingual Dense Retrieval
Houxing Ren | Linjun Shou | Ning Wu | Ming Gong | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In monolingual dense retrieval, lots of works focus on how to distill knowledge from cross-encoder re-ranker to dual-encoder retriever and these methods achieve better performance due to the effectiveness of cross-encoder re-ranker. However, we find that the performance of the cross-encoder re-ranker is heavily influenced by the number of training samples and the quality of negative samples, which is hard to obtain in the cross-lingual setting. In this paper, we propose to use a query generator as the teacher in the cross-lingual setting, which is less dependent on enough training samples and high-quality negative samples. In addition to traditional knowledge distillation, we further propose a novel enhancement method, which uses the query generator to help the dual-encoder align queries from different languages, but does not need any additional parallel sentences. The experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on two benchmark datasets.

pdf bib
XLM-D: Decorate Cross-lingual Pre-training Model as Non-Autoregressive Neural Machine Translation
Yong Wang | Shilin He | Guanhua Chen | Yun Chen | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Pre-training language models have achieved thriving success in numerous natural language understanding and autoregressive generation tasks, but non-autoregressive generation in applications such as machine translation has not sufficiently benefited from the pre-training paradigm. In this work, we establish the connection between a pre-trained masked language model (MLM) and non-autoregressive generation on machine translation. From this perspective, we present XLM-D, which seamlessly transforms an off-the-shelf cross-lingual pre-training model into a non-autoregressive translation (NAT) model with a lightweight yet effective decorator. Specifically, the decorator ensures the representation consistency of the pre-trained model and brings only one additional trainable parameter. Extensive experiments on typical translation datasets show that our models obtain state-of-the-art performance while realizing the inference speed-up by 19.9x. One striking result is that on WMT14 En-De, our XLM-D obtains 29.80 BLEU points with multiple iterations, which outperforms the previous mask-predict model by 2.77 points.

pdf bib
Label-aware Multi-level Contrastive Learning for Cross-lingual Spoken Language Understanding
Shining Liang | Linjun Shou | Jian Pei | Ming Gong | Wanli Zuo | Xianglin Zuo | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Despite the great success of spoken language understanding (SLU) in high-resource languages, it remains challenging in low-resource languages mainly due to the lack of labeled training data. The recent multilingual code-switching approach achieves better alignments of model representations across languages by constructing a mixed-language context in zero-shot cross-lingual SLU. However, current code-switching methods are limited to implicit alignment and disregard the inherent semantic structure in SLU, i.e., the hierarchical inclusion of utterances, slots and words. In this paper, we propose to model the utterance-slot-word structure by a multi-level contrastive learning framework at the utterance, slot and word levels to facilitate explicit alignment. Novel code-switching schemes are introduced to generate hard negative examples for our contrastive learning framework. Furthermore, we develop a label-aware joint model leveraging label semantics to enhance the implicit alignment and feed to contrastive learning. Our experimental results show that our proposed methods significantly improve the performance compared with the strong baselines on two zero-shot cross-lingual SLU benchmark datasets.

pdf bib
PCL: Peer-Contrastive Learning with Diverse Augmentations for Unsupervised Sentence Embeddings
Qiyu Wu | Chongyang Tao | Tao Shen | Can Xu | Xiubo Geng | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Learning sentence embeddings in an unsupervised manner is fundamental in natural language processing. Recent common practice is to couple pre-trained language models with unsupervised contrastive learning, whose success relies on augmenting a sentence with a semantically-close positive instance to construct contrastive pairs. Nonetheless, existing approaches usually depend on a mono-augmenting strategy, which causes learning shortcuts towards the augmenting biases and thus corrupts the quality of sentence embeddings. A straightforward solution is resorting to more diverse positives from a multi-augmenting strategy, while an open question remains about how to unsupervisedly learn from the diverse positives but with uneven augmenting qualities in the text field. As one answer, we propose a novel Peer-Contrastive Learning (PCL) with diverse augmentations. PCL constructs diverse contrastive positives and negatives at the group level for unsupervised sentence embeddings. PCL performs peer-positive contrast as well as peer-network cooperation, which offers an inherent anti-bias ability and an effective way to learn from diverse augmentations. Experiments on STS benchmarks verify the effectiveness of PCL against its competitors in unsupervised sentence embeddings.

pdf bib
TegTok: Augmenting Text Generation via Task-specific and Open-world Knowledge
Chao-Hong Tan | Jia-Chen Gu | Chongyang Tao | Zhen-Hua Ling | Can Xu | Huang Hu | Xiubo Geng | Daxin Jiang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Generating natural and informative texts has been a long-standing problem in NLP. Much effort has been dedicated into incorporating pre-trained language models (PLMs) with various open-world knowledge, such as knowledge graphs or wiki pages. However, their ability to access and manipulate the task-specific knowledge is still limited on downstream tasks, as this type of knowledge is usually not well covered in PLMs and is hard to acquire. To address the problem, we propose augmenting TExt Generation via Task-specific and Open-world Knowledge (TegTok) in a unified framework. Our model selects knowledge entries from two types of knowledge sources through dense retrieval and then injects them into the input encoding and output decoding stages respectively on the basis of PLMs. With the help of these two types of knowledge, our model can learn what and how to generate. Experiments on two text generation tasks of dialogue generation and question generation, and on two datasets show that our method achieves better performance than various baseline models.

pdf bib
Logic-Driven Context Extension and Data Augmentation for Logical Reasoning of Text
Siyuan Wang | Wanjun Zhong | Duyu Tang | Zhongyu Wei | Zhihao Fan | Daxin Jiang | Ming Zhou | Nan Duan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Logical reasoning of text requires identifying critical logical structures in the text and performing inference over them. Existing methods for logical reasoning mainly focus on contextual semantics of text while struggling to explicitly model the logical inference process. In this paper, we not only put forward a logic-driven context extension framework but also propose a logic-driven data augmentation algorithm. The former follows a three-step reasoning paradigm, and each step is respectively to extract logical expressions as elementary reasoning units, symbolically infer the implicit expressions following equivalence laws and extend the context to validate the options. The latter augments literally similar but logically different instances and incorporates contrastive learning to better capture logical information, especially logical negative and conditional relationships. We conduct experiments on two benchmark datasets, ReClor and LogiQA. The results show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on both datasets, and even surpasses human performance on the ReClor dataset.

pdf bib
THE-X: Privacy-Preserving Transformer Inference with Homomorphic Encryption
Tianyu Chen | Hangbo Bao | Shaohan Huang | Li Dong | Binxing Jiao | Daxin Jiang | Haoyi Zhou | Jianxin Li | Furu Wei
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

As more and more pre-trained language models adopt on-cloud deployment, the privacy issues grow quickly, mainly for the exposure of plain-text user data (e.g., search history, medical record, bank account). Privacy-preserving inference of transformer models is on the demand of cloud service users. To protect privacy, it is an attractive choice to compute only with ciphertext in homomorphic encryption (HE). However, enabling pre-trained models inference on ciphertext data is difficult due to the complex computations in transformer blocks, which are not supported by current HE tools yet. In this work, we introduce THE-X, an approximation approach for transformers, which enables privacy-preserving inference of pre-trained models developed by popular frameworks. THE-X proposes a workflow to deal with complex computation in transformer networks, including all the non-polynomial functions like GELU, softmax, and LayerNorm. Experiments reveal our proposed THE-X can enable transformer inference on encrypted data for different downstream tasks, all with negligible performance drop but enjoying the theory-guaranteed privacy-preserving advantage.

pdf bib
Soft-Labeled Contrastive Pre-Training for Function-Level Code Representation
Xiaonan Li | Daya Guo | Yeyun Gong | Yun Lin | Yelong Shen | Xipeng Qiu | Daxin Jiang | Weizhu Chen | Nan Duan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Code contrastive pre-training has recently achieved significant progress on code-related tasks. In this paper, we present SCodeR, a Soft-labeled contrastive pre-training framework with two positive sample construction methods to learn functional-level Code Representation. Considering the relevance between codes in a large-scale code corpus, the soft-labeled contrastive pre-training can obtain fine-grained soft-labels through an iterative adversarial manner and use them to learn better code representation. The positive sample construction is another key for contrastive pre-training. Previous works use transformation-based methods like variable renaming to generate semantically equal positive codes. However, they usually result in the generated code with a highly similar surface form, and thus mislead the model to focus on superficial code structure instead of code semantics. To encourage SCodeR to capture semantic information from the code, we utilize code comments and abstract syntax sub-trees of the code to build positive samples. We conduct experiments on four code-related tasks over seven datasets. Extensive experimental results show that SCodeR achieves new state-of-the-art performance on all of them, which illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed pre-training method.

pdf bib
Lexicon-Enhanced Self-Supervised Training for Multilingual Dense Retrieval
Houxing Ren | Linjun Shou | Jian Pei | Ning Wu | Ming Gong | Daxin Jiang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Recent multilingual pre-trained models have shown better performance in various multilingual tasks. However, these models perform poorly on multilingual retrieval tasks due to lacking multilingual training data. In this paper, we propose to mine and generate self-supervised training data based on a large-scale unlabeled corpus. We carefully design a mining method which combines the sparse and dense models to mine the relevance of unlabeled queries and passages. And we introduce a query generator to generate more queries in target languages for unlabeled passages. Through extensive experiments on Mr. TYDI dataset and an industrial dataset from a commercial search engine, we demonstrate that our method performs better than baselines based on various pre-trained multilingual models. Our method even achieves on-par performance with the supervised method on the latter dataset.

pdf bib
Mixed-modality Representation Learning and Pre-training for Joint Table-and-Text Retrieval in OpenQA
Junjie Huang | Wanjun Zhong | Qian Liu | Ming Gong | Daxin Jiang | Nan Duan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Retrieving evidences from tabular and textual resources is essential for open-domain question answering (OpenQA), which provides more comprehensive information. However, training an effective dense table-text retriever is difficult due to the challenges of table-text discrepancy and data sparsity problem. To address the above challenges, we introduce an optimized OpenQA Table-Text Retriever (OTTeR) to jointly retrieve tabular and textual evidences. Firstly, we propose to enhance mixed-modality representation learning via two mechanisms: modality-enhanced representation and mixed-modality negative sampling strategy. Secondly, to alleviate data sparsity problem and enhance the general retrieval ability, we conduct retrieval-centric mixed-modality synthetic pre-training. Experimental results demonstrate that OTTeR substantially improves the performance of table-and-text retrieval on the OTT-QA dataset. Comprehensive analyses examine the effectiveness of all the proposed mechanisms. Besides, equipped with OTTeR, our OpenQA system achieves the state-of-the-art result on the downstream QA task, with 10.1% absolute improvement in terms of the exact match over the previous best system.

pdf bib
Understand before Answer: Improve Temporal Reading Comprehension via Precise Question Understanding
Hao Huang | Xiubo Geng | Guodong Long | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

This work studies temporal reading comprehension (TRC), which reads a free-text passage and answers temporal ordering questions. Precise question understanding is critical for temporal reading comprehension. For example, the question “What happened before the victory” and “What happened after the victory” share almost all words except one, while their answers are totally different. Moreover, even if two questions query about similar temporal relations, different varieties might also lead to various answers. For example, although both the question “What usually happened during the press release?” and “What might happen during the press release” query events which happen after “the press release”, they convey divergent semantics. To this end, we propose a novel reading comprehension approach with precise question understanding. Specifically, a temporal ordering question is embedded into two vectors to capture the referred event and the temporal relation. Then we evaluate the temporal relation between candidate events and the referred event based on that. Such fine-grained representations offer two benefits. First, it enables a better understanding of the question by focusing on different elements of a question. Second, it provides good interpretability when evaluating temporal relations. Furthermore, we also harness an auxiliary contrastive loss for representation learning of temporal relations, which aims to distinguish relations with subtle but critical changes. The proposed approach outperforms strong baselines and achieves state-of-the-art performance on the TORQUE dataset. It also increases the accuracy of four pre-trained language models (BERT base, BERT large, RoBERTa base, and RoBETRa large), demonstrating its generic effectiveness on divergent models.

pdf bib
Bridging the Gap between Language Models and Cross-Lingual Sequence Labeling
Nuo Chen | Linjun Shou | Ming Gong | Jian Pei | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Large-scale cross-lingual pre-trained language models (xPLMs) have shown effective in cross-lingual sequence labeling tasks (xSL), such as machine reading comprehension (xMRC) by transferring knowledge from a high-resource language to low-resource languages. Despite the great success, we draw an empirical observation that there is an training objective gap between pre-training and fine-tuning stages: e.g., mask language modeling objective requires local understanding of the masked token and the span-extraction objective requires understanding and reasoning of the global input passage/paragraph and question, leading to the discrepancy between pre-training and xMRC. In this paper, we first design a pre-training task tailored for xSL named Cross-lingual Language Informative Span Masking (CLISM) to eliminate the objective gap in a self-supervised manner. Second, we present ContrAstive-Consistency Regularization (CACR), which utilizes contrastive learning to encourage the consistency between representations of input parallel sequences via unsupervised cross-lingual instance-wise training signals during pre-training. By these means, our methods not only bridge the gap between pretrain-finetune, but also enhance PLMs to better capture the alignment between different languages. Extensive experiments prove that our method achieves clearly superior results on multiple xSL benchmarks with limited pre-training data. Our methods also surpass the previous state-of-the-art methods by a large margin in few-shot data setting, where only a few hundred training examples are available.

pdf bib
Stylized Knowledge-Grounded Dialogue Generation via Disentangled Template Rewriting
Qingfeng Sun | Can Xu | Huang Hu | Yujing Wang | Jian Miao | Xiubo Geng | Yining Chen | Fei Xu | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Current Knowledge-Grounded Dialogue Generation (KDG) models specialize in producing rational and factual responses. However, to establish long-term relationships with users, the KDG model needs the capability to generate responses in a desired style or attribute. Thus, we study a new problem: Stylized Knowledge-Grounded Dialogue Generation (SKDG). It presents two challenges: (1) How to train a SKDG model where no <context, knowledge, stylized response> triples are available. (2) How to cohere with context and preserve the knowledge when generating a stylized response. In this paper, we propose a novel disentangled template rewriting (DTR) method which generates responses via combing disentangled style templates (from monolingual stylized corpus) and content templates (from KDG corpus). The entire framework is end-to-end differentiable and learned without supervision. Extensive experiments on two benchmarks indicate that DTR achieves a significant improvement on all evaluation metrics compared with previous state-of-the-art stylized dialogue generation methods. Besides, DTR achieves comparable performance with the state-of-the-art KDG methods in standard KDG evaluation setting.

2021

pdf bib
MPC-BERT: A Pre-Trained Language Model for Multi-Party Conversation Understanding
Jia-Chen Gu | Chongyang Tao | Zhenhua Ling | Can Xu | Xiubo Geng | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recently, various neural models for multi-party conversation (MPC) have achieved impressive improvements on a variety of tasks such as addressee recognition, speaker identification and response prediction. However, these existing methods on MPC usually represent interlocutors and utterances individually and ignore the inherent complicated structure in MPC which may provide crucial interlocutor and utterance semantics and would enhance the conversation understanding process. To this end, we present MPC-BERT, a pre-trained model for MPC understanding that considers learning who says what to whom in a unified model with several elaborated self-supervised tasks. Particularly, these tasks can be generally categorized into (1) interlocutor structure modeling including reply-to utterance recognition, identical speaker searching and pointer consistency distinction, and (2) utterance semantics modeling including masked shared utterance restoration and shared node detection. We evaluate MPC-BERT on three downstream tasks including addressee recognition, speaker identification and response selection. Experimental results show that MPC-BERT outperforms previous methods by large margins and achieves new state-of-the-art performance on all three downstream tasks at two benchmarks.

pdf bib
Reasoning over Entity-Action-Location Graph for Procedural Text Understanding
Hao Huang | Xiubo Geng | Jian Pei | Guodong Long | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Procedural text understanding aims at tracking the states (e.g., create, move, destroy) and locations of the entities mentioned in a given paragraph. To effectively track the states and locations, it is essential to capture the rich semantic relations between entities, actions, and locations in the paragraph. Although recent works have achieved substantial progress, most of them focus on leveraging the inherent constraints or incorporating external knowledge for state prediction. The rich semantic relations in the given paragraph are largely overlooked. In this paper, we propose a novel approach (REAL) to procedural text understanding, where we build a general framework to systematically model the entity-entity, entity-action, and entity-location relations using a graph neural network. We further develop algorithms for graph construction, representation learning, and state and location tracking. We evaluate the proposed approach on two benchmark datasets, ProPara, and Recipes. The experimental results show that our method outperforms strong baselines by a large margin, i.e., 5.0% on ProPara and 3.2% on Recipes, illustrating the utility of semantic relations and the effectiveness of the graph-based reasoning model.

pdf bib
Syntax-Enhanced Pre-trained Model
Zenan Xu | Daya Guo | Duyu Tang | Qinliang Su | Linjun Shou | Ming Gong | Wanjun Zhong | Xiaojun Quan | Daxin Jiang | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We study the problem of leveraging the syntactic structure of text to enhance pre-trained models such as BERT and RoBERTa. Existing methods utilize syntax of text either in the pre-training stage or in the fine-tuning stage, so that they suffer from discrepancy between the two stages. Such a problem would lead to the necessity of having human-annotated syntactic information, which limits the application of existing methods to broader scenarios. To address this, we present a model that utilizes the syntax of text in both pre-training and fine-tuning stages. Our model is based on Transformer with a syntax-aware attention layer that considers the dependency tree of the text. We further introduce a new pre-training task of predicting the syntactic distance among tokens in the dependency tree. We evaluate the model on three downstream tasks, including relation classification, entity typing, and question answering. Results show that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on six public benchmark datasets. We have two major findings. First, we demonstrate that infusing automatically produced syntax of text improves pre-trained models. Second, global syntactic distances among tokens bring larger performance gains compared to local head relations between contiguous tokens.

pdf bib
Maria: A Visual Experience Powered Conversational Agent
Zujie Liang | Huang Hu | Can Xu | Chongyang Tao | Xiubo Geng | Yining Chen | Fan Liang | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Arguably, the visual perception of conversational agents to the physical world is a key way for them to exhibit the human-like intelligence. Image-grounded conversation is thus proposed to address this challenge. Existing works focus on exploring the multimodal dialog models that ground the conversation on a given image. In this paper, we take a step further to study image-grounded conversation under a fully open-ended setting where no paired dialog and image are assumed available. Specifically, we present Maria, a neural conversation agent powered by the visual world experiences which are retrieved from a large-scale image index. Maria consists of three flexible components, i.e., text-to-image retriever, visual concept detector and visual-knowledge-grounded response generator. The retriever aims to retrieve a correlated image to the dialog from an image index, while the visual concept detector extracts rich visual knowledge from the image. Then, the response generator is grounded on the extracted visual knowledge and dialog context to generate the target response. Extensive experiments demonstrate Maria outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods on automatic metrics and human evaluation, and can generate informative responses that have some visual commonsense of the physical world.

pdf bib
CoSQA: 20,000+ Web Queries for Code Search and Question Answering
Junjie Huang | Duyu Tang | Linjun Shou | Ming Gong | Ke Xu | Daxin Jiang | Ming Zhou | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Finding codes given natural language query is beneficial to the productivity of software developers. Future progress towards better semantic matching between query and code requires richer supervised training resources. To remedy this, we introduce CoSQA dataset. It includes 20,604 labels for pairs of natural language queries and codes, each annotated by at least 3 human annotators. We further introduce a contrastive learning method dubbed CoCLR to enhance text-code matching, which works as a data augmenter to bring more artificially generated training instances. We show that, evaluated on CodeXGLUE with the same CodeBERT model, training on CoSQA improves the accuracy of code question answering by 5.1% and incorporating CoCLR brings a further improvement of 10.5%.

pdf bib
ProphetNet-X: Large-Scale Pre-training Models for English, Chinese, Multi-lingual, Dialog, and Code Generation
Weizhen Qi | Yeyun Gong | Yu Yan | Can Xu | Bolun Yao | Bartuer Zhou | Biao Cheng | Daxin Jiang | Jiusheng Chen | Ruofei Zhang | Houqiang Li | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Now, the pre-training technique is ubiquitous in natural language processing field. ProphetNet is a pre-training based natural language generation method which shows powerful performance on English text summarization and question generation tasks. In this paper, we extend ProphetNet into other domains and languages, and present the ProphetNet family pre-training models, named ProphetNet-X, where X can be English, Chinese, Multi-lingual, and so on. We pre-train a cross-lingual generation model ProphetNet-Multi, a Chinese generation model ProphetNet-Zh, two open-domain dialog generation models ProphetNet-Dialog-En and ProphetNet-Dialog-Zh. And also, we provide a PLG (Programming Language Generation) model ProphetNet-Code to show the generation performance besides NLG (Natural Language Generation) tasks. In our experiments, ProphetNet-X models achieve new state-of-the-art performance on 10 benchmarks. All the models of ProphetNet-X share the same model structure, which allows users to easily switch between different models. We make the code and models publicly available, and we will keep updating more pre-training models and finetuning scripts.

pdf bib
Improving Zero-Shot Cross-lingual Transfer for Multilingual Question Answering over Knowledge Graph
Yucheng Zhou | Xiubo Geng | Tao Shen | Wenqiang Zhang | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Multilingual question answering over knowledge graph (KGQA) aims to derive answers from a knowledge graph (KG) for questions in multiple languages. To be widely applicable, we focus on its zero-shot transfer setting. That is, we can only access training data in a high-resource language, while need to answer multilingual questions without any labeled data in target languages. A straightforward approach is resorting to pre-trained multilingual models (e.g., mBERT) for cross-lingual transfer, but there is a still significant gap of KGQA performance between source and target languages. In this paper, we exploit unsupervised bilingual lexicon induction (BLI) to map training questions in source language into those in target language as augmented training data, which circumvents language inconsistency between training and inference. Furthermore, we propose an adversarial learning strategy to alleviate syntax-disorder of the augmented data, making the model incline to both language- and syntax-independence. Consequently, our model narrows the gap in zero-shot cross-lingual transfer. Experiments on two multilingual KGQA datasets with 11 zero-resource languages verify its effectiveness.

pdf bib
Language Scaling for Universal Suggested Replies Model
Qianlan Ying | Payal Bajaj | Budhaditya Deb | Yu Yang | Wei Wang | Bojia Lin | Milad Shokouhi | Xia Song | Yang Yang | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Papers

We consider the problem of scaling automated suggested replies for a commercial email application to multiple languages. Faced with increased compute requirements and low language resources for language expansion, we build a single universal model for improving the quality and reducing run-time costs of our production system. However, restricted data movement across regional centers prevents joint training across languages. To this end, we propose a multi-lingual multi-task continual learning framework, with auxiliary tasks and language adapters to train universal language representation across regions. The experimental results show positive cross-lingual transfer across languages while reducing catastrophic forgetting across regions. Our online results on real user traffic show significant CTR and Char-saved gain as well as 65% training cost reduction compared with per-language models. As a consequence, we have scaled the feature in multiple languages including low-resource markets.

pdf bib
Learning from Multiple Noisy Augmented Data Sets for Better Cross-Lingual Spoken Language Understanding
Yingmei Guo | Linjun Shou | Jian Pei | Ming Gong | Mingxing Xu | Zhiyong Wu | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Lack of training data presents a grand challenge to scaling out spoken language understanding (SLU) to low-resource languages. Although various data augmentation approaches have been proposed to synthesize training data in low-resource target languages, the augmented data sets are often noisy, and thus impede the performance of SLU models. In this paper we focus on mitigating noise in augmented data. We develop a denoising training approach. Multiple models are trained with data produced by various augmented methods. Those models provide supervision signals to each other. The experimental results show that our method outperforms the existing state of the art by 3.05 and 4.24 percentage points on two benchmark datasets, respectively. The code will be made open sourced on github.

pdf bib
Learning Neural Templates for Recommender Dialogue System
Zujie Liang | Huang Hu | Can Xu | Jian Miao | Yingying He | Yining Chen | Xiubo Geng | Fan Liang | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The task of Conversational Recommendation System (CRS), i.e., recommender dialog system, aims to recommend precise items to users through natural language interactions. Though recent end-to-end neural models have shown promising progress on this task, two key challenges still remain. First, the recommended items cannot be always incorporated into the generated response precisely and appropriately. Second, only the items mentioned in the training corpus have a chance to be recommended in the conversation. To tackle these challenges, we introduce a novel framework called NTRD for recommender dialogue system that can decouple the dialogue generation from the item recommendation. NTRD has two key components, i.e., response template generator and item selector. The former adopts an encoder-decoder model to generate a response template with slot locations tied to target items, while the latter fills in slot locations with the proper items using a sufficient attention mechanism. Our approach combines the strengths of both classical slot filling approaches (that are generally controllable) and modern neural NLG approaches (that are generally more natural and accurate). Extensive experiments on the benchmark ReDial show our approach significantly outperforms the previous state-of-the-art methods. Besides, our approach has the unique advantage to produce novel items that do not appear in the training set of dialogue corpus. The code is available at https://github.com/jokieleung/NTRD.

pdf bib
GLGE: A New General Language Generation Evaluation Benchmark
Dayiheng Liu | Yu Yan | Yeyun Gong | Weizhen Qi | Hang Zhang | Jian Jiao | Weizhu Chen | Jie Fu | Linjun Shou | Ming Gong | Pengcheng Wang | Jiusheng Chen | Daxin Jiang | Jiancheng Lv | Ruofei Zhang | Winnie Wu | Ming Zhou | Nan Duan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

pdf bib
K-Adapter: Infusing Knowledge into Pre-Trained Models with Adapters
Ruize Wang | Duyu Tang | Nan Duan | Zhongyu Wei | Xuanjing Huang | Jianshu Ji | Guihong Cao | Daxin Jiang | Ming Zhou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

pdf bib
Modeling Event-Pair Relations in External Knowledge Graphs for Script Reasoning
Yucheng Zhou | Xiubo Geng | Tao Shen | Jian Pei | Wenqiang Zhang | Daxin Jiang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

pdf bib
WhiteningBERT: An Easy Unsupervised Sentence Embedding Approach
Junjie Huang | Duyu Tang | Wanjun Zhong | Shuai Lu | Linjun Shou | Ming Gong | Daxin Jiang | Nan Duan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Producing the embedding of a sentence in anunsupervised way is valuable to natural language matching and retrieval problems in practice. In this work, we conduct a thorough examination of pretrained model based unsupervised sentence embeddings. We study on fourpretrained models and conduct massive experiments on seven datasets regarding sentence semantics. We have three main findings. First, averaging all tokens is better than only using [CLS] vector. Second, combining both topand bottom layers is better than only using toplayers. Lastly, an easy whitening-based vector normalization strategy with less than 10 linesof code consistently boosts the performance. The whole project including codes and data is publicly available at https://github.com/Jun-jie-Huang/WhiteningBERT.

pdf bib
Learning to Ground Visual Objects for Visual Dialog
Feilong Chen | Xiuyi Chen | Can Xu | Daxin Jiang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Visual dialog is challenging since it needs to answer a series of coherent questions based on understanding the visual environment. How to ground related visual objects is one of the key problems. Previous studies utilize the question and history to attend to the image and achieve satisfactory performance, while these methods are not sufficient to locate related visual objects without any guidance. The inappropriate grounding of visual objects prohibits the performance of visual dialog models. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to Learn to Ground visual objects for visual dialog, which employs a novel visual objects grounding mechanism where both prior and posterior distributions over visual objects are used to facilitate visual objects grounding. Specifically, a posterior distribution over visual objects is inferred from both context (history and questions) and answers, and it ensures the appropriate grounding of visual objects during the training process. Meanwhile, a prior distribution, which is inferred from context only, is used to approximate the posterior distribution so that appropriate visual objects can be grounding even without answers during the inference process. Experimental results on the VisDial v0.9 and v1.0 datasets demonstrate that our approach improves the previous strong models in both generative and discriminative settings by a significant margin.

pdf bib
Re-entry Prediction for Online Conversations via Self-Supervised Learning
Lingzhi Wang | Xingshan Zeng | Huang Hu | Kam-Fai Wong | Daxin Jiang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

In recent years, world business in online discussions and opinion sharing on social media is booming. Re-entry prediction task is thus proposed to help people keep track of the discussions which they wish to continue. Nevertheless, existing works only focus on exploiting chatting history and context information, and ignore the potential useful learning signals underlying conversation data, such as conversation thread patterns and repeated engagement of target users, which help better understand the behavior of target users in conversations. In this paper, we propose three interesting and well-founded auxiliary tasks, namely, Spread Pattern, Repeated Target user, and Turn Authorship, as the self-supervised signals for re-entry prediction. These auxiliary tasks are trained together with the main task in a multi-task manner. Experimental results on two datasets newly collected from Twitter and Reddit show that our method outperforms the previous state-of-the-arts with fewer parameters and faster convergence. Extensive experiments and analysis show the effectiveness of our proposed models and also point out some key ideas in designing self-supervised tasks.

2020

pdf bib
Leveraging Declarative Knowledge in Text and First-Order Logic for Fine-Grained Propaganda Detection
Ruize Wang | Duyu Tang | Nan Duan | Wanjun Zhong | Zhongyu Wei | Xuanjing Huang | Daxin Jiang | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

We study the detection of propagandistic text fragments in news articles. Instead of merely learning from input-output datapoints in training data, we introduce an approach to inject declarative knowledge of fine-grained propaganda techniques. Specifically, we leverage the declarative knowledge expressed in both first-order logic and natural language. The former refers to the logical consistency between coarse- and fine-grained predictions, which is used to regularize the training process with propositional Boolean expressions. The latter refers to the literal definition of each propaganda technique, which is utilized to get class representations for regularizing the model parameters. We conduct experiments on Propaganda Techniques Corpus, a large manually annotated dataset for fine-grained propaganda detection. Experiments show that our method achieves superior performance, demonstrating that leveraging declarative knowledge can help the model to make more accurate predictions.

pdf bib
XGLUE: A New Benchmark Dataset for Cross-lingual Pre-training, Understanding and Generation
Yaobo Liang | Nan Duan | Yeyun Gong | Ning Wu | Fenfei Guo | Weizhen Qi | Ming Gong | Linjun Shou | Daxin Jiang | Guihong Cao | Xiaodong Fan | Ruofei Zhang | Rahul Agrawal | Edward Cui | Sining Wei | Taroon Bharti | Ying Qiao | Jiun-Hung Chen | Winnie Wu | Shuguang Liu | Fan Yang | Daniel Campos | Rangan Majumder | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

In this paper, we introduce XGLUE, a new benchmark dataset to train large-scale cross-lingual pre-trained models using multilingual and bilingual corpora, and evaluate their performance across a diverse set of cross-lingual tasks. Comparing to GLUE (Wang et al.,2019), which is labeled in English and includes natural language understanding tasks only, XGLUE has three main advantages: (1) it provides two corpora with different sizes for cross-lingual pre-training; (2) it provides 11 diversified tasks that cover both natural language understanding and generation scenarios; (3) for each task, it provides labeled data in multiple languages. We extend a recent cross-lingual pre-trained model Unicoder (Huang et al., 2019) to cover both understanding and generation tasks, which is evaluated on XGLUE as a strong baseline. We also evaluate the base versions (12-layer) of Multilingual BERT, XLM and XLM-R for comparison.

pdf bib
Diverse, Controllable, and Keyphrase-Aware: A Corpus and Method for News Multi-Headline Generation
Dayiheng Liu | Yeyun Gong | Yu Yan | Jie Fu | Bo Shao | Daxin Jiang | Jiancheng Lv | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

News headline generation aims to produce a short sentence to attract readers to read the news. One news article often contains multiple keyphrases that are of interest to different users, which can naturally have multiple reasonable headlines. However, most existing methods focus on the single headline generation. In this paper, we propose generating multiple headlines with keyphrases of user interests, whose main idea is to generate multiple keyphrases of interest to users for the news first, and then generate multiple keyphrase-relevant headlines. We propose a multi-source Transformer decoder, which takes three sources as inputs: (a) keyphrase, (b) keyphrase-filtered article, and (c) original article to generate keyphrase-relevant, high-quality, and diverse headlines. Furthermore, we propose a simple and effective method to mine the keyphrases of interest in the news article and build a first large-scale keyphrase-aware news headline corpus, which contains over 180K aligned triples of <news article, headline, keyphrase>. Extensive experimental comparisons on the real-world dataset show that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art results in terms of quality and diversity.

pdf bib
Towards Interpretable Reasoning over Paragraph Effects in Situation
Mucheng Ren | Xiubo Geng | Tao Qin | Heyan Huang | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

We focus on the task of reasoning over paragraph effects in situation, which requires a model to understand the cause and effect described in a background paragraph, and apply the knowledge to a novel situation. Existing works ignore the complicated reasoning process and solve it with a one-step “black box” model. Inspired by human cognitive processes, in this paper we propose a sequential approach for this task which explicitly models each step of the reasoning process with neural network modules. In particular, five reasoning modules are designed and learned in an end-to-end manner, which leads to a more interpretable model. Experimental results on the ROPES dataset demonstrate the effectiveness and explainability of our proposed approach.

pdf bib
Enhancing Answer Boundary Detection for Multilingual Machine Reading Comprehension
Fei Yuan | Linjun Shou | Xuanyu Bai | Ming Gong | Yaobo Liang | Nan Duan | Yan Fu | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Multilingual pre-trained models could leverage the training data from a rich source language (such as English) to improve performance on low resource languages. However, the transfer quality for multilingual Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) is significantly worse than sentence classification tasks mainly due to the requirement of MRC to detect the word level answer boundary. In this paper, we propose two auxiliary tasks in the fine-tuning stage to create additional phrase boundary supervision: (1) A mixed MRC task, which translates the question or passage to other languages and builds cross-lingual question-passage pairs; (2) A language-agnostic knowledge masking task by leveraging knowledge phrases mined from web. Besides, extensive experiments on two cross-lingual MRC datasets show the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

pdf bib
LogicalFactChecker: Leveraging Logical Operations for Fact Checking with Graph Module Network
Wanjun Zhong | Duyu Tang | Zhangyin Feng | Nan Duan | Ming Zhou | Ming Gong | Linjun Shou | Daxin Jiang | Jiahai Wang | Jian Yin
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Verifying the correctness of a textual statement requires not only semantic reasoning about the meaning of words, but also symbolic reasoning about logical operations like count, superlative, aggregation, etc. In this work, we propose LogicalFactChecker, a neural network approach capable of leveraging logical operations for fact checking. It achieves the state-of-the-art performance on TABFACT, a large-scale, benchmark dataset built for verifying a textual statement with semi-structured tables. This is achieved by a graph module network built upon the Transformer-based architecture. With a textual statement and a table as the input, LogicalFactChecker automatically derives a program (a.k.a. logical form) of the statement in a semantic parsing manner. A heterogeneous graph is then constructed to capture not only the structures of the table and the program, but also the connections between inputs with different modalities. Such a graph reveals the related contexts of each word in the statement, the table and the program. The graph is used to obtain graph-enhanced contextual representations of words in Transformer-based architecture. After that, a program-driven module network is further introduced to exploit the hierarchical structure of the program, where semantic compositionality is dynamically modeled along the program structure with a set of function-specific modules. Ablation experiments suggest that both the heterogeneous graph and the module network are important to obtain strong results.

pdf bib
Evidence-Aware Inferential Text Generation with Vector Quantised Variational AutoEncoder
Daya Guo | Duyu Tang | Nan Duan | Jian Yin | Daxin Jiang | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Generating inferential texts about an event in different perspectives requires reasoning over different contexts that the event occurs. Existing works usually ignore the context that is not explicitly provided, resulting in a context-independent semantic representation that struggles to support the generation. To address this, we propose an approach that automatically finds evidence for an event from a large text corpus, and leverages the evidence to guide the generation of inferential texts. Our approach works in an encoderdecoder manner and is equipped with Vector Quantised-Variational Autoencoder, where the encoder outputs representations from a distribution over discrete variables. Such discrete representations enable automatically selecting relevant evidence, which not only facilitates evidence-aware generation, but also provides a natural way to uncover rationales behind the generation. Our approach provides state-of-the-art performance on both Event2mind and Atomic datasets. More importantly, we find that with discrete representations, our model selectively uses evidence to generate different inferential texts.

pdf bib
Document Modeling with Graph Attention Networks for Multi-grained Machine Reading Comprehension
Bo Zheng | Haoyang Wen | Yaobo Liang | Nan Duan | Wanxiang Che | Daxin Jiang | Ming Zhou | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Natural Questions is a new challenging machine reading comprehension benchmark with two-grained answers, which are a long answer (typically a paragraph) and a short answer (one or more entities inside the long answer). Despite the effectiveness of existing methods on this benchmark, they treat these two sub-tasks individually during training while ignoring their dependencies. To address this issue, we present a novel multi-grained machine reading comprehension framework that focuses on modeling documents at their hierarchical nature, which are different levels of granularity: documents, paragraphs, sentences, and tokens. We utilize graph attention networks to obtain different levels of representations so that they can be learned simultaneously. The long and short answers can be extracted from paragraph-level representation and token-level representation, respectively. In this way, we can model the dependencies between the two-grained answers to provide evidence for each other. We jointly train the two sub-tasks, and our experiments show that our approach significantly outperforms previous systems at both long and short answer criteria.

pdf bib
RikiNet: Reading Wikipedia Pages for Natural Question Answering
Dayiheng Liu | Yeyun Gong | Jie Fu | Yu Yan | Jiusheng Chen | Daxin Jiang | Jiancheng Lv | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Reading long documents to answer open-domain questions remains challenging in natural language understanding. In this paper, we introduce a new model, called RikiNet, which reads Wikipedia pages for natural question answering. RikiNet contains a dynamic paragraph dual-attention reader and a multi-level cascaded answer predictor. The reader dynamically represents the document and question by utilizing a set of complementary attention mechanisms. The representations are then fed into the predictor to obtain the span of the short answer, the paragraph of the long answer, and the answer type in a cascaded manner. On the Natural Questions (NQ) dataset, a single RikiNet achieves 74.3 F1 and 57.9 F1 on long-answer and short-answer tasks. To our best knowledge, it is the first single model that outperforms the single human performance. Furthermore, an ensemble RikiNet obtains 76.1 F1 and 61.3 F1 on long-answer and short-answer tasks, achieving the best performance on the official NQ leaderboard.

pdf bib
A Graph Representation of Semi-structured Data for Web Question Answering
Xingyao Zhang | Linjun Shou | Jian Pei | Ming Gong | Lijie Wen | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The abundant semi-structured data on the Web, such as HTML-based tables and lists, provide commercial search engines a rich information source for question answering (QA). Different from plain text passages in Web documents, Web tables and lists have inherent structures, which carry semantic correlations among various elements in tables and lists. Many existing studies treat tables and lists as flat documents with pieces of text and do not make good use of semantic information hidden in structures. In this paper, we propose a novel graph representation of Web tables and lists based on a systematic categorization of the components in semi-structured data as well as their relations. We also develop pre-training and reasoning techniques on the graph model for the QA task. Extensive experiments on several real datasets collected from a commercial engine verify the effectiveness of our approach. Our method improves F1 score by 3.90 points over the state-of-the-art baselines.

pdf bib
Cross-lingual Machine Reading Comprehension with Language Branch Knowledge Distillation
Junhao Liu | Linjun Shou | Jian Pei | Ming Gong | Min Yang | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Cross-lingual Machine Reading Comprehension (CLMRC) remains a challenging problem due to the lack of large-scale annotated datasets in low-source languages, such as Arabic, Hindi, and Vietnamese. Many previous approaches use translation data by translating from a rich-source language, such as English, to low-source languages as auxiliary supervision. However, how to effectively leverage translation data and reduce the impact of noise introduced by translation remains onerous. In this paper, we tackle this challenge and enhance the cross-lingual transferring performance by a novel augmentation approach named Language Branch Machine Reading Comprehension (LBMRC). A language branch is a group of passages in one single language paired with questions in all target languages. We train multiple machine reading comprehension (MRC) models proficient in individual language based on LBMRC. Then, we devise a multilingual distillation approach to amalgamate knowledge from multiple language branch models to a single model for all target languages. Combining the LBMRC and multilingual distillation can be more robust to the data noises, therefore, improving the model’s cross-lingual ability. Meanwhile, the produced single multilingual model can apply to all target languages, which saves the cost of training, inference, and maintenance for multiple models. Extensive experiments on two CLMRC benchmarks clearly show the effectiveness of our proposed method.

pdf bib
GRACE: Gradient Harmonized and Cascaded Labeling for Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis
Huaishao Luo | Lei Ji | Tianrui Li | Daxin Jiang | Nan Duan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

In this paper, we focus on the imbalance issue, which is rarely studied in aspect term extraction and aspect sentiment classification when regarding them as sequence labeling tasks. Besides, previous works usually ignore the interaction between aspect terms when labeling polarities. We propose a GRadient hArmonized and CascadEd labeling model (GRACE) to solve these problems. Specifically, a cascaded labeling module is developed to enhance the interchange between aspect terms and improve the attention of sentiment tokens when labeling sentiment polarities. The polarities sequence is designed to depend on the generated aspect terms labels. To alleviate the imbalance issue, we extend the gradient harmonized mechanism used in object detection to the aspect-based sentiment analysis by adjusting the weight of each label dynamically. The proposed GRACE adopts a post-pretraining BERT as its backbone. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model achieves consistency improvement on multiple benchmark datasets and generates state-of-the-art results.

pdf bib
Difference-aware Knowledge Selection for Knowledge-grounded Conversation Generation
Chujie Zheng | Yunbo Cao | Daxin Jiang | Minlie Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

In a multi-turn knowledge-grounded dialog, the difference between the knowledge selected at different turns usually provides potential clues to knowledge selection, which has been largely neglected in previous research. In this paper, we propose a difference-aware knowledge selection method. It first computes the difference between the candidate knowledge sentences provided at the current turn and those chosen in the previous turns. Then, the differential information is fused with or disentangled from the contextual information to facilitate final knowledge selection. Automatic, human observational, and interactive evaluation shows that our method is able to select knowledge more accurately and generate more informative responses, significantly outperforming the state-of-the-art baselines.

pdf bib
CodeBERT: A Pre-Trained Model for Programming and Natural Languages
Zhangyin Feng | Daya Guo | Duyu Tang | Nan Duan | Xiaocheng Feng | Ming Gong | Linjun Shou | Bing Qin | Ting Liu | Daxin Jiang | Ming Zhou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

We present CodeBERT, a bimodal pre-trained model for programming language (PL) and natural language (NL). CodeBERT learns general-purpose representations that support downstream NL-PL applications such as natural language code search, code documentation generation, etc. We develop CodeBERT with Transformer-based neural architecture, and train it with a hybrid objective function that incorporates the pre-training task of replaced token detection, which is to detect plausible alternatives sampled from generators. This enables us to utilize both “bimodal” data of NL-PL pairs and “unimodal data, where the former provides input tokens for model training while the latter helps to learn better generators. We evaluate CodeBERT on two NL-PL applications by fine-tuning model parameters. Results show that CodeBERT achieves state-of-the-art performance on both natural language code search and code documentation generation. Furthermore, to investigate what type of knowledge is learned in CodeBERT, we construct a dataset for NL-PL probing, and evaluate in a zero-shot setting where parameters of pre-trained models are fixed. Results show that CodeBERT performs better than previous pre-trained models on NLPL probing.

pdf bib
No Answer is Better Than Wrong Answer: A Reflection Model for Document Level Machine Reading Comprehension
Xuguang Wang | Linjun Shou | Ming Gong | Nan Duan | Daxin Jiang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

The Natural Questions (NQ) benchmark set brings new challenges to Machine Reading Comprehension: the answers are not only at different levels of granularity (long and short), but also of richer types (including no-answer, yes/no, single-span and multi-span). In this paper, we target at this challenge and handle all answer types systematically. In particular, we propose a novel approach called Reflection Net which leverages a two-step training procedure to identify the no-answer and wrong-answer cases. Extensive experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of our approach. At the time of paper writing (May. 20, 2020), our approach achieved the top 1 on both long and short answer leaderboard, with F1 scores of 77.2 and 64.1, respectively.

2019

pdf bib
Joint Type Inference on Entities and Relations via Graph Convolutional Networks
Changzhi Sun | Yeyun Gong | Yuanbin Wu | Ming Gong | Daxin Jiang | Man Lan | Shiliang Sun | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We develop a new paradigm for the task of joint entity relation extraction. It first identifies entity spans, then performs a joint inference on entity types and relation types. To tackle the joint type inference task, we propose a novel graph convolutional network (GCN) running on an entity-relation bipartite graph. By introducing a binary relation classification task, we are able to utilize the structure of entity-relation bipartite graph in a more efficient and interpretable way. Experiments on ACE05 show that our model outperforms existing joint models in entity performance and is competitive with the state-of-the-art in relation performance.

pdf bib
Multi-Task Learning for Conversational Question Answering over a Large-Scale Knowledge Base
Tao Shen | Xiubo Geng | Tao Qin | Daya Guo | Duyu Tang | Nan Duan | Guodong Long | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We consider the problem of conversational question answering over a large-scale knowledge base. To handle huge entity vocabulary of a large-scale knowledge base, recent neural semantic parsing based approaches usually decompose the task into several subtasks and then solve them sequentially, which leads to following issues: 1) errors in earlier subtasks will be propagated and negatively affect downstream ones; and 2) each subtask cannot naturally share supervision signals with others. To tackle these issues, we propose an innovative multi-task learning framework where a pointer-equipped semantic parsing model is designed to resolve coreference in conversations, and naturally empower joint learning with a novel type-aware entity detection model. The proposed framework thus enables shared supervisions and alleviates the effect of error propagation. Experiments on a large-scale conversational question answering dataset containing 1.6M question answering pairs over 12.8M entities show that the proposed framework improves overall F1 score from 67% to 79% compared with previous state-of-the-art work.

pdf bib
Unicoder: A Universal Language Encoder by Pre-training with Multiple Cross-lingual Tasks
Haoyang Huang | Yaobo Liang | Nan Duan | Ming Gong | Linjun Shou | Daxin Jiang | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We present Unicoder, a universal language encoder that is insensitive to different languages. Given an arbitrary NLP task, a model can be trained with Unicoder using training data in one language and directly applied to inputs of the same task in other languages. Comparing to similar efforts such as Multilingual BERT and XLM , three new cross-lingual pre-training tasks are proposed, including cross-lingual word recovery, cross-lingual paraphrase classification and cross-lingual masked language model. These tasks help Unicoder learn the mappings among different languages from more perspectives. We also find that doing fine-tuning on multiple languages together can bring further improvement. Experiments are performed on two tasks: cross-lingual natural language inference (XNLI) and cross-lingual question answering (XQA), where XLM is our baseline. On XNLI, 1.8% averaged accuracy improvement (on 15 languages) is obtained. On XQA, which is a new cross-lingual dataset built by us, 5.5% averaged accuracy improvement (on French and German) is obtained.

pdf bib
NeuronBlocks: Building Your NLP DNN Models Like Playing Lego
Ming Gong | Linjun Shou | Wutao Lin | Zhijie Sang | Quanjia Yan | Ze Yang | Feixiang Cheng | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP): System Demonstrations

Deep Neural Networks (DNN) have been widely employed in industry to address various Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. However, many engineers find it a big overhead when they have to choose from multiple frameworks, compare different types of models, and understand various optimization mechanisms. An NLP toolkit for DNN models with both generality and flexibility can greatly improve the productivity of engineers by saving their learning cost and guiding them to find optimal solutions to their tasks. In this paper, we introduce NeuronBlocks, a toolkit encapsulating a suite of neural network modules as building blocks to construct various DNN models with complex architecture. This toolkit empowers engineers to build, train, and test various NLP models through simple configuration of JSON files. The experiments on several NLP datasets such as GLUE, WikiQA and CoNLL-2003 demonstrate the effectiveness of NeuronBlocks. Code: https://github.com/Microsoft/NeuronBlocks Demo: https://youtu.be/x6cOpVSZcdo

2016

pdf bib
Deep LSTM based Feature Mapping for Query Classification
Yangyang Shi | Kaisheng Yao | Le Tian | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

2012

pdf bib
Automatically Mining Question Reformulation Patterns from Search Log Data
Xiaobing Xue | Yu Tao | Daxin Jiang | Hang Li
Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Search
Co-authors
Venues